RELIGION AND SCIENCE – CHRISTIANITY – COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC’S CONCLUSIONS ON THE AFTERLIFE THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE, HUMANITY, AND THE WORLD AROUND US

Gallup Polls and other reliable polls indicate that the majority of college students when polled had stated their adherence to their upbringing at home, and church, and American society culture with regard to a fundamentalist literalist belief in the afterlife and and the creation of the universe and humanity as stated in Genesis 1 of the Old Testament. Embeded in my mind is that classroom lecture presented by a Columbia University professor assigned to teach college level biology to Pre=Med and Humanities freshmen. The response to his presentation of research findings and conclusions with regard to the evolutionary forms that are the origin of our body’s physical features such as our hands and arms et al. drew spirited denials from both myself and other students in the classroom who prior to the next lecture hastily compiled our reasons for disbelieving what had been presented as “scientific evidence.” Before we even opened our mouths and stated what would be our opposition that next lecture had uncannily detected exactly what would be questioned and left us stunned, as might be said, flabbergasted and set back by the strength of his argument anticipating what denials and questions we had prepared to challenge him with at the next lecture Neil Shubin is today’s counterpart of that professor. His presentation of the scientific facts with regard to the latest updated knowledge concerning the subject matter and issues involved has been described in editorials of his book The Fish in Us as follows – Readers unfamiliar with the jargon of genetic research needn’t fear; Ridley provides a quick, clear guide to the few words and concepts he must use to translate hard science into English. His writing is informal, relaxed, and playful, guiding the reader so effortlessly through our 23 chromosomes that by the end we wish we had more. He believes that the Human Genome Project will be as world-changing as the splitting of the atom; if so, he is helping us prepare for exciting times–the hope of a cure for cancer contrasts starkly with the horrors of newly empowered eugenicists. Anyone interested in the future of the body should get a head start with the clever, engrossing Genome. –Rob Lightner –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From Publishers Weekly
HSoon we’ll know what’s in our genes: next year, the Human Genome Project will have its first-draft map of our 23 chromosomes. Ridley (The Red Queen; The Origins of Virtue) anticipates the genomic news with an inventively constructed, riveting exposition of what we already know about the links between DNA and human life. His inviting prose proposes “to tell the story of the human genome… chromosome by chromosome, by picking a gene from each.” That story begins with the basis of life on earth, the DNA-to-RNA-to-protein process (chapter one, “Life,” and also chromosome one); the evolution of Homo sapiens (chromosome two, which emerged in early hominids when two ape chromosomes fused); and the discovery of genetic inheritance (which came about in part thanks to the odd ailment called alkaptonuria, carried on chromosome three). Some facts about your life depend entirely on a single gene–for example, whether you’ll get the dreadful degenerative disease Huntington’s chorea, and if so, at what age (chromosome four, hence chapter four: “Fate”). But most facts about you are products of pleiotropy, “multiple effects of multiple genes,” plus the harder-to-study influences of culture and environment. (One asthma-related gene–but only one–hangs out on chromosome five.) The brilliant “whistle-stop tour of some… sites in the genome” passes through “Intelligence,” language acquisition, embryology, aging, sex and memory before arriving at two among many bugbears surrounding human genetic mapping: the uses and abuses of genetic screening, and the ongoing debate on “genetic determinism” and free will. Ridley can explain with equal verve difficult moral issues, philosophical quandaries and technical biochemistry; he distinguishes facts from opinions well, and he’s not shy about offering either. Among many recent books on genes, behavior and evolution, Ridley’s is one of the most informative. It’s also the most fun to read. Agent, Felicity Bryan.
Copyright 2000 Reed Business Information, Inc. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From Library Journal
Written in 23 chapters corresponding to the 23 pairs of chromosomes comprising the human genome, this is an engrossing account of the genetic history of our species. Each chapter focuses on a newly discovered gene on each chromosome, tracing its genetic contribution to such areas as human intelligence, personality, sexual behavior, and susceptibility to disease. Ridley (The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature) is a zoologist-turned-science writer. As the Human Genome Project nears completion (the first findings are expected to be released February 2000), this book will be particularly relevant to lay readers, providing insight into how far we have come and where we are heading in the understanding of our genetic heritage. Recommended for public and academic libraries.
-Leila Fernandez, Steacie Science Lib., York Univ., Toronto
Copyright 2000 Reed Business Information, Inc. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From Scientific American
The human genome is becoming a celebrity. It already has its own fan magazines, in the form of two professional journals devoted exclusively to genome research, and its own web sites, including National Human Genome Research Institute and at the private company Celera Genomics. The unveiling of the first draft of its complete primary sequence–which Celera has promised to produce within the year–is as eagerly anticipated as the next Madonna album. Now, thanks to science writer Matt Ridley, it even has its own autobiography: Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters.
It is no surprise that Ridley, an avid proponent of the Darwinian view of the world, perceives the genome not as a cookbook or a manual but as a quintessentially historical document–a three-billion-year memoir of our species from its beginnings in the primal ooze to the present day. The first popular book written by Ridley, who has a Ph.D. in zoology and covered science for The Economist for nine years, was The Red Queen, an engrossing account of sexual selection. His second volume, The Origins of Virtue, delved into the sociobiology of good and evil. Genome continues the author’s interest in evolution and at the same time offers excursions into molecular biology, medicine and biotechnology.
Unlike many celebrity autobiographies, Genome is largely free of gossip and personal digs; for example, the vicious catfight between Francis S. Collins, leader of the government-supported Genome Project, and Craig Venter, president of Celera, is barely mentioned. Nor is it a long recitation of “disease-gene-of-the-month” discoveries, for as Ridley reminds us more than once, “Genes are not there to cause diseases.” Instead he gives us a freewheeling, eclectic, often witty tour of modern molecular biology, illustrated by picking one gene from each of our 23 chromosomes.
It is an exciting voyage. We learn about the homeobox genes, which guide the development of the entire human body from a single cell. The gene for telomerase, an enzyme that repairs the ends of frayed chromosomes, is the focus for a discussion of aging and immortality. Ethnic differences in the frequency of a particular breast cancer gene are used to describe the relations among population genetics, prehistoric migrations, and linguistic groups, while the gene for the classical ABO blood groups is the springboard for a discussion of genetic selection and drift. The book describes genes that we share with all living creatures and those that are unique to our species, genes that are essential to every cell and those that seem to serve no useful purpose at all, genes that predict disease with complete certainty and those that only tilt the scales.
Although Ridley covers a broad range of topics, his love of evolutionary psychology is evident from the number of chapters devoted to behavior. He writes about recent evidence of genetic links to memory and intelligence, personality, language and even free will. But Ridley is no genetic determinist. He sees the brain as part of a complex, interconnected system, equally influenced by genes and environment, with no one force predominant: “You are not a brain running a body by switching on hormones. Nor are you a body running a genome by switching on hormone receptors. Nor are you a genome running a brain by switching on genes that switch on hormones. You are all of these at once…. Many of the oldest arguments in psychology boil down to misconceptions of this kind. The arguments for and against ‘genetic determinism’ presuppose that the involvement of the genome places it above and beyond the body.”
Ridley includes just the right amount of history and personal anecdotes to spice up the science. He’s a good storyteller. I have read many versions of the discovery of DNA as the carrier of genetic information, from Friedrich Miescher’s extraction of pus-soaked bandages to Watson and Crick’s elucidation of the structure of the molecule, but still found Ridley’s version captivating. His capsule descriptions of some of the modern genome researchers are concise yet revealing.
It is clear that Ridley is a big fan of the Genome Project. He writes with gusto about the rapid advancement of the science, the thrill of discovery and the power of the new technology it has unleashed. But at times his enthusiasm may lead him astray. For instance, Ridley advocates that people be tested for the APOE gene that is a predictor of susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease. His argument is that people who are genetically at risk should avoid sports such as football and boxing because of the connection between head injury and disease onset. But given that there is no true prevention or treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, it seems likely that such information would cause at least as much harm as good. For example, a person who could have become a millionaire professional athlete might instead decide to take a lower-paying job, even though he is destined to die of other causes long before Alzheimer’s would ever have set in. Or another individual who never would have played sports at all might not be able to obtain desperately needed health insurance because of his test results. Although Ridley clearly understands the scientific distinction between genetic determinism and predisposition, he sometimes fails to consider the policy implications.
At times Ridley’s enthusiasm about the science even causes him–like a devoted fan who believes every one of Madonna’s songs is perfect in every way–to gloss over potential weaknesses and inconsistencies in the evidence. For example, the “intelligence gene” and “language impairment gene” described in chapters 6 and 7 are merely statistical linkages, not actual genes, and the results have yet to be replicated by independent scientists. And the dopamine receptor gene highlighted in the chapter on personality was originally thought to be involved in thrill seeking but now appears to be more important in attention-deficit disorder.
On the other hand, Ridley’s excitement about the science has the benefit that the book is very much up-to-date, with many of the references from just the past year. And even the most speculative of his ideas is made palatable by the consistently graceful language and imaginative use of metaphors.
To biologists, the genome is simply the complete set of genes contained in our 23 pairs of chromosomes, and the Genome Project is merely a funding strategy to make sure it gets decoded. But different people have different views of the genome, just as they often do of celebrities. To advocates, it is the “Human Blueprint” or, more grandiosely, the “Book of Life.” To critics, it is a Doomsday book, full of unwanted information just waiting to be abused by unscrupulous insurers, employers, eugenicists and social Darwinists. And to Wall Street investors it is cold cash; despite negative earnings, shares in Celera have soared almost 20-fold in less than one year. But what the Genome Project really is, above all else, is a beginning–the start of a new way of doing biology, of understanding diseases, of comparing organisms, of tracing our origins and even of understanding ourselves. Genome provides a delightful introduction to all who wish to follow the career of this rising star. DEAN H. HAMER is a molecular biologist, co-author of Living with Our Genes and The Science of Desire, and chief of gene structure and regulation at the National Cancer Institute. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From The New England Journal of Medicine
