“We feel that we are part and parcel of this great nation: and as such … we propose to stay here and solve this problem of whether the black race and the white race can live together in this country.” – Richard H. Cain (Speech to the 43rd Congress, 1974)
COMMENTS RE: Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey: The African Odyssey: The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History: From Prehistoric Times: 4.6 Billion Years Ago and the Earliest Civilizations: 5000 – 3000 Years Ago to the 21st Century (2015)
Subtitles: The Social Construction of the “Negro” (African) Race and 18th, 19th, and 20th Century Speculations and Interpretations of the Geographical Location of the Original Race of Humankind and the Origin of Modern Humans (Anatomically Modern Human)
Not Out of Europe: How Eurocentrism Taught Myth As History and How Advanced Technological Dating Enabled 20th and 21st Century Archaeological and Molecular Biological and Genetic Scientific Researchers to Provide Evidence of the Origin of Modern Human as Proposed by British Paleoanthropologist Christopher Stringer rather than the Multiregional Theory of Milford Wolpoff
Sole Proprietor at Appropriate Technology and Energy (ATEN) Consulting
I can umresevedfly recommenf Harold as a meticulous researcher and writer, having been exchanging views and reference materials with him through onlinr forums in the area of the history of the African Diaspora. In particulaar, as author of the upcoming work, Introductory Anthropology/World History and Juman Biological and Cultural History, he has excelled in compiling an exhaustive table of contents and curriculum, on the basis of which I fully intend to get myself a copy at the earliest opportunity.
February 22, 2012, Peter worked directly with Harold L at Textbook Publisher
Paralegal Legal Assistant and Private Investigator
Harold is one of those rare geniuses, who have a way of sharing knowledge without coming over as pious or offensive. Both my spouse and I, look forward to his written works.
February 24, 2012, George D. worked with Harold L at Textbook Publisher
St Patrick’s Day – March 17 2015
FIRST BLACK ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIENT – SON OF SOUTHERN GEORGIA PLANTATION SLAVEHOLD – SENT NORTH AND EDUCATED IN PROMINENT ORTHERN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITIES – MONSIGNOR FRANCES HEALEY:
Patrick Francis Healy (February 27, 1830 – January 10, 1910) was the 29th President of Georgetown University (1873-1882), known for expanding the school following the American Civil War. He was accepted as and identified as Irish-American. Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark, was constructed during Healy’s tenure and is named after him.
In the 1960s the history of Healy’s mixed-race ancestry became more widely known, and he was recognized as the first American of African ancestry to earn a PhD; the first to become a Jesuit priest; and the first to be president of Georgetown University or any predominantly white college.
Patrick, as he was known, was born into slavery in Macon, Georgia, to the Irish-American plantation owner Michael Healy and his bi-racial slave Mary Eliza. Because of the law of slavery that children took the status of the mother, by the principle of partus sequitur ventrum, Patrick and his siblings were legally considered slaves, although their father was free and they were three-quarters or more European in ancestry.
Patrick was the third son of Mary Eliza and Michael Morris Healy, who had joined in a common-law marriage in 1829. After Patrick’s father Michael bought his mother Mary Eliza, he fell in love with her and made her his common-law wife. The law prohibited their marriage, but they lived together all their lives. Discriminatory laws in Georgia prohibited the education of slaves and required legislative approval for each act of manumission, so Michael Healy arranged for all his children to leave Georgia and move to the North to obtain their educations and have opportunities in their lives. They were raised as Irish Catholics. Patrick’s brothers and sisters were nearly all educated in Catholic schools and colleges. They nearly all achieved notable firsts for Americans of mixed-race ancestry during the second half of the 19th century, making the Healy family of Georgia a notable one.
