African American History by Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer and included at the beginning of the book among the consultants is Dr sa H Hilliard, Georgia State University (Photograph: AuthorsM Meltzerand Langston Hughes, who autographs a copy of “A Pictorial History of the Negro in America at New York City Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in 1956) The book begins with the statement: “To the Reader: At the center of this book are American people of African descent. Nearly 400 years of Black American History are represented here. And because Africa is the ancestral birthplace of blacks, thousands of years of African history are also here.” [High School and College Textbook]

“Before the Bible: The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations (Harper & Row Publishers: New York, Evanston and London) 1962


Nicholas Wade, The Faith Instinct: How Religion Evolved & Why It Endures (The Penguin Press: New York), 2009.

“Acclaimed New York Times writer Nicholas Wade presents a startling new case, based on a broad range of recent scientific findings, that religion has an evolutionary basis. For the last 50,000 years, and probably much longer people have practiced religion. Yet little attention has been given by either believers or atheists, to the question of whether this universal human behavior might have been implanted in human nature. Did religion evolve, in other words, because it helped people survive..
“In this original and thought-provoking book, Nicholas Wade traces how religion grew to be so essential to early societies in their struggle for existence that an instinct for faith became hardwired into human nature. As a force that binds people together and motivates individuals to put the interests of society above their own, religion encouraged moral behavior toward those within the group and aggression, when necessary, toward those outside it. Religion thus provided the earliest huan societies with their equivalents of law and government. The Faith Instinct then explores how the religion practiced by early human groups was reshaped by culture to the very different needs of settled societies and how from these more socially structured societies the three monotheisms arose. The book describes how religion influences morality and trust, which are the bedrock of commerce, governs people’s reproductive practices, and is the sinew that can bind both a parish or a civilization. Even in modern societies, despite the rise of secular institutions that have assumed many of religion’s ancient roles, faith continues to fortify the social fabric.
“The Faith Instinct is sure to catch the attention of believers and nonbelievers alike. People of faith may not warm to the view that the mind’s receptivity to religion has been shaped by evolution. Atheists may not embrance the idea that religious behavior evolved because it conferred essential benefits on ancient societies and their successors. But the evolutionary approach to religion does not dispute the central belief of either side. The existence of an instinct to believe explains why many who reject organized faith still look for spiritual transcendence.” The first objective and nonpolemical book of its kind, The Faith Instinct examines both the weaknesses of modern religions and the strengths that account for the remarkable persistence of faith.”
Nicholas Wade is also the author of The Noble Duel: Two Scientists 21-Year Race to Win the World’s Most Coveted Research Prize, Retrayal of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science (With William Broad), Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. He Has worked for The New York Times as an editorial writer, editor and science reporter. Before writing for the Times, he worked at two leading scientific hjournals, as the deputy editor of Nature magazine in London and on the news staff of Science magazine in Washington. He is the author of six previous books. His most recent boo, Before the Dawn, tells the story of human origins in light of new information from the human genome.”
At the beginning of Chapter 1: “The Nature of Religion,” are the following quotations:
“Religion is not a popular error, it is a great instinctive truth, sensed by the people and expressed by the people.” – Ernest Renan
“To call religion instinctie is not to suppose any particular part of its mythos is untrue, only that its sources run deeper than ordinary habit and are in fact hereditary, urged into birth through biases in mental development encoded in the genes.” – Edward O. Wilson
A life-long Anglican, Nicholas Wade expressed his abiding and deep faith when in his closing words in the Acknowledgements at the end of the book he referred to his college days at Eton and stated:
“My religious education I owe to Henry VI, who founded a school for poor scholars in 1440. He built at Eton one of England’s most beautiful chapels in which I attended services every day and twice on Sunday during my school years.”
Someone once said: “ … History with regard to “world history” and the fact that Mother Theresa and Stalin are important individuals mentioned in world history textbooks, and with “the rise of the teaching of evolution in the public schools,” it might be inferred that this probably indirectly refers to the historic acceptance of the teaching of evolution in public school science classes following the 1920s science teacher John Thomas Scopes’ trial.