We have come a long way since the public confrontation in 1860 between Bishop Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Huxley, one of Charles Darwin’s chief advocates. When the bishop asked him whether apes were on his grandmother’s or grandfather’s side, Huxley snapped that he would prefer an ape to a man who “introduces ridicule into a grave scientific discussion” (Adrian Desmond. Huxley. Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, 1997). In his latest discourse on evolution, Genome, Matt Ridley, a fluent science writer, points out that “we are, to a ninety-eight per cent approximation, chimpanzees, and they are, with ninety-eight per cent confidence limits, human beings.” Yet in August 1999, the Kansas Board of Education voted to delete any mention of evolution from the science curriculum of the public schools in its jurisdiction. This act of political flimflam denies Kansas students not only the right to think for themselves but also the ennobling awareness of the fundamental unity of all living creatures. Ridley says it well: “Wherever you go in the world, whatever animal, plant, bug or blob you look at, if it is alive, it will use the same dictionary and know the same code. All life is one.” How unfortunate that students in Kansas cannot share Ridley’s enthusiasm for life.
Genome is a gambol through the 23 human chromosomes. It is not a catalogue of the 80,000 or so genes that wind around beads of histones to form chromatin, the stuff of chromosomes. Instead, Ridley samples one or two genes from each chromosome, selecting them to form a base from which he can wander freely into realms of biology and medicine that reach from the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes (for an essay on genetic imprinting) to why Mediterranean people eat cheese (Ridley will tell you). In Genome you will find essays on, among many topics, alkaptonuria, asthma, Huntington’s chorea, the immune system, eugenics, and cancer. The emphasis is not so much on the genome as on evolution and natural selection, especially on how we became the way we are in form, thought, and behavior.
Ridley is a personal guide through the thickets of complex biologic systems. He addresses you directly (“Are you still with me?” punctuates a story about the role of serotonin in anxiety and depression). He is enthusiastic (“Mock my zeal if you wish”), and he challenges (“Once you start thinking in selfish-gene terms, some truly devious ideas pop into your head”). Above all, he speculates — sometimes soberly, sometimes wildly, but never boringly. Ridley’s musings can reach ethereal heights, only to be caught in a downdraft of fact. There is little or no jargon, which is fine, but also none of the equivocation that glues us to reality — readers will not often encounter “perhaps,” “might,” and “maybe.” A typical pronouncement: “Freudian theory fell the moment lithium first cured a manic depressive, where twenty years of psychoanalysis had failed.” Perhaps. Or “products of the chemical industry, may be responsible for… the falling sperm counts of modern men.” The evidence of “falling sperm counts” is tenuous, at best. And this: “Natural selection is the process by which genes change their sequences.” Surely Ridley means “mutation” and not “natural selection.” And Ridley’s speculation about why some of us are milk drinkers and others cheese eaters veers dangerously toward the ideas of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko, who ruined Russian agriculture with his cockamamie theory that acquired characteristics can be inherited.
Even so, Genome is instructive, challenging, and fun to read. I envy Ridley’s talent for presenting, without condescension, complex sets of facts and ideas in terms comprehensible to outsiders. His chapter on Huntington’s chorea is a masterly plain-English exposition that any writer of scientific papers could take as a model. Ridley’s enthusiasm is so high that it is best to keep the book on your night table. Read a chapter a night.
Robert S. Schwartz, M.D.
Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. The New England Journal of Medicine is a registered trademark of the MMS. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
From Kirkus Reviews
A rare event: a scientific paradigm shift going on in our own time, lucidly explained. Since the discovery of DNA’s symmetrical structure by Watson and Crick in 1953, life scientists have decoded much of the human genome, the digitally sequenced software of life consisting of thousands of genes, which in turn consist in total of a billion “words” of three-letter combinations, housed in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Molecular biologists anticipate that the first rough draft of the genome will be complete in 2000 and that a more detailed copy will be ready a few years later. Ridley (The Origins of Virtue, 1997, etc.), a former editor of The Economist, deftly takes up the story of the genome in 23 chapters. In clear, entertaining prose, but without dumbing down the subject for nonscientists, he uses each chapter to explore one effect of distinct genes, and the information they carry, on an important aspect of human lifethe origins and history of our species, aging, intelligence, personality, sexual behavior, disease, memory, and death. It is startling to learn that some of our genes date from a time when our ancestors were fish or primates, that we are genetically almost identical to chimpanzees, that genes are engaged in combat with one another, that behavior and genes may shape each other, and that genetic combinations may predispose an individual to homosexuality, Alzheimer’s disease, or criminality. But even more amazing are the applications of this knowledge for any discipline that takes mankind as its subject. Ridley notes that molecular biology has already revolutionized cancer research, helped to trace the migrations of peoples, and raised resonant questions for philosophers and policymakers alike. Eminently readable, compelling, and important. (Print satellite tour) — Copyright ©2000, Kirkus Associates, LP. All rights reserved. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
Review
?Remarkable. . . . Hops from one human chromosome to the next in search of the most delightful stories.?
–“New York Times Book Review
?A fascinating tour of the human genome. . . . If you want to catch a glimpse of the biotech century that is now dawning, and how it will make life better for us all, Genome is an excellent place to start.?
–“Wall Street Journal
?A superb writer whose exquisite, often moving descriptions of life’s designs remind me of the best work of the late Lewis Thomas. . . . He crafts some of the clearest explanations of complex biological processes that I have encountered. What’s more, he captures their slippery beauty.?
— Susan Okie, “Washington Post Book World
?Ridley is a lucid, engaging and enthusiastic guide to the double-helical DNA that comprises our inheritable human essence.?
— “Los Angeles Times Book Review
?Ridley can explain with equal verve difficult moral issues, philosophical quandaries and technical biochemistry; he distinguishes facts from opinions well, and he’s not shy about offering either. Among many recent books on genes, behavior and evolution, Ridley’s is one of the most informative. It’s also the most fun to read.?
–“Publishers Weekly (starredreview)
?Superb popular science writing and cogent public affairs argumentation.?
–“Booklist (starred review)
?An engrossing account of the genetic history of our species. . . . This book will be particularly relevant to lay readers, providing insight into how far we have come and where we are heading in the understanding of our genetic heritage.?
–“Library Journal
?Ridley . . . deftly takes up the story of the genome in 23 chapters in clear entertaining prose. Eminently readable, compelling and important.?
–“Kirkus Reviews
?A lucid and exhilarating romp through our 23 human chromosomes that lets us see how nature and nature combine to make us human.?
–James Watson
?With riveting anecdotes, clever analogies and compelling writing, Matt Ridley makes the human genome come alive for us. I was left in awe at the wonder of the human body, and the scientists who unravel its mysteries.?
–Abraham Verghese, author of ” The Tennis Partner
?Clever, up-to-the-minute informative, and an altogether spellbinding read. Ridley does just what a first-rate journalist should do: get it right, make in interesting, then wisely put it all in perspective.?
–SarahHardy, author of ” Mother Nature
?”Genome is a tour de force: clear, witty, timely and informed by an intelligence that sees new knowledge as a blessing and not a curse. . . . A cracking read.?
–“Times (of London)
?Matt Ridley’s brilliant new book is eloquent and up-to-date. . . . A much needed breath of fresh air.?
–“Daily Telegraph
?Compelling. . . . Spectacular. . . . This is one of those rare books in which the intellectual excitement continues to rise from what already seems an almost impossibly high plateau. . . . Not even the scientifically purblind will fail to perceive the momentous nature of the issues he raises.?
–“Spectator
? A dazzling work of popular science, offering clarity and inspiration. . . . Witty erudition.?
–“Guardian
?Erudition, intriguing sequences of anecdotes and . . . stylish prose. The combination has resulted in the best popular science book I have read this year, a worthy autobiography of mankind.?
–“Observer
?An exciting voyage . . . very much up-to-date . . . Ridley includes just the right amount of history and personal anecdote to spice up science. He’s a good storyteller.?
— “ScientificAmerican
?An extraordinarily nimble synthesist, Ridley leaps from chromosome to chromosome in a handy summation of our ever increasing understanding of the roles that genes play in disease, behavior, sexual differences, and even intelligence. More important, though, he addresses not only the ethical quandaries faced by contemporary scientists but the reductionist danger in equating inheritability with inevitability.?
— “The New Yorker
?Matt Ridley [writes] with a combination of biblical awe, scientific curiosity and wit about what many consider the greatest scientific breakthrough of the 20th century and the greatest technological challenge of the 21st: the discovery of the molecular basis of life and its many applications in medicine, law, and commerce.?
— “Dallas Morning News
?Thoroughly fascinating. . . . A sophisticated blending of science and public policy certain to educate, entertain, challenge and stimulate even the least technologically inclined reader.?
–“Philadephia Inquirer
?Lively phrasing and vivid analogies . . . I gained an appreciation for the incredible complexity of human beings.?
–“Minneapolis Star-Tribune
?With skillful writing and masterful knowledge of his subject matter, Ridley conveys a wealth of information about what we currentlyknow, or think we know, about the human genome?No well-educated person can afford to remain ignorant of this advancing science. GENOME provides a sound and engaging introduction.?
–Austin American-Statesman
About the Author
Matt Ridley is the award-winning, bestselling author of several books, including The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves; Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters; and The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. His books have sold more than one million copies in thirty languages worldwide. He writes regularly for The Times (London) and The Wall Street Journal, and is a member of the House of Lords. He lives in England.
From The Washington Post
A superb writer whose exquisite, often moving descriptions of life’s designs remind me of the best work of the late Lewis Thomas. . . . He crafts some of the clearest explanations of complex biological processes that I have encountered. What’s more, he captures their slippery beauty. –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
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December 8, 2014 at 4:52pm

We all know the Darwin fish, the car-bumper send-up of the Christian “ichthys” symbol, or Jesus fish.
Unlike the Christian symbol, the Darwin fish has, you know, legs. Har har.