Healy sent his older sons first to a Quaker school in Flushing, New York. Despite the Quakers’ emphasis on equality, Patrick met some discrimination during his grade school years, chiefly because his father owned slaves, which the Quakers considered unforgivable. As an Irish Catholic, he also met some resistance in the school. When Michael Healy heard of a new Jesuit college, the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, he sent his four oldest sons, including Patrick, to study there in 1844. (It had high school-level classes as well.) They were joined at Holy Cross by their younger brother Michael in 1849.
Following Patrick’s graduation in 1850, he entered the Jesuit order and continued his studies. The order sent him to Europe to study in 1858. His mixed-race ancestry had become an issue in the United States, where tensions were rising over slavery. He attended the University of Leuven in Belgium, earning his doctorate, becoming the first American of openly acknowledged part-African descent to do so. During this period he was also ordained to the priesthood on September 3, 1864.
Georgetown University president
Patrick Healy’s influence on Georgetown was so far-reaching that he is often referred to as the school’s “second founder,” following Archbishop John Carroll. Healy helped transform the small nineteenth-century college into a major university for the twentieth century, likely influenced by his European education.
He modernized the curriculum by requiring courses in the sciences, particularly chemistry and physics. He expanded and upgraded the schools of law and medicine. He became one of the most renowned Jesuit priests of his time in that role. The most visible result of Healy’s presidency was the construction of the university’s flagship building designed by Paul J. Pelz, begun in 1877 and first used in 1881. The building was named in his honor as Healy Hall.
Healy left the College in 1882; he traveled extensively through the United States and Europe, often in the company of his brother James. In 1908 he returned to the campus infirmary, where he died. He was buried on the grounds of the university in the Jesuit cemetery.
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE: “So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war.” – Abraham Lincoln
In 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives. At the time, Stowe had moved with her family into a home near the campus of Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, where her husband was now teaching.
Stowe had a vision of a dying slave during a communion service at the college chapel, inspiring her to tell his story. On March 9, 1850, Stowe wrote to Gamaliel Bailey, editor of the weekly antislavery journal National Era, that she planned to write a story about the problem of slavery: “I feel now that the time is come when even a woman or a child who can speak a word for freedom and humanity is bound to speak… I hope every woman who can write will not be silent.”
Shortly after, In June 1851, when she was 40, the first installment of her Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published in the National Era. She originally used the subtitle “The Man That Was A Thing”, but it was soon changed to “Life Among the Lowly”. Installments were published weekly from June 5, 1851, to April 1, 1852. For the newspaper serialization of her novel, Stowe was paid only $400. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published in book form on March 20, 1852, by John P. Jewett with an initial print run of 5,000 copies. Each of its two volumes included three illustrations and a title-page designed by Hammatt Billings. In less than a year, the book sold an unprecedented three hundred thousand copies. By December, as sales began to wane, Jewett issued an inexpensive edition at 37 1/2 cents each to further inspire sales.
Portrait of Harriet Beecher Stowe by Francis Holl, 1853
The book’s emotional portrayal of the impact of slavery captured the nation’s attention. It added to the debate about abolition and slavery, and aroused opposition in the South. Within a year, 300 babies were named “Eva” in Boston alone and a play based on the book opened in New York in November of that year.
After the start of the Civil War, Stowe traveled to Washington, D.C. and there met President Abraham Lincoln on November 25, 1862. Stowe’s daughter Hattie reported, “It was a very droll time that we had at the White house I assure you… I will only say now that it was all very funny—and we were ready to explode with laughter all the while.”
What exactly Lincoln said is a minor mystery.
Her son later reported that Lincoln greeted her by saying, “so you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war.”
Her own accounts are vague, including the letter reporting the meeting to her husband: “I had a real funny interview with the President.”
Winthrop D Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro 1550 – 1812 (Published for the Omobundro Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill), 1968, 1978
GABRIEL PROSSER – DENMARK VESEY – FREEDMEN – THE KLU KLUX KLAN AND THE “BLACK CODES”
Gabriel was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800.
Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment.
In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions.
