AUGUST 23 2016 WITTROCK THE HUMAN BRAIN
The Human Brain, M. C. Wittrock, Jackson Beatty, Joseph E. Bogen, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Harry J. Jerison, Stephen D. Krashen, Robert D. Nebes, Timothy J. Teyler (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1977
Harry J. Jerison, Evolution of the Brain, in The Human Brain, M. C. Wittrock, Jackson Beatty, Joseph E. Bogan, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Harry J. Jerison, Stephen D. Krashen, Robert D. Nebes, Timothy J. Teyler (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey), 1977
“It is Society that shapes the mind”:
Evolutionary biology and behavior – – the evolution of language and conscious awareness – how the human mind evolved:
John McCrone, The Ape That Spoke: Language and the Evolution of the Human Mind (William Morrow and Company, Inc: New York), 1991:
“John McCrone studied zoology and psychology at Auckland University and then became a journalist, working first on a London newspaper and then with the Australian news agency, Australian Associated Press. McCrone has spent five years researching and writing this book. He lives in London.”
John McCrone studied zoology and psychology at Auckland University and then became a journalist, working first on a London newspaper and then with the Australian news agency, Australian Associated Press. McCrone has spent five years researching and writing this book. He lives in London.”
James Shreeve, co-author with Donald Johanson of Lucy’s Child:
“The Ape That Spoke is the cleares, mostdelighful excursion imaginable into the maze of the human mind. McCrone navigates the neural pathways of our memories, dreams,and emotions and returns with a fully realized portrait of consciousness. He does so with such an artful use of language and metaphor is no accident: In McCrone’s reckoning it was the origin of language itself that drove the evolution of intelligence, and the birth of metaphor that empowered the brain beyond the reach of any computer.”
Roger Lewin, Bones of Contention and The Origin of Modern Humans:
“The origins of language and conscious awareness tantalize us because, more than anything else, they seem to be the very essence of humanity, of being human.
John McCrone has done a skillful job of tracing the source of these elements of humanness in homo sapiens, by going back to the basics of evolutionary biology and behavior. It is a thoughtful and thought-provoking exposition.
In the book label of The Ape That Spoke it was indicated:
Self-consciousness is something built into the human mind.
Every child has to learn the trick afresh and would have a mind no more self-aware than an animal’s without the helping hand of society.
Our higher emotions are pure, uncontrollable, and irrational.
Reality: Habits of thought forged by generations of cultural evolution and impressed on us at an early age make us act in society=s best interest.
Our memories are a faithful record of events.
Reality: Every memory is a skillful re-creation that depends on the use of language to prod our brain into doing something it was not even designed for.
The mind is a mystery that can never be explained.
Reality: The Ape That Spoke is a book that will stun you with the clarity it brings to the muddled subject.
The Ape That Spoke is the sstory of how the human mind evolved. It starts out with the naked animal of our primitive ancestors and goes on to describe what happened once homo sapiens learned to speak.
Along the way it offers many fresh insights into the workings of the brain.
Among its achievements, The Ape That Spoke gives a careful description of how language evolved, how our memorie and imaginations work, what purpose all our mental advances serve, and how we almost inadvertently learn the trick of self-awareness as we grow up.
Anyone who has ever wondered what déjà vu is, how we make creative leaps of understanding, how we form the sentences we speak, or why we have a conscience, will find the answers within its pages.
The book ends by demonstrating how shallow-rooted and culturally dependent our high mental abilities actually areCand asks why we should not set about making a few improvements.
Major Trends in Human Evolution:
Paleoanthropologist and Specialist Areas of Disagreement were with regard to the Major Trends in Human Evolution:
Bi-pedalism, Brain Size, and Neuropsychological Restructuring and What Influene Each Had in the Origin ofLLanguage andIntelligence:
The primary areas of disagreement by paleoanthropologists and specialists with regard to controversial issues have been concentrated upon the major trends of human evolution that include:
(1) the anatomical restructuring necessary for bipedalism
(2) what role increasing brain size and cranial/brain neural mechanisms necessary for speech played with regard to evolutionary growth and development, and
(3) what influence, if any, each may have had in the origin of language and intelligence in modern humans.