But the Darwin fish isn’t merely a clever joke; in effect, it contains a testable scientific prediction. If evolution is true, and if life on Earth originated in water, then there must have once been fish species possessing primitive limbs, which enabled them to spend some part of their lives on land.

And these species, in turn, must be the ancestors of four-limbed, land-living vertebrates like us.
SURE ENOUGH, IN 2004, SCIENTISTS FOUND ONE OF THOSE TRANSITIONAL SPECIES: TIKTAALIK ROSEAE, A 375 MILLION-YEAR-OLD DEVONIAN PERIOD SPECIMEN DISCOVERED IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC BY PALEONTOLOGIST NEIL SHUBIN AND HIS COLLEAGUES.

TIKTAALIK, EXPLAINS SHUBIN ON THE LATEST EPISODE OF THE INQUIRING MINDS PODCAST, IS AN “ANATOMICAL MIX BETWEEN FISH AND A LAND-LIVING ANIMAL.” –

This fish crawled out of the water… AND INTO CREATIONISTS’ NIGHTMARES

Some 375 million years ago, Tiktaalik emerged onto land.
TODAY, EXPLAINS PALEONTOLOGIST NEIL SHUBIN, WE’RE ALL WALKING AROUND IN MODIFIED FISH BODIES.

NOTE: When a member of this website posted this … I considered it a kind of mockery of evolution and written by someone with a limited knowledge of evolution. Since then I have discovered it is an authentic archaeological discovery … you can go to the Museum where it is kept and look at it with your own eyes and touch it if they would let you!

Neil Shubin has written a very comprehensive book detailing his life as a palaeontologist and some of the very significant discoveries made in his classes in which he taught first year medical students in the dissembling of not animal but donated human bodies and his and their experiences in doing so with regard to what they discovered by the original functioning in what form at what time and the gradual evolution into human hands, forearms, upper arms, chest organs, stomach organs, and of course vertebrae, the neural system of the head and the human body’s intricate nervous system that allows movements of the head, eyes, arms and hands.
It is available in Amazon.com Kindle book and believe me when I say it is the most understandable, written for the public, in terms that the general public can understand, and with many examples, drawings, photograps and other graphic illustrations to help explain the details given by Dr Neil Shubin.
It’s better than the “twilight zone,” “science-fiction,” and “watching the little girl and or Michael Jackson skipping down the yellow brick road” ! … Check it out for yourself! It is a fascinating experience for for those who haven’t been accustomed to reading and trying to understand the scientific origins of life, the universe. and the world around us!

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SCIENCE AND RELIGION – CHRISTIANITY – NEIL SHUBIN THE FISH IN US – FROM THE SEA TO THE LAND TO HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS -ANIMAL CULTURE ANIMAL BEHAVIOR – HUMAN CULTURE HUMAN BEHAVIOR – NEAREST HUMAN DNA RELATIVE – CHIMPANZEES – TERRITORY -RECENT TERRITORIAL ISIS ATTACKS

HUMAN CULTURE HUMAN BEHAVIOR – NEAREST HUMAN DNA RELATIVE – CHIMPANZEES – TERRITORY -RECENT TERRITORIAL ISIS ATTACKS

Creation of the Universe and Humanity – Neil Shubin – The Fish in Us – From the Sea to the Land to Homo sapiens sapiens!
Neil Shubin stated: “We all know the Darwin fish, the car-bumper send-up of the Christian “ichthys” symbol, or Jesus fish.
Unlike the Christian symbol, the Darwin fish has, you know, legs. Har har.

But the Darwin fish isn’t merely a clever joke; in effect, it contains a testable scientific prediction. If evolution is true, and if life on Earth originated in water, then there must have once been fish species possessing primitive limbs, which enabled them to spend some part of their lives on land.

And these species, in turn, must be the ancestors of four-limbed, land-living vertebrates like us.
SURE ENOUGH, IN 2004, SCIENTISTS FOUND ONE OF THOSE TRANSITIONAL SPECIES: TIKTAALIK ROSEAE, A 375 MILLION-YEAR-OLD DEVONIAN PERIOD SPECIMEN DISCOVERED IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC BY PALEONTOLOGIST NEIL SHUBIN AND HIS COLLEAGUES.

TIKTAALIK, EXPLAINS SHUBIN ON THE LATEST EPISODE OF THE INQUIRING MINDS PODCAST, IS AN “ANATOMICAL MIX BETWEEN FISH AND A LAND-LIVING ANIMAL.” –

This fish crawled out of the water… AND INTO CREATIONISTS’ NIGHTMARES

Some 375 million years ago, Tiktaalik emerged onto land.
TODAY, EXPLAINS PALEONTOLOGIST NEIL SHUBIN, WE’RE ALL WALKING AROUND IN MODIFIED FISH BODIES.

SUMMARY: When a member of this website posted this … I considered it a kind of mockery of evolution and written by someone with a limited knowledge of evolution. Since then I have discovered it is an authentic archaeological discovery … you can go to the Museum where it is kept and look at it with your own eyes and touch it if they would let you!

Neil Shubin has written a very comprehensive book detailing his life as a palaeontologist and some of the very significant discoveries made in his classes in which he taught first year medical students in the dissembling of not animal but donated human bodies and his and their experiences in doing so with regard to what they discovered by the original functioning in what form at what time and the gradual evolution into human hands, forearms, upper arms, chest organs, stomach organs, and of course vertebrae, the neural system of the head and the human body’s intricate nervous system that allows movements of the head, eyes, arms and hands.
It is available in Amazon.com Kindle book and believe me when I say it is the most understandable, written for the public, in terms that the general public can understand, and with many examples, drawings, photograps and other graphic illustrations to help explain the details given by Dr Neil Shubin.
It’s better than the “twilight zone,” “science-fiction,” and “watching the little girl and or Michael Jackson skipping down the yellow brick road” ! … Check it out for yourself! It is a fascinating experience for for those who haven’t been accustomed to reading and trying to understand the scientific origins of life and the universe. ”

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CHIMPANZEES – TERRITORY – “Lewis/Corbis
Alok Jha, science correspondent
Monday 21 June 2010 12.03 EDT Last modified on Wednesday 10 February 2016 10.39 EST
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Gangs of chimpanzees carry out violent attacks on individuals from rival groups in order to secure more resources or mates, a 10-year study in Uganda has found.

During that time scientists recorded 18 attacks and found signs of three others carried out by a large, male-dominated community of chimpanzees at Ngogo in Kibale National Park.

In summer last year, the aggressor chimpanzees finally began to occupy the area where two-thirds of their attacks had occurred, expanding their territory by more than a fifth.

According to the scientists, led by John Mitani, a primate behavioural ecologist at the University of Michigan, the chimps then travelled, socialised and ate in the new territory.

“When they started to move into this area, it didn’t take much time to realise that they had killed a lot of other chimpanzees there,” said Mitani. “Our observations help to resolve long-standing questions about the function of lethal intergroup aggression in chimpanzees.”

The findings are published today in the journal Current Biology.

Anthropologists have long suspected that chimpanzees, humans’ closest living relatives, kill neighbours for land, but they have lacked any hard evidence until now.

Sylvia Amsler, an anthropologist at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and a member of the research team, said that the attacks usually occured when the chimpanzees were on routine boundary patrols in neighbouring teritory. In one attack that she witnessed, 27 adult and adolescent males and one adult female had been on patrol outside their territory for more than two hours when they surprised a small group of females from a nearby community.

“Almost immediately upon making contact, the adult males in the patrol party began attacking the unknown females, two of whom were carrying dependent infants,” she said.

The Ngogo party quickly killed one of the infants and fought for 30 minutes to wrest the other from its mother, but were unsuccessful. After an hour-long break, during which time they held the female and her infant captive, they carried on with their attack. “Though they were never successful in grabbing the infant from its mother, the infant was obviously very badly injured, and we don’t believe it could have survived,” said Amsler.

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Despite their decade of observations, the researchers said they were still not sure if the objective of the attacks had been more resources or more mates.

Mitani warns against using the research to draw conclusions about warfare among humans, instead arguing that his study provides insights into primate teamwork. “Warfare in the human sense occurs for lots of different reasons. I’m just not convinced we’re talking about the same thing.”

He added: “What we’ve done at the end of our paper is to turn the issue on its head by suggesting our results might provide some insight into why we as a species are so unusually cooperative. The lethal intergroup aggression that we have witnessed is cooperative in nature, insofar as it involves coalitions of males attacking others. In the process, our chimpanzees have acquired more land and resources that are then redistributed to others in the group.”

