I. The Prehistoric Middle East and Europe: The Cultural History of Humankind: The Story of Civilization:

1. Clive Gamble, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton, The|Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe, Cambridge World ArchaeologyCambridge
University Press: Cambridge, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, Sydney), 1986,
1987, pp. 7 8, indicated:

a. … The wealth of finds that have come from fieldwork in Africa: These have demolished the earlier notions of Europe as a cradle for mankind. D. Clark [1975] has spelt out that Europe no longer holds a monopoly on the prehistory of mankind and also that the roles of paramount and periphery have been reversed in terms of the relation between Europe and Africa as continents for research into early man.

2. Prehistoric Europe: an Illustrated History, Edited by Barry Cunliffe (Oxford University Press: Oxford, New York), in 1998

The Earliest Human Presence in the Middle East:

a. … Unfortunately there are no hominid (early humans) remains (NOTE: At the year of publication of this book in the Mediterranean province), but on this evidence which compares with the chronological estimates from China and Java, the pioneers from from Sub Sahara Africa possibly reached the Mediterranean province between one million and 700,000 years ago.

The Earliest Human Presence in Europe:

b. The lakeside site of Soleihac in the Auvergne, France, where a few flakes and pebble tools have been dated to 900,000 years old, provides a glimpse of the fragmentary evidence that such pioneers would have left. … The earliest hominids are found in East Africa about four million years ago …

300,000 Years Ago:

c. The earliest human presence in Europe is known from artefacts alone. Our first, dated glimpse of what they looked like is some 300,000 years later than the abundant chipped stones found at Isernia in the Mediterranean province. (1987)

Regional Transformations: Fossils Change From Homo erectus to Archaic Homo sapiens sapiens:

d. By this time the earliest Europeans had, as Stringer has shown, undergone their own regional evolution. As a result the fossils from Steinheim and Bilzingsleben in Germany, Petralona in Greece, and Swancombe in England are no longer regarded as Homo erectus but instead a new species Homo sapiens. …


400,000 to 200,000 Years Ago

“These fossil skulls, which are not well dated but range in age from 400,000 to 200,000 bp (before the present) are grouped as Archaic homo sapiens to differentiate them from later developments in Europe and the earlier African populations of Homo erectus from which they are believed to derive. [emphasis added]

B. The Earliest Human Presence in Africa:


Ofar Bar Josef

[“Where Did The Human Species Originate?

“By Showing That The Gracile Fossils Were So Remarkably Old, We Were Able

To Tie Them To The Equally Fascinating Remains From The Klasies River Mouth Caves And The Border Cave In South Africa.

… “Could The Two Groups (Gracile Fossils Found In The Qafzeh Cave In The Levant) Have Belonged To A Single, Far Flung Population? Some Physical Anthropologists Say The Answer Is Yes And Conclude That Modern Looking People Emerged In Africa And Then Replaced Archaic Populations In Other Parts Of The World

(see “The Emergence of Modern Humans by Christopher B. Stringer, Scientific America, December, 1990). (Ofer Bar Yosef and Bernard Vandermeersch: Scientific American: 1993)

… “Some of these researchers inferred THAT MODERN HUMANS HAD ORIGINATED IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA WELL OVER 100,000 YEARS AGO.” (See “The Recent African Genesis of Humans,” by Allan C. Wilson and Rebecca I. Cann; Scientific American, April, 1992).”

Cheikh Anta Diop, p. 11):

“The First Black Who Went Out To Populate The Rest Of The World Exited Africa Through The Strait Of Gibralter, The Isthmus Of Suez, And Maybe Through Sicily And Southern Italy. The Existence Of A Cave And Parietal African Art Of The Upper Paleolithic Period Has Confirmed This Point Of View. (Figs. 1, 2, 3):

Typical Art Of The African Upper Paleolithic Period. Graven Cave Image. Botswana, Southern Africa. (Leo Frobenius, Histoire de la civilisation africaine, fig. 44)

Prehistoric African Painting. Cave Painting, Khotsa Cave, Lesotho, Southern Africa, (Leo Frobenius, Histoire de la civilization africaine, fig. 45.

3: Dancing Sorcerer Of Afvallingskop, Southern Africa (According To L. S. B. Leakey). Dancing Sorcerer In The Cave Of The Three Brothers, France (according to Count Begouen and Abbé Breuil).”
(Diop, 49):

“The Mutation From Negroid To Cro Magnon Did Not Happen Overnight.

There Was A Long Transition Period Of More Than 15,000 Years, Corresponding To The Appearance Of Numerous Intermediate Types Between The Negroid And The Europoid, Without Any Occurrence Of Interbreeding.

In Particular, The Osteology Of The Very First Cro Magnons Is Negroid … ”

“Arrival Of (Afrocam_ Australians In Australia, 30,000 To 20,000 Years Ago” [21st Century Archaeology: 70,000 Years Ago!]

“Appearance Of First Paleosiberian (According To Thoma), 20,000 Years Ago”

“First Homo Sapiens In China, 17,000 B.C.”

Christopher Stringer and Clive Gamble, In Search of the Neanderthals: Solving the Puzzle of Human Origins (Thames and Hudson Ltd: New York), 1993, p. 138:

“We do not know when modern people first appeared in china, but the remains of several individuals excavated from the upper cave at zhoukoudian, and now believed to be about 25,000 years old,

do not look like intermediates between ancient and modern chinese. instead they look more like the cro magnons.”