Denmark Vesey: The Slave Conspiracy of 1822, Edited by Robert S. Starobin, in Great Lives Observed, Gerald Emanuel Stearn, General Editor Series (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1970, copyright 1970 by Prentice Hall, Inc
“Dedicated to Bobby Seal and in memory of Fred Hampton”
“Vesey’s example must be regarded as one of the most courageous ever to threaten the racist foundation of America. In him the anguish of Negro people welled up in nearly perfect measure. He stands today, as he stood yesterday … as an awesome projection of the possibilities for militant action on the part of a people who have—for centuries—been made to bow down in fear.” — Sterling Stuckey
“Robert S. Starobin, the editor of this volume in the Great Lives Observed series, is an Associate Professor of History at the State University of New York at Binghamton. The author of Industrial Slavery in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press), 1970, Professor Starobin has contributed the annual royalties from his study of Denmark Vesey’s slave conspiracy to the Southern Conference Education Fund and the Black Panther Party”
Joseph Glatthaar, Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers (The Free Press: A Division of Macmillan, Inc: New York; Collier Macmillan Publishers: London) 1990:
“This deeply researched book brings to life the dramatic story of 178,000 black soldiers and their 7,000 white officers in the Civil War. It does more than any other study to illustrate the crucial importance of this radical experiment which helped transform the war for the old Union into a war for freedom and equal rights in the new nation that was truly forged in battle.”
Black Reconstructionists, Edited by Emma Lou Thornbrough (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972, copyright 1972 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
“We feel that we are part and parcel of this great nation: and as such … we propose to stay here and solve this problem of whether the black race and the white race can live together in this country.” – Richard H. Cain (Speech to the 43rd Congress, 1974)
[“Until now, the truth about the black reconstructionists–the first black political leaders of our country–has been obscured by a history that has consistently neglected and maligned them by identifying them with the white carpetbaggers. In this new volume, Emma Lou Thornbrough lays to rest the myths and stereotypes that have endured for more than one hundred years.
“From Hiram H. Revels–eager to win the good will of the whites–to the fiery, embittered Henry M. Turner, who was the most influential advocate of the back-to-Africa movement of the 1890s, the black reconstructionists represented a wide range of attitudes and abilities. Black Reconstructionjists provides a dispassionate and fascinating picture of these remarkable men–drawing on their own views, the opinions of apologists of the white South, and interpretations by modern historians–and clarifies the role they played in shaping the America we know today.”
[“Emma Lou Thornbrough, Professor of History at Butler University, is a frequent contributor to several journals of history. She is also the author of T. Thomas Fortune: Militant Journalist and the editor of Booker T. Washington, another volume in the Great Lives Observed series.”
Henry McNeal Turner, Black African Methodist Episcopal Bishop – Said to Be AThe Father of Black Nationalism
Origins of Black Nationalism – The American Revolutionary War Period:
Joel A. Rogers, The Ku Klux (Klan) Spirit (Black Classic Press: Baltimore, Maryland), originally published in 1923 by The Messenger Publishing Co. (A. Philip Randolph, Chandler Owens), republished 1980:
“Foreward: What would the success of the Ku Klux Klan mean to the nation? A study of the psychology of the present Ku Klux Klan will show that it is in every detail what the old Klan was. So are its aims and methods. The sole difference between the two is that the present one is more extensive in its operations. The activities of the first Klan were directed mainly at one group of American citizens; the second, at several groups. Hence the most accurate prediction as to what the success of the present Klan would mean to the nation is, without doubt, to be found in a knowledge of the workings of the old Klan. An added reason for a knowledge of the old Klan is that such knowledge will serve as a mirror for those now opposing the present Klan, many of whom contend that the old Klan accomplished much good, and that it was its opponents who were really the menace. Many of the opponents of the old Klan, however, were among the foremost and most patriotic Americans of their day. Since history repeats itself may not Americans of a future day similarlyregard the opponents of the present Klan, however, well-meaning those opponents may be?