FRANCE – ISLAMIC JIHADIST ISSIS IS GETTING SMARTER AND SMARTER … don’t need educated, intelligent, military trained and dedicated ISIS military to carry out its mission! Beware of slow ilfiltration and use of supporters already living in the U.S. whatever their mental state , you idealistic democratic European descendant liberals and progressives … if you want America and democracy versus theological government to endure and survive

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BERNIE SANDERS – FIRST JEWISH PRESIDENT – FIRST JEWISH VICE PRESIDENT -HIS JEWISH /JUDAIC FAITH – BERNIE SANDERS ASSOCIATED WITH REFORM JUDAISM

REFORM JUDAISM –
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Interior of Congregation Emanu-El of New York, the largest Reform synagogue in the world.
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Category: Jews and Judaism

Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major denomination within Judaism, which emphasizes the evolving nature of the religion, the superiority of its ethical aspects compared to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. It is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as of basically non-binding nature, and great openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi Abraham Geiger … – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – NATHAN AUSBEL – The Book of Jewish Knowledge: an Encyclopedia of Judaism and the Jewish People, Covering All Elements of Jewish Life from Biblical Times to the Present by Nathan Ausubel (Crown Publishers, Inc: New York), 1964

NATHAN AUSBEL on the dedication page paid homage to his “elders” – his parents:

“To the Memory of my father and mother … Gentile People who in a world of dross and tumult
walked beside the still waters. The Example of their own devout lives taught me the urgency of
finding a motivation for my own. The ethical and spiritual truths i learned from them I have
entered in this, their book. May these truths drawn from the accumulated wisdom and humanity
of the Jewish People find their continuity in the lives of others! Selah.

In the Foreward he stated:

The learned Jews of ancient times showed no less dedication in their pursuit of knowledge THAN THE SCHOLAR PRIENTS OF EGYPT, the Magi of Persia, the Pundits of India, and the Philosophers of Greece. NONETHELESS, THEY GAVE IT A MARKEDLY DIFFERENT EMPHASIS. IN THAT EMPHASIS, NO DOUBT, LAY THE INDIVIDUALITY OF TRADITIONAL JEWISH CULTURE. EACH PEOPLE IN THE FAMILY OF MANKIND PLAYS, AS IT WERE, A DIFFERENT INSTRUMENT IN THE ORCHESTRA OF CIVILIZATION, CONTRIBUTING WITH ITS SYSTEM OF CULTURAL VALUES ITS OWN CHARACTERISTIC TONE, TIMBRE, AND COLOR TO THE TOTAL ENSEMBLE.

The great masses of the people, even in republican Athens, during the memorable days of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Euripides, were kept suppressed and illiterate, IN LINE WITH THE ANTISOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OF SLAVOCRACIES IN WHICH THE COMMON PEOPLE WERE LOOKED DOWN UPON AS MERE CHATTELS OR BEASTS OF BURDEN. It was different with the Jews. The pursuit of learningBespecially Torah LearningBwas highly revered among the Jews during the Second Temple Period; it has been elevated to an exalted form of religious worship by Ezra the Scribe about the Year 444 B.C.E. The obligation to study perpetually the precepts, laws, and teachings contained in the scriptures had evolved in time into a religious-national dedication. The internal conditions and social organization of Jewish community life made it possible for even the poorest and the humblest to acquire at least some learning; Many of the most illustrious of RABBINIC SAGES, LIKE HILLEL AND AKIBA , sprang from the common people. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that, in the democratric and ethical climate of Jewish community life (in which all men, at least theoretically, stood equal), illiteracy and ignorance were scorned because they prevented the individual from acquiring an adequate knowledge of the religious-cultural heritage of Israel. – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
[NOTE; Despite his liberal and progressive perspective Nathan Ausubel believed in the “genuius of Moses” …. stating:
“But it remained for the genius Moses the liberator and of those inspired tormentors of Israel=s conscience, the defenders of the poor and weak against their oppressors the Prophets Amos, Isaiah, Hosea, Micah, and JerimiahBto evolve a new conception of the one god: one that was moral and just and girt with holiness. From this Hitherto Unprecedented Idea Developed a New Ethos in Which Ideas and Sentiments of Humanity, Brotherly Love, Mutual Aid, and Social Responsibility Predominated. It Was a New Light Intended to Lead Mankind out of the Pathless Jungle of Animism, Cruelty, Greed, and War. (Emphsis Added)
AIndeed, it Was an Awesome Design of Man’ s Untapped Potential for Food and for Self-perfection, His Optimism Remained, Despite the Fact That During Several Cultural Periods in Jewish Life THE PURE VISION OF MOSES, THE PROPHETS, AND THE RABBINIC SAGES SUDDENLY DARKENED THE AND WAS DISTORTED BY A GENERAL SLIDING BACK INTO – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – SUPERSTITUTION AND FANATICISM . – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – The Fundamentalists Wished the People to Exchange the Rational for the Irrational, the Spiritual and Ethical Content of Religion FOR THE MERELY TRIVIAL AND THE FORMALISTIC. The Gentle Philosopher of Amsterdam, SPINOZA HIMSELF DRIVEN OUT OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITY BY THE SELF-RIGHTEOUS FANATICS FOR THE UNFORGIVEABLE CRIME OF THINKING HONESTLY AND FOR NOT CONFORMING, Mused Bitterly in His Essay “On Superstition” over the Ironic Condition of Man: “The Multitude, Ever Prone to Superstition and Caring More for the Shreds of Antiquity than for Eternal Truths,” Pays Homage to the Books of the Bible, Rather than to the Word of God The Generality of Men, the Philosopher Seemed to Suggest, Do the Very Opposite of That Which Would Serve Their Best Interets: THEY THROW AWAY THE KERNEL AND KEEP THE CHAFF.
… The Late Edward Sapir, THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST WHO HIMSELF SEEMS NOT TO HAVE HAD ANY FORMAL AFFILIATIONS WITH THE JEWISH RELIGION AND WHO DEMONSTRATED ONLY THE SCIENTIFIC HUMANIST’S IMPARTIAL INTERESTIN JEWISH CULTURE, AND WHO APPEARS NOT TO HAVE PARTICIPATED IN ANY ORGANIZED ASPECT OF JEWISH COMMUNITY LIFE, Still Became Intrigued by the Irony of this Psychological Phenomenon:
“EVEN THE MOST SOPHISTICATED JEW IS PROUD OF AT LEAST TWO THINGS. While He May Have No Personal Use for a Savior, it Pleases Him to Think That His Ancestors Gave One to Christendom; and Though Comfort and Enlightenment May Long Have Disabused Him of the Necessity of a God, He Takes Satisfaction in the Thought That His Remoter Ancestors Invented the Purest Kind of a God That We Have Record Of: the God of Monotheism. Such a Jew Has One of the Keenest of Known Pleasures Which May Be Defined as the Art of Endowing Others with a Priceless Boon That One Finds Is More Convenient to Dispense with for One=s Own Part.=

While it Is Patently True That, in the Past, the Principles and Practices of the Jewish Religion Were Primarily Keyed to the Traditional Theocratic ;Hilosophy of Jewish Life, in More Modern Times an Ever Increasing Number of Jews, Both Knowledgeable and Cultured, No Matter What the Extent of Their Affiliation with Judaism Might Be, Have Been Actively Pursuing Non-jewish InteretsBinterests Based on Scientific and Purely Secularistic Premises and Goals. Such, after All, Do Represent the Major Cultural Characteristic of Twentieth-century Civilization in Which Jews Are Playing an Undeniably Important Role.@
The Author=s (Nathan Ausubel=s) Note to the Reader:
A … Wherever Possible, I Have Sought to Present Different Points of View and Evaluations So That the Open-minded Reader Would Be Able the Better to Draw from Them His Own Conclusions. … In All Conscience, as a Serious Popularizer of Jewish Knowledge, I Could Not Bypass the Necessity of Probing for Insights, Both for the Reader=s Enlightenment and for My Own, into the Dynamics of Judaism, Jewish Life, and Culture. …
Section: The Bible – The Wisdom Books:
A More earthy kind of poetry than the hortatory verse of the prophets or the threnodies to God of the Psalmists is found in the Biblical Writings called “Wisdom Books”: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job. They are composed in pithy verse, and at least the first two works are marked by much sophistication, worldliness, and a skepticism that is in equal measure mellow and ironic. For their time, these writings were considered intellectually challenging. Read in the light of our day, they appear to be steeped in a kind of aristocratic weltschmerzBa twilight mood of world-weariness and disenchantment with life.
The writers of Proverbs and EcclesiastesBpresumably upper-class Jews belonging to the Sadducean religious -political party of the Second Temple PeriodButter with aplomb the most astonishing heresies. Among these is the Sadducean disbelief in the immortality of the soul and in the world-to-come two subjects of bitter controversy that engaged in rebuttal all the passions and dialectical skill of the rival Pharisees. – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Ecclesiastes, for example, IS COLORED BY THE HEDONISTIC VIEWS OF THE GREEK EPICUREAN PHILOSOPY, It preaches a resignation to life and a quietism in all of its affairs. It also advances a raisonné for the full enjoyment of the life of the senses since the grave is man=s cold destination. This is a point of view hardly consonant with the puritanism that is traditional in Jewish life and with the moral significance it endows human strivings.
… All the advanced near eastern and middle eastern neighbors of Israel, Such as the Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians, created >wisdom literatures of their own. (Emphasis Added) … Already, at the end of the third millennium B.C.E.., the Babylonians boasted a Book of ProverbsB>A Wise Book=Bto teach right and profitable conduct. … Other Babylonian compositions of this type, perhaps also more ancient in origin than the Jewish, Were: the Pessimistic Dialogue Between a Master and a Slave, and the Complaint of a Wise Man on the Injustice of the World.
AThe Egyptian Priest-scibes, too, were wholeheartedly dedicated to the pursuit of wisdom. They produced books of proverbs and epigrams almost four thousand years ago. The best-known, believed to have been written sometimes during the tenth to seventh centuries B.C.E. was the Teaching of Amenemope. This celebrated work shows striking similarities to the Hebrew Book of Proverbs. [Nathan Ausubel, The Book of Jewish Knowledge: 1964]
========================================
Robert Graves & Raphael Patai, in Hebrew Myths: Stories of Cosmic Forces, Deities, Angels, Demons, Monsters, Giants and Heroes – Interpreted in the Light of Modern Anthropology and Mythology (Anchor Books: Doubleday: New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland, Australia), 1963, 1964, pp. 226-227, indicated:
The Book of Deuteronomy, published under Josiah, bans numerous Canaanite rites, among them ritual Prostitution, ritual sodomy, and all forms of idolatry.- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – GENESIS, WHICH IS FAR MORE CLOSELLLY LINKED WITH GREEK, PHOENICIAN, HITTITE,UGARITIC, SUMERIAN, AND OTHER BOEIES OF MYTH THAN MOST PIOUS JEWS AND CHRISTIANS CARE TO ADMIT, WAS EDITED AND RE-EDITED FROM PERHAPS THE 6TH CENTURY B.C. ONWARDS, FOR MORALISTIC ENDS. (i.e
Isaac Asimov, Asimov;s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981 – – – – – – – — – — – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – –
REFORM JUDAISM: Its greatest center today is in North America. … – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ” – WHAT TYPE OF JEWISH BELIEF IS SENATOR SANDERS ASSOCIATED WITH? – SENATOR SANDERS WITH A DIVORCED ROMAN CATHOLIC WIFE … “Is America ready for a Jewish president?
Bernie Sanders does not play up his Jewish faith the way Hillary Clinton plays up her gender. Associated Press