It was indicated:
“Scopes taught science when substituting for another teacher, under a Tennessee law known as the Butler Act which stated that any teacher found guilty of teaching evolution could be fined between one hundred and five hundred dollars. A lot of money in 1925 when a Tennessee teacher earned only about $800 a year!
“Scopes believed he had a right to teach a scientific theory that just about every biology textbook in the country endorsed. The judge found Scopes guilty and imposed a fine of one hundred dollars on John Scopes who having sat patiently for days, finally had his say in court. “I will continue in the future, as I have in the past,” he said, “to oppose this law in any way I can. Any other action would be in violation of my ideals of academic freedom, that is, to teach the truth as guaranteed in our Constitution, of personal and religious freedom. At 12:04 P.M., Tuesday, July 21, 1925, “The Great Monkey Trial” was over.” [Source: Arthur Blake, The Scopes Trial: Defending the Right to Teach (Millbrook Press: Brookfield, Connecticut), 1994]
Niles Eldredge in The Triumph of Evolution – the Failure of Creationism (A Peter N. Nevraumont Book, W. H. Freeman and Company: New York), 2001, stated:
“ … The issue is about what is to be taught in the public schools, and the arena in which the battle takes place goes far beyond local school board meetings and classroom confrontations: it includes bills passed by state legislatures and opinions handed down by the Supreme Court of the United States. It includes judgments passed by statewide school boards, such as the decision to downgrade the teaching of evolution in the statewide syllabus in Kansas late in the summer of 1999–a mandate issued after the first text of this narrative had alreay been written. On the face of it, then, creationism is a political issue–and has been at least since Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes against the prosecutorial zeal of William Jennings Bryan in Dayton, Tennessee, on July 10-21, 1925.
“In 1997, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana rejected a policy requiring teachers to read aloud a disclaimer whenever they taught about evolution, ostensibly to promote ‘critical thinking.’
“The court wrote:
‘In mandating this disclaimer, the School Board is endorsing religion by disclaiming the teaching of evolution in such a manner as to convey the message that evolution is a religious viewpoint that runs counter to … other religious views.’ The decision is also noteworthy for recognizing that curriculum proposals for ‘intelligent design’ are equivalent to proposals for teaching “creation science.’ (Freiler v. Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education, No. 94-3577 (E.D. La. Aug 8, 1997]) On August 13, 1999, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the ruling.”
Professor Eldredge listed “Seven Significant Court Decisions on the Issue of Evolution versus Creationism.”
“Creationist argue that science and world history teachers (1) should not teach evolution in the public schools and it was suggested that along with evolution or in place of evolution that there should be the teaching of Genesis I of the Old Testament in the public schools. Genesis I of the Old Testament indicates that the creation of the world and humanity was by a Creator and that “history” is truly “His” – story.”
Judge John E. Jones III’s landmark ruling in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District (2005) about the teaching of Genesis I in the public schools as part of an “Intelligent Design” as a part of science courses in the public schools,indicated:
“We have concluded that Intelligent Design is not science, and moreover “Intelligent Design cannot uncouple itself from its “creationist,” and thus religious antecedents.”
Science and Religion: Christianity and the Belief in God: Christianity’s Position in Contemporary American Society
oes Science Make Belief In God Obsolete?: 13 Views On The Question”

Science and Religion: Christianity and the Belief in God: Christianity’s Position in Contemporary American Society
oes Science Make Belief In God Obsolete?: 13 Views On The Question”

Biology Professor at Brown University Kenneth Miller “Of Course Not” (lectured on “Intelligent Design – Will the Next Monkey Trial Be in Ohio,” at Case Western University in Ohio and the author of Finding Darwin’s God: A Scientist=s Search for Common Ground between God and Evolution and of Only A Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America’s Soul.
Professor Miller was one of the 13 selected John Templeton Foundation scholars and thinkers (the others included:
Steven Pinker, Christoph Cardinal Schonborn, William D. Phillips, Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, Mary Midgley, Robert Sapolsky, Christopher Hitchens, Keith Ward, Jerome Groopman, Michael Shermer, and Stuart Kauffman – responding to the question: “Does Science Make Belief In God Obsolete?: 13 Views On The Question” –
with replies ranging from: Yes, If By,” “No, and Yes,” “Absolutely Not!,” “Not Necessarily,” “Of Course Not,” “No,” “No, But It Should,” “No, Not At All,” “It Depends”
to Victor J. Stenger’s “Yes.”