McCone indicated that arguments concerning those issues have been going on since the early 1980s.
THE AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGE WAS SPOKEN 11,000 YEARS AGO IN SYRIA-PALESTINE.
The origin of language in the human species is a widely discussed topic, with little or no mainline consensus by many scholars.
1866: The Linguistic Society of Paris banned dabates on the subject.
1799: George W. Stocking, Jr.,
The Société des Observateurs de lHomme, (the first anthropological society) founded in the eighth year of the first French Republic (November or early December 1799),and its purpose, objectives, and activities in Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology
(The University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London), 1982, pp. 15-21.
Its members included the biologists Cuvier, Lamarck, Jussieu, and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire; the physicians Cabanis and Pinel; the chemist Fourcroy; the explorers Bougainville and Levaillant; the linguists Destutt de Tracy and Sicard; and a number of other scholars in various fields.
[Footnote: Quoted from the Magasin encyclopédique by Georges Hervé, Le premier programme, p. 521; members are listed by Bouteiller, “La Société,” p. 449, and by Reboul, Jauffret, p. 34]
Carl Sagan, Broca’s Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science (Ballantine Books: New York), 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979,
Chapter 1: Broca’s Brain,” p. 7:
Paul Broca, a French surgeon, a neurologist and an anthropologist, and a major figure in the development of both medicine and anthropoogy, it was indicated:
“ …(Paul Broca) encountered great difficulty in establishing a society in France. The Minister of Public Instruction and the Prefect of Police believed that anthropology must as the free pursuit of knowledge about human beings be innately subversive to the state.
When permission was at last and reluctantly granted for Broca to talk about science with eighteen colleagues, the Prefect of Police held Broca responsible personally for all that might be said in such meetings ‘against society, religion, or the government.’ Even so, the study of human beings was considered so dangerous that a police spy in plain clothes was assigned to attend all meetings, with the understanding that authorization to meet would be withdrawn immediately if the spy was offended by anything that was said.
Inthese circumstances the Society of Anthropology of Paris gathered for the first time on May 19, 1859, the year of the publication of the Origin of Species. In subsequent meetings an enormous range of subjects was discussed – archaeology, mythology, physiology, anatomy, medicine, psychology, linguistics and history – and it is easy to imagine the police spy nodding off in the corner on many an occasion.
“… Not only the police but also the clergy opposed the development of anthropology in France, and in 1876 the Roman Catholic political party organized a major campaign against the teaching of the subject in the Anthropological Institute of Paris founded by Broca.
Chapter 4: Origin of Language:
John A. Hawkins, University of Southern California and Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology,
“Preface,. About the Workshop, SFI Studies,
“The Sciences of Complexity,” Proceedings Volume X, Editors, J. A. Hawkins and M. Gell-Mann, Addison-Wesley, 1992 in
The Evolution of Human Languages, A Proceedings Volume in the SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, of the Workshop on the Evolution of Human Languages held August 1989 in New Mexico, Editors, John A. Hawkins, Department of Linguistics , University of Southern California and Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology
and Volume XI, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,
The Advanced Book Program: Redwood City, California; Menlo Park, California; Reading, Massachusetts; New York, Don Mills, Ontario; Wokingham, United Kingdom; Amsterdam, Bonn, Sydney, Singapore, Tokyo, Madrid, San Juan), 1992,
xiii, it was indicated:
“The Evolution of Language and Intelligence”:
“In August 1989 a five-day workshop was held at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico on the subject of the evolution of human languages.
Its goal was to bring together some leading scholars for a joint discussion of many aspects of this general theme. Most of the participants were linguists, but representatives from psycholinguistics, anthropology, neuroanatomy, biology (population genetics), and physics were also present.
The Santa Fe Institute is founded on the premise that there may be common principles that determine the behavior of complex adaptive systems, and it seeks to discover these principles by studying specific systems in the context of more general themes.
“Human language is one such system, and understanding how it works and how it has evolved and changed over time has a potential significance well beyond the narrow confines of the field of linguistics.”