Tattersall, Ian, The Human Odyssey: Four Million Years of Human Evolution (Prentice Hall, New York, 1993), p. 145:

“… Later fossils such as crania from Liukiang (about 34,000 years old, maybe older)

And From The Upper Cave At Zoukoudian (Around 20,000 Years Old) That Represent Modern Humans

… Nothing That Could Really Be Regarded As >Transitional= Between The Two Is Known.

… Christopher Stringer Of The Natural History Museum, London

… It Involves A More Complicated Change To Go From Zhoukoudian To Modern Chinese Via Dali Than To Go Directly

… He Is Unable To Find Any Particular Evidence Of Affinity Between The Upper Cave And Liukiang Specimens And Today=S Chinese.”


1. About 40,000 Years Ago, Modern Human Populations Entered The Mediterranean And Southwest Asia (Europe) In One Of Three Major Waves Of Migrations From Africa.

2. The Term “Cro Magnon” Is Mainly A Historical Term Used Interchangeably With “Indo European” As A Name For An Imaginary “White European Race Inhabiting >Europe= In The Upper Paleolithic.

3. The Archaeological And Fossil Record And The Information Found In The Genetic Variation Of Living People All Over The World Does Not Provide Evidence Or Support For A “Multiregional,” Separate Evolution Of Four Major Human Breeding Populations:

 In Europe And The Levant

 Africa

 East Asia, And

 Australasia

Multiregional Theory:

During The Upper Paleolithic, Or That White European (Caucasian) Neanderthals Living In Southern Russia, North African, And The Levant Evolved Into Later Humans (The “White European (Caucasian) Race,” Either As “European Alpines,” “Mediterraneans,” Or “Nordics,” But That

4. The Evolutionary Patterns Of Central And Southwestern Asia (Europe), The Levant, East Asia (China And Siberia), And Australasia Do Show That Their Earliest Indigenous Inhabitants During The Upper Paleolithic Did Have Polymorphous Traits That Characterize “Negroid Africans.”

L. Luca Cavalli Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey), 1994, p. 62 63:

Fig. 2.1.3.: The multiregional or polycentric and rapid replacement models of the origin of modern humans (after Stringer 1989b) shows

Out Of Africa Theory:

(1) The Divergence Of Modern Africans From African Homo Erectus And The Divergence Of Modern Europeans, Modern Asians, And Modern Australians, From African Homo Erectus.

And For The Multiregional Theory:

(2) Modern Africans Diverging From African Homo Erectus,

Modern Europeans From Neanderthals And European Homo Erectus,

Modern Asians From Asian Homo Erectus, And

Modern Australians From Ngandong And Indonesian Homo Erectus.

It Was Indicated That The Polycentric Or Multiregional Hypothesis

Was Further Elaborated Upon And Strongly Defended By Coon (1963) And Wolpoff Et Al. (1984).

Cavalli Et Al. State:

(1) “Other Archaeological Work Has Shown That Modern Humans Appeared In East And South Africa Long Before Their Appearance In The More Remote Parts Of The World.

(2) “The Earliest African Dates Are Around 100,000 Years Ago, Although With Some Degree Of Uncertainty (Border Cave, Klasies River Mouth; See Klein 1989a; Rightmire 1989). Finds At Laetoli, Omo, And Others May Be Older And Somewhat More Primitive.

… Fig. 2.1.4.: Sites Where The Earliest Remains Of Homo Sapiens Sapiens Have Been Found (Adapted From Stringer 1988a):

100,000 Years Old:

Klasies River Mouth Cave
Border Cave

Probably 60,000 Years Old: Liujiang [China]

Probably 30,000 Years Old: Niah Cave [Southeast Asia]

About 30,000 Years Old: Cro Magnon [France]


Mungo [Australia]

Probably 15,000 Years Old: Zhoukoudian Upper Cave

“The Hypothesis That The Origin Of Modern Humans Took Place In Africa Is Presented In Figure 2.1.3b. It Assumes That African A.M.H.

Expanded From Africa

To Asia And The Rest Of The World,

Rapidly Replacing The Earlier Human Types Living In These Other Regions.”

P. 64:

“The Earliest Evidence Of Modern Humans In Europe Is Found Between 35 And 40,000 Years Ago

… In China, Perhaps As Early As 67,000 Years Go At Liujiang (Brocks And Wood 1990);

In Australia, 55,000 Years Ago Or Earlier

… In America, At The Earlies 35,000 Years Ago But According To Many, Only Later, 15 20,000 Years Ago.

(3) An Important Gap In The Record, From 100,000 To 50,000 Yields No Information Of Events In Most Of Asia Regarding Anatomically Modern Human Homo Sapiens Sapiens (A.M.H.).”

P. 65:

Concerning “Replacement,” And How The Half Breed European Neanderthals (Partly Africoid) May Have Become Extinct:

(4) “One Hypothesis Made Earlier (See Cavalli Sforza Et Al. 1988) Is That A.M.H. May Have Owed Its Greater Fitness, Which Conferred Its Undoubted Capacity To Expand Demographically And Geographically,

To Better Communication That Is, To A Higher Level Of Language Skills Which May Have Been The Major Process Accompanying The Formation Of A.M.H.

High Level Language Skills May Have Developed In The Transition From Archaic To Modern Humans, Or In The Period Of Maturation Of A.M.H. Between 100 And 50,000 Years Ago Mentioned Above, Or Over Both Periods.”


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
This entry was posted in "EUROCENTRISM" - "TEACHING MYTH AS HISTORY", THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN EUROPE ('EURASIA"_ - 1987 TO 2016, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

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