“Victor J. Stenger is emeritus professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Hawaii and adjunct professor of philsophy at the University of Colorado, and author of The Comprehensible Cosmos, Timeless Reality, The Unconscious Quantum, Physics and Psychics, Not by Design, and Has Science Found God? – whose book: AGod the Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows That God Does Not Exist” was endorsed by the following:
Richard Dawkins, author of the New York Times best seller The God Delusion;
Sam Harris, author of the New York Times best sellers The End of Faith and Letter to a Christian Nation;
Mark Perakh, professor of physics emeritus, California State University, Fullerton, author of Unintelligent Design;
Taneredis, associate professor of physics, Truman State University, author of The Ghost in the Universe: God in Light of Modern Science and Science and Nonbelief,
and Marcus Chown, author of The Quantum Zoo [Book Jacket]
Online at: http://www.templeton.org/belief and
“Physicist Victor J. Stenger responded to “the laws of nature finely tuned” question in his book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed For Us (Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York), 2011.
The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed For Us:
“In this much needed book physicist Victor Stenger isolates and then debunks the claims of two kinds of “quantum belief’ … With Stenger in charge … we are on sure ground. He adds even more value by weaving a thorough beginner’s course in quantum physics into his debunking exercise. … Stenger is a pleasure to read. And, pleasingly,the title … sounds just crockpot enough to attract those readers who will benefit most.” – New Scientist
Quantum Gods: Creation Chaos, and the Search for Cosmic Consciousness – “Victor Stenger … knows quantum theory as well as anybody and, unlike most of his colleagues, he’s willing to step outside the ivory tower and face those who misuse science. … The world has needed a book like this for a long time. If you care about scientific literacy, Quantum Gods is not optional.” – Geoff Gilpin author of The Maharishi Effect: A Personal Journey Through the Movement That Transformed American Spirituality
On the book jacket of The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed For Us appeared: “Praise for Recent Books by Victor J. Stenger”:
Among the comments on Victor J. Stenger’s New York Times bestseller, God: The Failed Hypothesis,” were the following:
“Faith is faith. It is not science, and if it claims to be scientific in its evidence for God, then it is not good science, a thesis Stenger brilliantly develops in … God: The Failed Hypothesis.” – The Quarterly Review of Biology
“Darwin chased God out of his old haunts in biology, and he scurried for safety down the rabbit hole of physics. The laws and constants of the universe, we were told, are too good to be true: a setup, carefully tuned to allow the eventual evolution of life. It needed a good physicist to show us the fallacy, and Victor Stenger lucidly does so. The faithful won’t change their minds, of course (that is what faith means), but Victor Stenger drives a pack of energetic ferrets down the last major bolt hole and God is running out of refuges in which to hide. I learned an enormous amount from this splendid book.” – Richard Dawkins author of the New York Times best seller The God Delusion
“Marshaling converging arguments from physics, astronomy, biology, and philosophy, Stenger has delivered a masterful blow in defense of reason. God: The Failed Hypothesis is a potrent, readable, and well-timed assault upon religious delusion. It should be widely read.” – Sam Harris author of the New York Times best sellers The End of Faith and Letter to a Christian Nation
http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_atheists_in_science_and_technology
“Victor J. Stenger, Ph.D., is adjunct professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado and emeritus professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Hawaii. He is the autor of the New York Times bestseller God: The Failed Hypothesis, and many other books, including Quantum Gods, The Unconscious Quantum, Has Science Found God?, The Comprehensible Cosmos, Timeless Reality, Physics and Psychics, and The New Atheism.”
Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (and other essays on religion and related subjects), Edited, with an Appendix on the “Bertrand Russell Case” by Paul Edwards (A Touchstone Book: Published by Simon and Schuster: New York), 1957.