WHEN BERNIE Sanders won the New Hampshire primary, he became the first Jew to win a major party presidential primary – the first to even win delegates.

But how Jewish is he? Who even knows he’s Jewish? Will it matter that he’s Jewish?

In the recent Milwaukee debate, when asked how he felt about possibly “thwarting history” by blocking the path of the first woman president, Sanders replied enigmatically that, “from a historical point of view, somebody with my background, somebody with my views” would also be a first. Not exactly playing the Hebrew National card.

Hillary Clinton makes frequent mention of gender in her candidacy. Sanders never volunteers anything about his religion, and reluctantly replies to those questions. Is it personal, tactical, or practical?

Two of the three previous Jewish candidates for president – Pennsylvania Sen. Arlen Specter in 1995 and Pennsylvania Gov. Milton Shapp in 1976 – were early flameouts, probably more because of policy and personality than religion. The same for Joe Lieberman, an Orthodox Jew who ran briefly in 2004. (Shapp, however, told friends he doubted he would have been elected governor under his obviously Jewish birth name, Shapiro, which he changed while in business to avoid prejudice.)

One person of Jewish ancestry was nominated: In 1964, Arizona Sen. Barry Goldwater got the Republican nod. Goldwater’s father was Jewish, but the conservative senator was raised Christian. At the time, Jewish journalist Harry Golden quipped, “I always knew the first Jewish president would be an Episcopalian.”

In the ’90s, as a rising-star big-city mayor, Ed Rendell brushed off questions about presidential ambitions, saying he wasn’t interested. He added, “Besides, I’m Jewish.”

“Ed always said, ‘I’m a Jew from Pennsylvania. It didn’t work out for Shapp and Specter,’ ” political strategist Neil Oxman told me.

As chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 2000, Rendell said Al Gore’s selection of Lieberman as a vice presidential candidate was “bold and courageous,” but also risky.

“I don’t think anyone can calculate the effect of having a Jew on the ticket,” Rendell said. “If Joe Lieberman were Episcopalian, it would be a slam-dunk.”

Have things changed since then?

Rendell said they have. “If I were 15 years younger, and Hillary wasn’t in the race, I think I would run and I wouldn’t feel any compunction about it,” said Rendell, who is not religious.

It was a little different with Lieberman, a religious Jew who didn’t work on Saturdays. “Bernie is much more like me,” Rendell said. “Lapsed.”

I doubt that most Americans know that Sanders, 74, is Jewish. If he manages to win the nomination, or gets really close, someone will tell them. And not in a helpful way.

I’m not even sure most Jews know that Sanders is Jewish. Local political consultant Larry Ceisler, who is Jewish, told me, laughing: “I never thought of him as one, but I do know he’s from Brooklyn.” Ceisler doubts that most Americans know Sanders is Jewish.

I’m not sure even Sanders knows he is Jewish.

Let me explain.

When talking about his upbringing, he always says that his father, Eli, was an immigrant from Poland, but rarely mentions that most of Eli’s family perished in the Holocaust.

Some candidates brag on their bio, but Sanders is usually clam-tight about his personal life. We know he attended Hebrew school as a youth and became a bar mitzvah in 1954. On the campaign trail, he avoids talking about religion.

Often wrongly described as cranky, which is ageist and inaccurate, Sanders wants to be an “issues” guy and can be gruff when someone tries to inject what he regards as frivolities. (Personal disclosure: My daughter is a volunteer field organizer for Sanders in Massachusetts.)

When pressed, Sanders says he is Jewish, secular, not particularly religious. His second wife, Jane, is a divorced Catholic and, yes, they did honeymoon in the Soviet Union. (He was working on setting up a Sister City in Russia for Burlington, where he was the mayor.)

Richard Sugarman, an Orthodox Jew who teaches religious studies at the University of Vermont, was quoted in the New Yorker as saying that Sanders’ connection to Judaism is “more ethnic and cultural than religious.”

With his first wife, Sanders volunteered on Kibbutz Sha’ar HaAmakim, a collective farm in northern Israel. He doesn’t talk about that, either. It was in the ’60s and was a good fit because Israel was then largely socialist. He has not visited Israel since. It would be less comfortable now because Israel has developed a vibrant free-market economy. Sanders might not like that, nor the current conservative government.

I suspect that socialism is more his religion than Judaism, as was the case for my Jewish, socialist, Brooklyn-born father.

Tikkun olam, which means “repair the world” in Hebrew, is a concept that has come to mean that Jews are responsible not just for their own moral, material and spiritual welfare, but for the welfare of society at large. “Repairing the world” seems to be what animates Sanders.

His oratory has been likened to that of a biblical prophet, pointing at the sky and pounding the table when thundering about unequal wealth distribution, criminal justice, health care and education, campaign financing, climate change – his unruly white hair exploding above a face red with indignation. Remove the wire-frame glasses, add a beard and a staff, and you have Moses. Can this Moses reach the promised land of the White House?

I mean, can we have a Jewish president?

The open bias against Jews that existed in the United States through most of the 20th century – keeping them out of some communities, clubs, careers, colleges – has vanished from public view, although some lingering, low-level anti-Semitism exists and probably always will.

However LAST SUMMER A GALLUP POLL REPORTED THAT 91 PERCENT OF AMERICANS SAID THEY WOULD VOTE FOR A JEWISH PRESIDENT That’s higher than those who said they would vote for a Mormon (81 percent), an evangelical Christian (73 percent), a Muslim (60 percent) or an atheist (58 percent). That sounds good, but I suspect the numbers are biased to the positive because most people won’t admit to their biases.

As to the Jewish vote in the general election, either Sanders or Clinton can count on – to borrow a word from Donald Trump – a huuuuge majority of the Jewish vote. The bulk of American Jewry is a subsidiary of the Democratic Party, with John F. Kennedy winning 82 percent of them in 1960. Only Jimmy Carter received less than half, 45 percent, in his 1980 reelection bid – but that was still more than the 41 percent of the total vote Carter received.

The Jewish love affair with the Democratic Party began with Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who appointed so many Jews to government posts that his New Deal was called the “Jew Deal” by bigots (some of whom insisted that FDR was Jewish. He was not.).

A Democratic candidate, Jew or gentile, can count on the bulk of the Jewish vote, but Jews are only 2 percent of the population.

Does being Jewish prevent Sanders from being elected?

My Jew crew doesn’t think so.

Strategist Oxman, a secular Jew, said, “if Sanders does not win the nomination, less than 1 percent of it would be that he’s a Jew.”

Oxman, a Hillary supporter, said Clinton will win the nomination because she has the establishment on her side and because Sanders is a socialist, a term that most Americans find creepy.

Forget Jewish, “he’s out of the mainstream,” said Ceisler, another Clinton supporter. “It doesn’t matter what the question is, the answer is always blame the millionaires and the rigged system.”

The socialist label, Rendell said, is “a 50 times bigger problem” than his faith.

The days of Jews being barred from the White House are gone, Oxman said.

“Some people from the South, they might vote against him more because he’s from New York than that he’s Jewish,” Oxman said.

Sanders is from New York. That may matter.

He’s a socialist. That will matter.

