VERY RECENT EDITED AND UPDATED ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE SUPPORTING UNIVERSAL BLACK AFRICAN AURIGNACIAN MIGRATION TO EURASIA (“EUROPE”) AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE “WHITE EUROPEAN ANATOMICALLY MODERN “CAUCASIAN” RACE!

EARLIER RESEARCH BY H.G. WELLS – TWO DISTINCT SKELETAL REMAINS (FOSSILS) IN EUROPE: (1) THE GRIMALDI RACE, (2) THE CRO-MAGNON RACE PRIOR TO 20TH CENTURY VERIFICATION [FRED SMITH, THE ORIGIN OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS IN WESTERN EUROPE (1984)] OF A “BLACK AFRICAN MIGRANT AURIGNACIAN CRO-MAGNON RACE!

H. G. Wells, The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind (The Macmillan Company: New York) 1930, In Chapter XI: The Races of Mankind: Main races of mankind, p. 128, stated:
“Ethnologists class these new human races in the same species as ourselves and with all human races subsequent to them under one common specific name of homo sapiens. There were two distinct sortsof skeletal remains in Europe in this period. They were (1) the Grimaldi race, and (2) the Cro-Magnon race, complete skeletons of the latter having been found in the Grotto of Cro-Magnon.

[Note: The Grotte des Enfants site between 1874 and 1901: From C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, and B. Vandermeersch,

“The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe,” in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, Ed. The Origins Of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 80-81].
Prior to the 18th century A.D. there had yet to be created “a racially identifiable human population” classified as a “Negro” or “African” race or an “European Caucasian” race, or a “ ‘White European’ – ‘anatomically modern human species or race’ .”

or an “European “Cro-Magnon” race” of the Upper Paleolithic”

How the Social Construction of a “European Cro-Magnon race of the Upper Paleolithic was brought into use in World History:

(1) The social construt or classification of “a “European” race or population was invented by Linneaus (1735);
(2) and used by Buffon (1749).
(3) The term “Caucasian;” was created by Blumenbach in 1781
(4) and used by Cuvier in 1790.
A universal “Cro-Magnon race was described by Smith … as having occurred when the archaeological discovery of fossils in superpositions …

[Note: A rock shelter called Cro-magnon (Les Eyzies, Dordogne): C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, And B. Vandermeersch, _The Origin Of Anatomically Modern Humans In Western Europe,_ in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, Ed. The Origins Of Modern Humans: A World Survey Of The Fossil Evidence, (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 107-108, indicated:
The archaeological discovery of five individuals and additional cranial and postcranial fragments – Upper Paleolithic fossils – in 1868 in a rock shelter or cave called Cro-Magnon:
“The most famous of Upper Paleolithic fossils were discovered in 1868 in a rock shelter called Cro-magnon (Les Eyzies, Dordogne). Five numbered individuals and additional cranial and postcranial fragments are known.
(Comparisons:
Fig. 11: Cro-magnon 1,
Piedmosti 3
and Grotte Des Enfants 6;

Fig. 12: Cro-magnon 2,
Pataud,
and Piedmosti 4;
Fig. 6: La Chapelle,
Cro-magnon,
and La Ferrassie).

THE SPECIMENS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH AN EVOLVED AURIGNACIAN (NOTE: AFRICAN) INDUSTRY, and therefore cannot necessarily be said to be representative of the earliest anatomically modern hominids of France.”

As indicated in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, Ed. The Origins Of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (1984):
“THESE FOSSILS, AND IN PARTICULAR CRO-MAGNON 1 (THE SO-CALLED OLD MAN), BECAME THE TYPE SPECIMENS FOR A WHOLE UPPER PALEOLITHIC RACE.”]
Homo sapiens sapiens
2004 – 2010 – Hofmeyer
The First Europeans B Hofmeyer
Science Daily, January 27, 2004
In the most recent and mathematically vigorous study to date determining whether Neanderthals contributed to the evolution ofmodern humans, a team of anthropologists examining the skull of modern humans and Neanderthals as well as 11 existing species of non-human primates
(1) found strong evidence that Neanderthals differ so greatlyy from Homo sapiens as to constitute a different species. The findings could potentially put to rest the decades-long debate between proponents of the regional continuity model of human origins, which maintains that Neanderthals are a subspecies of Homo sapiens which contributed significantly to the evolution of modern Europeans, and
(2) the single-origin model, which views Neanderthals as a separate, distinct species.
The research will be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.@
July 2010 – 36,000 Years Ago B Subsaharan South Africa
Departments of Anthropology and Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364, USA
b Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
c Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364, USAd Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
Received 22 April 2009; – accepted 23 December 2009 – Available online 23 May 2010.
Abstract
Human skeletal remains from sub-Saharan Africa are virtually non-existent for the period when genetic models indicate the first modern human emigration from this region. The skull from Hofmeyr, South Africa, which has been dated to c. 36,000 years ago, is one of the only specimens known from this critical part of the late Pleistocene.
The Hofmeyr skull was largely intact at the time of its discovery but has suffered post-recovery mishandling, with the resultant loss of most of the lower facial skeleton, the mandibular angle, the right mastoid process, and much of the occipital. Given the potential significance of this specimen, we have undertaken its restoration and reconstruction so as to provide a more complete picture of the cranial morphology of the late Pleistocene population from which it derived. On the basis of photographs, measurements, and morphological description recorded prior to its having been damaged, we reconstructed some of the missing bone in modeling clay on a high resolution plastic cast of the cranium. The original specimen was CT scanned, as was the cast with the reconstructed maxilla and mastoid; these scans were employed in the final computer reconstruction of the skull. Virtual reconstruction of the remainder of the cranium was accomplished using mirror-imaging and reference-based methods, employing 3D geometric morphometrics from a sample of recent human crania to compute coordinate-based estimates of the missing parts. This reconstruction provides a more complete picture of the Hofmeyr cranium and serves as a basis for more comprehensive morphometric comparisons.@
July 2010, Journal of Human Evolution:
36,000 Year Old Modern human South African human skull
Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
Reconstruction of the late Pleistocene human skull from Hofmeyr, SouthAfrica@: Human skeletal remains from sub-Saharan Africa are virtually non-exisgtent for the period when genetic models indicate the first modern human emigration from this region. The skull from Hoymeyr, South Africa, which has been dated to about 36,000 years ago is one of the only specimens known from this critical part of the late Pleistocene. Y On the basis of photographs, measurements and morphological description recorded prior to its having been damaged, a reconstruction of some of the missing bone in modeling clay on a high resolution plastic acast of the cranium.
The original specimen was CT scanned as was the cast with the reconstructed maxilla and mastoid, these scans were employed in the final computer reconstruction of the skull. This reconstruction provides a more complete picture of the Hofmeyr cranium and serves as a basis for more comprehensive morphometric comparisons.”

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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