Christopher Hitchens, God is not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (Reading Group Guide, 12 Hachette Book Group, Inc.: New York), 2007, 2009
“A spate of atheist screeds has arrived in the bookstores lately, but Hitchens’s may be the best since Bertrand Russell’s “Why I Am Not a Christian” (1927), laying out the essential arguments with force and precision. He makes his case in elegant yet biting prose we have come to expect from him. His style is erudite. … yet manages to be accessible to the casual reader.”
Associate Press
“Hitchens is a master at exposing the elements of stagecraft … an equal opportunity embarrasser … His indictments are trenchent and witty.”
– Boston Globe
“Impressive … entertaining … a serious and deeply felt book. … His erudition is on display—impressively so.”
New York Times Book Review
“Funny and entertaining … If Christopher Hitchens did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.”
…. Cleveland Plain Dealer
“Merciless … quite comical … trenchent and witty … [This] book is a treasure house of zingers worthy of Mark Twain or Mencken.” – Daniel C. Dennett, Boston Globe
[Of his religious upbringing, Hitchens had this to say: “When I go to the mosque, I take off my shoes. When I go tothe synagogue, I cover my head. I once even observed the etiquette of an ashram in India, though this was a trial to me. My parents did not try to impose any religion: I was probably fortunate in having a father who had not especially loved his strict Baptist/Calvinist upbringing, and a mother who preferred assimilation–partly for my sake–to the Judaism of her forebears. I now know enough about all religion to know that I would always be an infidel at all times and in all places, but my particular atheism is a Protestant atheism. It is with the splendid liturgy of the the King James Bible and the Cranmer prayer book–liturgy that the fatuous Church of England has cheaply discarded–that I first disagreed. When my father died and was buried in a chapel overlooking Portsmouth–the same chapel in which General Eisenhower had prayed for success the night before D-Day in 1944–I gave the address from the pulpit and selected as my text verse from the epistle of Saul of Tarsus, later to be claimed as ‘Saint Paul,’ to the Philippians (chapter 4, verse 8):
‘Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report: if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.’
“I chose this because of its haunting and elusive character, which will be with me at the last hour, and for its essentially secular injunction, and because it shone out from the wasteland of rant and complaint and nonsense and bullying which surrounds it. The argument with faith is the foundation and origin of all arguments about philosophy, science, history, and human nature. It is also the beginning–but by no means the end–of all disputes about the good life and the just city. Religious faith is, precisely because we are still-evolving creatures, ineradicable. It will never die out, or at least not until we get over our fear of death, and of the dark, and of the unknown, and of earch other. For this reason I would not prohibit it even if I thought I could. Very generous of me, you may say. But will the religious grant me the same indulgence? I ask because there is a real and serious difference between me and my religious friends, and the real and serious friends are sufficiently honest to admit it. I would be quite content to go to their children’s bar mitzvahs, to marvel at their Gothic cathedrals, to respect their belief that the Koran was dictated though exclusively in Arabic, to an illiterate merchant, or to interest myself in Wicea and Hindu and Jain consolations. And as it happens I will continue to do this without insisting on the polite reciprocal condition–which is that they in turn leave me alone. But this, religion is ultimately incapable of doing. As I write these words and as you read them, people of faith are in their different ways planning your and my desstruction, and the destruction of all the hard-won human attainments that I have touched upon. Religion poisons everything.”