He’s Jewish. That may not matter – even after Americans find out.- “Sanders did say that two aspects of his upbringing had exerted a lasting influence. One was coming from a family that never had much money. And the other was growing up Jewish — less for the religious content than for the sense it imbued in him that politics mattered. Sanders’ father was a Polish Jew who, at the age of 17, came to America shortly after his brother, and struggled through the Depression in Brooklyn …
“Sid Ganis, a Hollywood producer who grew up in the same building as Sanders, described their neighborhood as an enclave of ‘ordinary secular Jews,’ adding, ‘Some of us went to Hebrew school, but mainly it was an identity in that it got us out of school on Jewish holidays.’ Sanders told me that, in the aftermath of the Second World War, his family ‘got a call in the middle of the night about some relative of my father’s, who was in a displaced-persons camp in Europe someplace.’ Sanders learned that many of his father’s other relatives had perished. Sanders’ parents had been fundamentally apolitical, but he took away a lesson: ‘An election in 1932 ended up killing 50 million people around the world.’
“Sanders’ close friend Richard Sugarman, an Orthodox Jew who teaches religious studies at the University of Vermont, said, ‘He’s not what you would call rule-observant.’ But, Sugarman added, ‘if you talk about his Jewish identity, it’s strong. It’s certainly more ethnic and cultural than religious — except for his devotion to the ethical part of public life in Judaism, the moral part. He does have a prophetic sensibility.’ Sugarman and Sanders were housemates for a while in the ’70s, and Sugarman says that his friend would often greet him in the morning by saying, ‘We’re not crazy, you know,’ referring to the anger they felt about social injustices. Sugarman would respond, ‘Could you say good morning first?’”
Yet for all the protestations that Sanders’ identity is not about religion, this is Talbot’s kicker, quoting Sanders addressing Liberty University, an Evangelical Christian school in Virginia, and quoting from Amos:

“The occasion also played to the prophetic side of Sanders — the register in which he can sound like an Old Testament preacher. Unlike his slicker rivals, Sanders is most at ease talking about the moral and ethical dimensions of politics. ‘We are living in a nation and in a world — the Bible speaks to this issue — in a nation and in a world which worships not love of brothers and sisters, not love of the poor and the sick, but worships the acquisition of money and great wealth.’ – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -His voice broke — all those stump speeches had been leaving deep scratches on the record. But his outrage was unmuffled. STARING AT THE CROWD, HE QUOTED THE HEBREW BIBLE, HIS FIRST PUNCTUATING NEARLY EVERY WORD: ‘LET JUSTICE ROLL ON LIKE A RIVER, RIGHTEOUSNESS LIKE A NEVER-FAILING STREAM.’ – Bernie Sanders
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bernie Sanders

United States Senator
from Vermont
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2007
Serving with Patrick Leahy
Preceded by Jim Jeffords
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Patty Murray
Succeeded by Johnny Isakson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont’s At-large district
In office
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Peter Smith
Succeeded by Peter Welch
37th Mayor of Burlington
In office
April 6, 1981 – April 4, 1989
Preceded by Gordon Paquette
Succeeded by Peter Clavelle
Personal details
Born Bernard Sanders
September 8, 1941 (age 74)
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic (2015–present)
Other political
affiliations Independent (1979–2015)
Liberty Union (1971–1979)(affiliated)[1][2]
Spouse(s) Deborah Shiling
(1964–1966; divorced),
Jane O’Meara
(1988–present)
Domestic partner Susan Mott (1969)
Relations Larry Sanders (brother)
Children With Mott:
Levi Sanders,
With O’Meara:
Three step-children
Alma mater Brooklyn College
University of Chicago
Religion Jewish[3]
Signature
Website Senate website
Presidential campaign website – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Bernard “Bernie” Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician. He is the United States senator from Vermont. Sanders is a member of the Democratic Party.[4] Before he became a member of the Democratic Party he was an independent politician.[4] He became senator on January 3, 2007.[5]
Sanders was born in Brooklyn, New York City. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student, he was active in organizing protests for civil rights.[6] In 1963, he took part in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his “I Have a Dream” speech.[6]
Sanders was elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 1981.[7] He was re-elected three times. In 1991, he became a United States representative for Vermont’s at-large congressional district.[8] He was a congressman for 16 years. In 2006, he was elected to the U.S. Senate after he won 64.5% of the vote. In 2012, he was re-elected by winning almost 71% of the vote.
Sanders calls himself a democratic socialist.[8][9] He thinks that a social democratic government for the United States is a good idea.[10][11] During his time as senator, Sanders has been against income inequality and supports universal health care, parental leave and LGBT rights.[8] He has been against racial inequality and mass surveillance.[12] In January 2015, Sanders became a member of the Senate Budget Committee.[13][14]
On April 30, 2015, Sanders became a candidate for the Democratic Party’s nomination for President in the 2016 United States presidential election. He made the announcement in a speech on the Capitol lawn.[12][15] His campaign started on May 26 in Burlington.[16] Unlike some of the other presidential candidates, Sanders did not want Super PACS to give him money. People give him money on his website.[17][18][19]
Contents
1 Early life
2 Early career
2.1 Liberty Union campaigns, 1971–79
2.2 Mayor of Burlington, 1981–89
3 United States representative, 1991–2007
4 United States senator, 2007–present
5 2016 presidential campaign
5.1 Presidential primaries and caucuses
6 Personal life
7 Political views
8 References
9 More reading
10 Other websites
Early life[change
Sanders was born in Brooklyn, New York to Eli Sanders and to Dorothy Glassberg.[20] His father was a Jewish immigrant born in Słopnice, Poland in 1904.[21][22][23] His mother was born to Jewish parents in New York City in 1912.[24] He has an older brother, Larry.[25] His grandparents were murdered in the Holocaust.[23][26] His mother died in 1960 and his father died in 1962.[27]
Sanders studied at Brooklyn College. After he graduated from college, Sanders went to the University of Chicago.[22] When he studied in Chicago, Sanders led the University of Chicago sit-ins in 1962 because of segregation at the university.[28] He graduated from the university in 1964 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science.[22]
He was one of thousands of students who traveled by bus to Washington, D.C., to be part of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.[29] Later that summer, he was found guilty of resisting arrest during a protest against segregation in Chicago’s public schools and was fined $25.[30]

Posted in RELIGION CHRISTIANITY ETHICAL AND NATIONALITY POLITICAL BACKGROUND INFLUENCE, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

THE BABYLONIAN CREATION OF THE EARTH – HUMANITY -THE GIFT OF IMMORTALITY – GENESIS 1 AND GENESIS 2 AND THE BABYLONIAN NOAH

GENESIS 1 AND GENESIS 2

The two Genesis creation storiesCGenesis 1:1-2:3 and Genesis 2:4-2:25Care BOTH COMPARABLE WITH OTHER NEAR EASTERN STORIES

NOTABLY NARRATIVE 1 HAS CLOSE PARALLELS WITH THE ENUMA ELIS (57-58)

and Narrative II has parallels with the ATRA-HASIS. (59)

ENUMA ELIS: – THE FORMATION OF THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH AND THE CREATION OF HUMANITY – ADAM:

“According to the ENUMA ELIS the original state of THE UNIVERSE was a CHAOS formed by THE MINGLING OF TWO PRIMEVAL WATERS,

the female saltwater TIAMAT

and the male freshwater APSU. (60)

The opening six lines read:

When the skies above were not yet named
Nor earth below pronounced by name
APSU, the first one, their begetter
And maker TIAMAT, who bore them all
Had mixed their waters together
But had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds. (61)

[footnote: 60: Barry L. Bandstra,(1999), Enuma Elis,Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company;61: Oxford World Classics,

Stephanie Dailey, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and others.

Oxford University Press, p. 233, AThe Epic of Creation, Tablet 1., ISBN 0192835890 I-CIAS.com

“Through the fusion of their waters six successive generations of gods were born.

BABYLONIAN “CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE CREATION OF HUMANITY BY MARDUK AND ADAPA WHO WAS GIVEN WISDOM BUT FORBIDDEN THE FOOD OF IMMORTAL LIFE:

THE FORMATION OF THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH AND THE CREATION OF HUMANITY BY MARDUK:

[The story (62: Adapa Babylonian mythical figure) is first attested in the Kassite period (14th century B.C.- 1300-1400 B.C.)

Mario Liverani (63: Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography, Cornell University Press (August 30, 2007) (Ch :

“Adapa, guest of the Gods, pp. 21-23) points to multiple parallels between the story of Adapa, who obtains wisdom but who is forbidden the ‘food of immortality’ whilst in heaven and the story of Adam in Eden.]

A war amongst the gods began with THE SLAYING OF APSU

and ended with THE GOD MARDUK SPLITTING TIAMAT IN TWO

TO FORM THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH,

the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers emerged from her eye sockets.

“MARDUK

THEN CREATED HUMANITY FROM CLAY MINGLED WITH SPIT AND BLOOD, to tend the earth for the gods,

WHILE MARDUK HIMSELF WAS ENTHRONED IN BABYLON IN THE ESAGILA, ‘THE TEMPLE WITH ITS HEAD IN HEAVEN.’

Adapa (cognate with Adam) was a Babylonian mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality.

The story (62: Adapa Babylonian mythical figure) is first attested in the Kassite period (14th century B.C.- 1300-1400 B.C.)

Mario Liverani (63: Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography, Cornell University Press (August 30, 2007) (Ch :

“Adapa, guest of the Gods, pp. 21-23) points to multiple parallels between the story of Adapa, who obtains wisdom but who is forbidden the ‘food of immortality’ whilst in heaven and the story of Adam in Eden.

THE SERPENT AND THE TREE OF LIFE OR IMMORTALITY:

“Ningishzida was a Mesopotamian serpent deity associated with the underworld. He was often depicted protectively wrapped around a tree as a guardian.

Thorkild Jacobsen interprets his (Sumerian word) in Sumerian to mean ‘lord of the good tree.’(64: The Treasures of Darkness: History of Mesopotamian Religion Yale University Press, New edition, edition (1 July 1978) ISBN 0300022913 (page 7)

Despite apparent similarities between Genesis and the Enuma Elis, there are also significant differences.

“The most notable is the absence from Genesis of the ‘divine combat’ (the gods’ battle with Tiamat) which secures Marduk’s position as king iof the world, but even this has an echo in the claims of Yahweh’s kingship over creation in such places as Psalm 29 and Psalm 93,

where he is pictured as sitting enthroned over the floods.

(60: [Footnote: 60: Barry L. Bandstra,(1999), “Enuma Elis,”Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company;61: Oxford World Classics,
Stephanie Dailey, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and others. Oxford University Press, p. 233,

“The Epic of Creation, Tablet 1,” ISBN 0192835890 I-CIAS.com] and Isaiah 27.1:

‘In that day, the Lord will punish with his sword; his fierce, great and powerful sword, LEVIATHAN THE GLIDING SERPENT, LEVIATHAN THE COILING SERPENT, HE WILL SLAY THE MONSTER OF THE SEA.’