John M. Robertson, Pagan Christs: Studies in Comparative Hierology (1911) , 2nd Edition, Revised and Expanded (Watts & Co.; London), 1911
Part I: The Rationale of Religion,
Section 1: Origin of Gods from fear–from love–Beloved Gods the Christs of the world’s patheon;
Section 4: Scientific view of the ‘religious consciousness’ ;
Section 5: Dr. James G. Frazer’s definition–its inadequacy;
Section 11: The beginning of the end of religion–Early interweaving of cosmology and ethics; Section 12: Historic view of the ancestor-worship;
Chapter II: Comparison and Appraisement of Religions,
Section 3: Polytheism and Monotheism;
Section 4: Hebrews and Babylonians, Babylonian influences on Judaic thought;
Section 5: Forces of Religious Evolution;;
Section 6: The Hebrew Evolution, Rise of the cult of Yahweh, the attempted reforms of Josiah;
Section 9: Analogous cases in Greece, Babylon, Egypt, Persia, and Jewry;
Part II: Secondary God-Making,
Chapter I: The Sacrificed Savior-God,
Section 2: Theory and Ritual of Human Sacrifice,
Section 6: The Cannibal Sacrament,
Section 7: The Semitic Antecedents,
Section 13: Special Features of the Crucifixion Myth,
Part III: Mithraism,
Section 4: Evolution of Mithra,
Section 6: Symbols of Mithra,
Section 8: The Creed,
Section 9: Mithraism and Christianity,
Section 10: Further Christian Parallels,
Section 12: Absorptio in Christianity;
art IV: The Religions of Ancient America,
Section 1: American Racial Origins,
Section 2: Aztecs and Peruvians,
Section 3: Primitive Religion and Human Sacrifice,
Section 5: Mexican Sacrifices and Sacraments,
Section 9: The Religion of Peru;
A: The Eating of the Crucified Human Sacrifice,
B: Dramatic and Ritual Survivals,
C: Replies to Criticisms:;
The Hibbert Journal, The Rev. Alfred Ernest Crawley, The Rev. Dr. St. Clair Tisdell, The Rev. Father Martindale, Dr. J. Estlin Carpenter, Professsor Carl Clemen
Kersey Graves, The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors:
Christianity Before Christ (Cosimo Classics: New York), 1875, 2007
“Many are the cases noted in history of young maidens claiming a paternity for their male offspring by a God.
In Greece it became so common that the reigning king issued an edict, decreeing the death of all young women who should offer such an insult to deithy as to lay to him the charge of begetting their children.”
From Chapter V: Virgin Mothers and Virgin-Born Gods
Publisher on the book jacket:
“Khrisna of India,
Thammuz of Syria,
Esus of the Celtic Druids,
Mithra of Persia,
Quexalcoati of Mexico.
All were crucified gods, and all met their fates hundreds of years before Jesus appeared on the scene. In this foundational work of modern atheism, American spiritualist Kersey Graves (1813-1883) breaks the Christ myth down into its component parts and ably demonstrates how the story of Jesus has its roots in the depths of antiquity.
Here you’ll read about the surprising prevalence throughout global folklore of:
*the miraculous and immaculate conception of the gods
*stars that point out the time and place of a savior’s birth
*angels, shepherds, and magi visiting an infant savior
*the 25th of December as the universal birth date of gods
*saviors who descend into Hell
*and much more
“This is essentiall reading for students of comparative mythology and modern freethinkers.”
 John G. Jackson author of ohn G. Jackson, Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization: A Critical Review of the Evidence of Archaeology, Anthropology, History and Comparative Religion: According to the Most Reliable Sources and Authorities (Black Classic Press: Baltimore, Maryland, John G. Jackson, 1938, 1985;
Dan Barker, Godless: How an Evangelical Preacher Became One of America’s Leading Atheists, Foreword by Richard Dawkins (Ulysses Press: Berkeley), 2008.
“Valuable in the human story are the reflections of intelligent and ethical people who listen to the voice of reason and who allow it to vanquish bigotry and superstition. This book is a classic example.”
 Christopher Hitchens
“The most eloquent witness of internal delusion that I know–a triumphantly smiling refugee from the zany, surreal world of American fundamentalist Protestantism–is Dan Barker.”
 Richard Dawkins author of The God Delusion
“In Godless, Barker recounts his journey from evangelical preacher to atheist activist, and along the way explains precisely why it is not only okay to be an atheist, it is something in which to be proud.”
 Michael Shemer publisher of Skeptic magazine
Craig A. James, The Religion Virus, Why we believe in God: An evolutionist explains religion’s incdredible hold on humanity (O-Books is a imprint of John Hunt Publishing Lt, The Bothy, Deershot Lodge, Park Lane, RopleyHantz, UK), first published by O-Books, 2010.
The End of Christianity, Edited by John W. Loftus (Prometheus Books: New York), 2011.


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student

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