“THUS THIS CREATION ACCOUNT MAY BE SEEN AS EITHER A BORROWING OR HISTORICIZING OF BABYLONIAN MYTH.”
==============
Alexander Heidel, Babylonian Genesis, Chicago University Press; 2nd edition edition (1 Sep 1963) ISBN 0226323994; Mark S. Smith,

The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel,

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co; 2nd edition (18 Oct 2002) ISBN 080283972X,

Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel=s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts Oxford University Press USA, New Ed edition (27 Nov 2003) ISBN 0195167686,

Frank Moore Cross, ACanaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel@ Harvard University Press; New edition edition (29 Aug 1997) ISBN 0674091760]

Or, in contrast, may be seen as a repudiation of Babylonian ideas about origins and humanity.

(66: K. A. Mathews, vol. 1A, Genesis 1-11:26, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001), p. 89.

Creationism: Biblical literalists are committed to interpreting the Bible by adhering closely to the explicit words given in the text. (72: Lindbeck 2001, p. 295)

Since the 18th and 19th centuries literalist interpretations of Genesis have been in conflict with the growing body of scientific evidence. (73: Stenhouse 2000, p. 76) that now estimates the age of the earth at around 4.5 billion years.

Strict literalists view Genesis creation as a historical event that transpired exactly as written. (74: Scott 2005, pp. 227-228) but do not all agree on how literally to interpret the creation account in Genesis.

Young earth creationists, for instance, maintain that the Genesis creation took place between 6,000 and 10,000 years in the past, and that the seven ‘days’of Genesis 1 correspond to normal 24-hour days.

Creation scientists, maintain that the science behind the age of the earth and evolution is flawed, and claim to have scientific evidence of their own that fully supports the Genesis account. (75: Eugene Scott (2001), Antievolutionism and Creationism in the United States, National Center for Science Education.

‘Day’ age creationists believe that each ‘day’ in Genesis’s opening represents an ‘age’ of perhaps millions or billions of years while Progressive creationists infer that each day of creation represents an eon of development rather than a 24 hour day, but place importance on both the numerical and naturalistic features in the account and claim these Genesis passages can be seen to have anticipated later scientific findings regarding the creation of the planet and solar system. (76: Hyers 1984, Chapter 4, p. 80)

Gap creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that posits that the six-day creation, as described in the Book of Genesis, involved literal 24-hour days, but that there was a gap of time between two distinct creations in the first and the second verses of Genesis.

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FROM A FORMER SCIENCE WRITER AMD EDITOR TO PEOPLEOF FAITH AND TO ATHEISTS!

Nicholas Wade, The Faith Instinct: How Religion Evolved & Why It Endures (The Penguin Press: New York), 2009.
“Acclaimed New York Times writer Nicholas Wade presents a startling new case, based on a broad range of recent scientific findings, that religion has an evolutionary basis. For the last 50,000 years, and probably much longer people have practiced religion. Yet little attention has been given by either believers or atheists, to the question of whether this universal human behavior might have been implanted in human nature. Did religion evolve, in other words, because it helped people survive..
“In this original and thought-provoking book, Nicholas Wade traces how religion grew to be so essential to early societies in their struggle for existence that an instinct for faith became hardwired into human nature. As a force that binds people together and motivates individuals to put the interests of society above their own, religion encouraged moral behavior toward those within the group and aggression, when necessary, toward those outside it. Religion thus provided the earliest huan societies with their equivalents of law and government. The Faith Instinct then explores how the religion practiced by early human groups was reshaped by culture to the very different needs of settled societies and how from these more socially structured societies the three monotheisms arose. The book describes how religion influences morality and trust, which are the bedrock of commerce, governs people’s reproductive practices, and is the sinew that can bind both a parish or a civilization. Even in modern societies, despite the rise of secular institutions that have assumed many of religion’s ancient roles, faith continues to fortify the social fabric.
“The Faith Instinct is sure to catch the attention of believers and nonbelievers alike. People of faith may not warm to the view that the mind’s receptivity to religion has been shaped by evolution. Atheists may not embrance the idea that religious behavior evolved because it conferred essential benefits on ancient societies and their successors. But the evolutionary approach to religion does not dispute the central belief of either side. The existence of an instinct to believe explains why many who reject organized faith still look for spiritual transcendence.” The first objective and nonpolemical book of its kind, The Faith Instinct examines both the weaknesses of modern religions and the strengths that account for the remarkable persistence of faith.”
Nicholas Wade is also the author of The Noble Duel: Two Scientists 21-Year Race to Win the World’s Most Coveted Research Prize, Retrayal of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science (With William Broad), Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. He Has worked for The New York Times as an editorial writer, editor and science reporter. Before writing for the Times, he worked at two leading scientific hjournals, as the deputy editor of Nature magazine in London and on the news staff of Science magazine in Washington. He is the author of six previous books. His most recent boo, Before the Dawn, tells the story of human origins in light of new information from the human genome.”
At the beginning of Chapter 1: “The Nature of Religion,” are the following quotations:
“Religion is not a popular error, it is a great instinctive truth, sensed by the people and expressed by the people.” – Ernest Renan
“To call religion instinctie is not to suppose any particular part of its mythos is untrue, only that its sources run deeper than ordinary habit and are in fact hereditary, urged into birth through biases in mental development encoded in the genes.” – Edward O. Wilson
A life-long Anglican, Nicholas Wade expressed his abiding and deep faith when in his closing words in the Acknowledgements at the end of the book he referred to his college days at Eton and stated:
“My religious education I owe to Henry VI, who founded a school for poor scholars in 1440. He built at Eton one of England’s most beautiful chapels in which I attended services every day and twice on Sunday during my school years.”
http://lc5827.multiply.com/journal/item/521/A_Book_Addressed_to_Atheists_and_Faith_Believers_-_Only_in_2012_-_Only_in_America_-_Only_in_a_non-Theocratically-ruled_government_or_nation_
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_original_name_of_Africa
http://lc5827.multiply.com/journal/item/521/A_Book_Addressed_to_Atheists_and_Faith_Believers_-_Only_in_2012_-_Only_in_America_-_Only_in_a_non-Theocratically-ruled_government_or_nation_
http://dadisispeaks.wordpress.com/2012/05/15/an-open-letter-from-rev-otis-moss-iii-to-the-black-clergy/

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SAME-SEX IN THE 4TH CENTURY A.D., THE MEDIEVAL AGE, AND PREMODEN TIMES

U.S. SUPREME COURT DECISION – Apparently the Chief Justice … was ignorant of or feigned ignorance of the following research and evidence of same-sex in fourth-century, medieval and premodern Europe!

COMMENTARIES ON THE BOOK:

“An erudite work in which … Boswell applies his scholarly acumen to a matter of daunting complexity . Beautifully written.

 The New Yorker
“Boswell is an accomplished medieval historian, oted for his work on Christianity and homosexuality. Same Sex Unions in Premodern Europe is certain to arouse more than scholarly passion s. … Most controversial.”

 Newsweek
“Boswell laudably provides the reader with transcriptions of the documents in the original Greek, along with his own English translations of them. No less laudable, he guides the reader through interpretations of this materialthat dffers from his own.”

 New Republic
“Fascinating … Professor Boswell’s book will certainly provoke a sharp debate”

 The New York Times

“The question of homosexual unions has acquired new urgency with the publication of Boswell’s latest book and is likely to fuel an ongoing debate. His findings are taken seriously not only by those likely to be pleased with his conclusions but also by detractors who say they do not underestimate his role in helping to shape the continuing debate within the churches over sexual morality.”

 Washington Post

“Boswell’s thesis will enliven thmeetings of the Medieval Academy of America for years to come.”

 Chicago Tribune

“Boswell is a brilliant historian. And by casting new light upon a neglected and misunderstood past, he helps us see a premodern world much more diverse, complex and pluralistic than our simple-minded images of it, and a world that still has much to teach those of us who think we know so much and have come so far. To reflect accurately on the past may be the most revolutionary thing a historian can do. Boswell has done this splendidly and even those who are bound to disagree with him stand with the rest of us in his debt. No discussion of the topic will now be complete without reference to Boswell’s work.

 Boston Globe

“A preeminent , Boswell’s thesis is accessible, not to say sensational.”

 Hartford Courant
John B Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe (Vintage Books: A Division of Random House, Inc: New York), 1995

“Striking, profoundly and exciting, Boswell has taken great care to dissemble, transcribe, translate and interpret a most persuasive array of texts describing same-sex relationships in the ancient world. It is a testimony to the fairness of the book that he confronts the opposing arguments clearly, painstakingly, intelligently, cogently and respectfully. Boswell gives the reader much to ponder.”

 Los Angeles Times Book Review

“At a time when strictures against homosexuality are the subject of impassioned debate, this groundbreaking work of scholarship has generated extraordinary controversy. For in Sme-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe Yale historian John Boswell, one of our most respected authorities on the Middle Ages, produces extensive evidence that at one time the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches not only sanctioned unions between partners of the same sex but sanctioned them—in ceremonies that bear striking resemblance to heterosexual marriage ceremonies.

“Drawing on sources in a wide range of languages—and an example that range from the fourth-century legend of Saints Serge and Bacchus to the ceremonial union of the Byzantine emperors Basil I and Michael III—Boswell boldly reveals how the same tradition that looked askance at all sexuality could also encompass—and at times idealize loving partnerships between two men or women. Most impressively, he produces actual examples in which such love was formally consecrated until modern times. The result is one of those rare works of scholarship that has the power to transform the way we live now—even as it revises our understanding of the past.

“In this long-awaited study, scrupulously sifting the evidence provides a fascinating read. Same-Sex Union will unquestionably challenge a number of cherished assumptions about the nature and history of Christianity.”

 The Nation

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AFRICAN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN BELIEF IN THE SOUL AND AFTERLIFE – ISIS IMMACULATE MOTHER OF GOD – BLACK STATUES OF ISIS AND HORUSS =MARY AND JESUS

[See “Black Madonnas of Europe: Diffusion of the African Isis,” by Danita Redd, in African Presence in Early Europe, Editor, Ivan Van Sertima (1986)
“By the latter half of the third century A.D., Isis had ascended over the Greek and Roman goddesses as she had over other African goddesses. In African and Europe, Isis rose from obscurity to supreme rule over other goddesses. On both continents, the transfiguration of Isis may have been aided by similarities in racial and cultural aspects. Anthropologists have noted that many of the Greek and Roman goddesses were portrayed as black, such as the goddesses Cybele and her daughter Demeter Melaina (often confused with the Eleusian Demeter) as well as Diana, Rhea, Artemis and Ceres. (Footnote: Leonard Moss and Stephen C. Cappannari, “The Black Madonna: An Example of Culture Borrowing,” Scientific Monthly, vol. 73 (1953), p. 322)
“As the cult of Isis spread into and throughout Europe, her associated emblems, majrestic depictions, attributes and titles, first identified in Africa, became well known. Though she maintained her African qualities and gained new qualities from the Greeks and Romans, her protrayals eventually took on the racial features common to the white inhabitants of her new domain. … Greeks and Romans of the ancient world usually associated the veil with feminine virginity, particularly in the virgin cults associated with the Roman goddess Vesta. ‘In some statues and basso-relievos (bas-reliefs) when Isis appears alone, she is entirely veiled from head to foot … as a symbol of a mother’s chastity.’ (Footnote: T. W. Doane, Bible Myths (Truth Seeker Co.: New York), 1882, p. 328) … She was known as the “Great Mother,” The “Tender Mother,” “personification of feminity,” “Immaculate Virgin,” to whom women prayer for forgiveness of sexual sins, “Our Lady,” the “Queen of Heaven,” “Star of the Sea,” and “Mother of God” were other titles associated with her. The cult of Isis coexisted with nascent Christianity, Judaism and assorted Roman religions.
“Initially Christianity did not appeal to the European masses. This was partially due to the fact that nascent Christian doctrine lacked three main elements of mass appeal–elements that we take so much for granted now–resurrection, promise of a better after-life, salvation of the soul. All of these can be found in African religions, particularly in the cult of Isis. The strongest rivalry to nascent Christianity in Europe came from the Isis cult which provided the elements respectively listed: the resurrection myths associated with Osiris and Horus, the role of Isis as protectoress of those in the abode of the dead, and the Isis incantations meant to save souls of the deceased. … The early Christians viewed Eve as the biblical character responsible for the downfall of man and his expulsion from the garden. The Virgin Mary was not a prominent image in nascent Christian art and it took quite a while for her image to proliferate through European Christiandom. The turning point for Christianity in Europe developed after the 313 A.D. declaration of the religious tolerance Edict of Milan by Constantine I. Christianity had gained official recognition in Europe. Emperor Constantine converted to the Christian faith and aided in the passage of laws favorable to Christianity.
“During the 4th century A.D., there was great dissention in the European Christian Churches concerning the doctrinal status of the Virgin Mary. In 428 A.D. Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople, put forth the claim that the Virgin Mary was mother to the divine Jesus Christ, differing from the strongest Church faction which insisted that the Virgin Mary was the Mother of God (as seen through the idea that Jesus was God reborn in earthly form). In 430 A.D. Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, called a synod which included the major Christian leaders of Europe. The 431 A.D. official declaration of the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God was the result of this synod, the Council of Ephesus. Cyril’s faction of the Christian Church formed the European Orthodox Churches (which eventually separated into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The absent Nestorius was ousted from the Constantinope Patriarchy and his writings were burned as a result of the Council of Ephesus.
“Nascent Christianity now contained the elements for mass appeal. The Virgin Mary was elevated to a status equal to the status of Isis. European Christians appealed to God through the image of the Virgin Mary, who was recognized as a divine intervener. Many early Christians believed in the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary. Though it did not become official Church doctrine until the eighteenth century A.D., the concept grew in popularity. The attributes and titles which catapulted the Virgin Mary into the realm of goddesshood were borrowed from the African Isis. … Titles of the Virgin which includes “The Madonna,” “Queen of Heaven,” “Mother of God,” “The Great Mother” and “Our Lady” (are the same titles attributed to the African Isis long before the existence of Christianity.”
“Statues of the goddess Isis with the child Horus in her arms were common in Egypt, and were exported to all neighboring and to many remote countries, where they are now found with new names attached to them–Christian in Europe, Buddhist in Turkestan, Taoist in China and Japan. Figures of the Virgin Isis do duty as representations of Mary, of Hariti, of Juan-Yin, of Kwannon and of other Virgin Mothers of Gods.” [Footnote: Jocelyn Rhys, Shaken Creeds: The Virgin Birth Doctrine (Watts and Co.; London), 1922]
n U.S. New & World Report, Collector’s Edition, “Da Vinci Code: The Unauthorized
Guide to the Bestselling Novel,” there also appeared the following: Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy, “The Pagan Mysteries Behind Early Christianity”: [From The Jesus Mysteries by Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy (1999):
“We had shared an obsession with world mysticism all our lives which recently had led us to explore spirituality in the ancient world. Popular understanding inevitably lags a long way behind the cutting edge of scholarly research and, like most people, we initially had an inaccurate and outdated view of Paganism. We had been taught to imagine a primitive superstitution, which indulged in idol worship and bloody sacrifice, and dry philosophers wearing togas stumbling blindly ‘toward what we today call science. We were familiar with various Greek myths which showed the partisan and capricious nature of the Olympian gods and goddesses. All in all, Paganism seemed primitive and fundamentally alien. After many years of study, however, our understanding has been transformed. Pagan spirituality was actually the sophisticated product of a highly developed culture. The state religions, such as the Greek worship of the Olympian gods, were little more than outer pomp and ceremony.
“The real spirituality of the people expressed itself through the vibrant and mystical ‘Mystery religions.’At first underground and heretical movements, these mysteries spread and flourished throughout the ancient Mediterranean, inspiring the greatest minds of the Pagan world, who regarded them as the very source of civilization.
The significance of the Osiris-Dionysus myth:
“At the heart of the Mysteries were myths concerning a dying and resurrecting godman, who was known by many different names. In Egypt he was Osiris, in Greece Dionysus, in Asia Minor, Attis, in Syria Adonis, in Italy Bacchus, in Persia Mithras. Fundamentally all these godmen are the same mythical being. We will use the combined named Osiris-Dionysus to denote his universal and composite nature. The various myths of the different godmen of the Mysteries share what the great mythologist Joseph Campbell called ‘the same anatomy.’ The more we studied the various versions of the myth of Osiris-Dionysus, the more it became obvious that the story of Jesus had all the characteristics of this perennial tale.
“Osiris-Dionysus is God made flesh, the savior and ‘Son of God.’ His father is God and his mother is a mortal virgin. He is born in a cave or humble cowshed on December 25 before three shepherds. He offers his followers the chance to be born again through the rites of baptism. He miraculously turns water into wine at a marriage ceremony. He rides triumphantly into town on a donkey while people wave palm leaves to honor him. He dies at Eastertime as a sacrifice for the sins of the world. After his death he descends into hell, then on the third day he rises from the dead and ascends to heaven in glory. His followers await his return as the judge during the Last Days. His death and resurrection are celebrated by a ritual meal of bread and wine, which symbolize his body and blood. These are just some of the motifs shared between the tales of Osiris-Dionysus and the biography of Jesus.
“Why are these remarkable similarities not common knowledge? Because, as we were to discover later, the early Roman Church did everything in its power to prevent us perceiving them. It systematically destroyed Pagan sacred literature in a brutal program of eradicating the Mysteries, a task it performed so completely that today Paganism is regarded as a ‘dead’ religion. … “
=============
”Christianity’s Untidy Start: The Da Vinci Code is Shining a New Light on What Really Happened Long Ago” by Dan Burstein:
QUOTE:
“One form of Christianity … emerged as victorious from the conflicts of the second and third centuries A.D.. This one form of Christianity decided what was the ‘correct’ Christian perspective; it decided who culd exercise authority over Christian belief and practice; and it determined what forms of Christianity would be marginalized, set aside, destroyed. It also decided which books to set aside as ‘heretical,’ teaching false ideas. … “
– Bart D. Ehrman, Professor of Religious Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill”
“In the beginning, there was not one Christianity, but many. … If we think about debate, conflict, and heresy in Christian thought, our history and humanities classes tend to emphasize the comparatively recent experienc of the Reformation. Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code wants to acquaint the reader with the lesser known, even ‘hiddne’ side of the story, the unanswered questions about the early history of Christianity. … “
And then comes the year 2009 – September, 2009:
And: VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kc81rs2GAI4 – YouTube –
“Origins of Religions” – After clicking on Part 1 and Part 2 or the entire video presentation –
How much of what the Narrator says is “Truth” or “Fancy” … until he mentions things like:
“Inscriptions or bas-relief drawings and writings on the walls at Luxor in Africa”
or “similarities between Horus and Jesus”
Read the above – and Check it out
http://lc5827.multiply.com/journal/item/506/Dan_Brown_-_The_Lost_Symbol_-_The_Da_Vinci_Code_-_Origins_of_Christianity_and_Other_Messiahs_or_Saviors

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