“The reason generally given for the origin of the Ku Klux Klan is that it came into being in order to protect the white people of the Southern states against rascally Northern whites and Negroes in the period immediately following the Civil War. The reason right or wrong, would appear to be justified, because it is that given in the majority of the popular sources of information. For instance, Woodrow Wilson, in his History of the American People, Vol. V, says of the Klan ‘The white men of the South were aroused by the instinct of self –preservation to rid themselves by fair means or foul of the intolerable burden of government by the votes of ignorant Negroes and conducted in the interest of adventurers.’ The Encyclopedia Britannica says: ‘The object was to protect the whites during the disorder that followed the Civil War, and to oppose the policy of the North toward the South.’ Henry P. Fry, who took a leading part in the exposure of the present Klan by the New York World in 1921, says in his book, ‘The Modern Ku Klux Klan”” ‘They were organized as a matter of necessity for the purpose of policinga section of the country where political madness and hatred ruled supreme.’ Thomas B. Gregory, former Attorney General of the United States, in an address to the Texas Bar Association in 1906, said: ‘Did the end aimed at and accomplished by the Ku Klux Klan justify the movement? The opinion of the speaker is that the movement was fully justified, though he, of course does not approve of the crimes and excesses incident to it.’
“During the expose by the New York World of the present Klan it was asserted repeatedly by correspondents and others opposed to the present Klan that the reason for the formation of the original Klan was a just and worthy one. This also is the view of the majority of American historians. Henrik Van Loon, author of “The History of Mankind,” says in the New York Evening Post, September 2, 1922, in “America for Little Historians”: ‘With the Negro voters and their unprincipled friends the Northern carpetbaggers in control of political affairs there was no chance for the better white elements in the South to accomplish anything in the way of building up their fallen fortunes. Their only hope was in some way to deprive the Negroes of their votes and thus make way for a white majority. As they could not do this legally in the face of the Fifteenth Amendment they set about it in another way.’ Frank Tannenbaum in the “Century Magazine,” April 1923 says: ‘The original Ku Klux Klan was a reflex of the vindictiveness of Northern politicians and of the unscrupulous carpetbagger who swooped down upon the South as a vulture upon a wounded and stricken victim. It was a desperate act of self assertion and self defense. It was an attempt to rescue for the South the remnants of a civilization that was being subverted by coarse hands.’
Joel A. Rogers then asked the question: “Are the above statements regarding the origin of the Ku Klux Klan grounded on the recorded facts of American history?” He then indicated:
“The history of the Ku Klux Klan is to a great extent that of the South in the decade following the Civil War. When the Civil War ended in April, 1865, the North pardoned all who had fought against the Union. Instead of an indemnity, it asked of the Confederate leaders onlyan oath of obedience to the Constitution. In the matter of reconstructing themselves, it gave the defeated states a free hand, stipulating only that the process accord with the Thirteenth Amendment, which had abolished slavery, and which had passed Congress three months before. When reconstruction had been accomplished on these lines the states were to appear before Congress to apply for readmission to the Union. When the Southern representatives appeared, however, some of them as early as December of the same year, Congress not only promptly rejected them, but decided to give the Southerners a free hand no longer. What caused Congress to make this decision.
“The Black Code”: “Congress had refused readmission because of certain laws that had been made by these states contrary to the Thirteenth Amendment, which had been ratified by all of them, except Mississippi. Some of these laws applied to the freedmen directly: others included the whites, but in intent affected the freedmen only. In Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida, for instance, a white person could declare a Negro ‘stubborn’ and ‘refractory.’ The latter would then be brought before a justice of the peace before whom his word counted for nothing, and fined fifty dollars. In default of payment he was to be ‘hired,’ that is, sold at public auction for a period of six months to anyone desiring labor. [Footnote: “Laws of Alabama, Dec. 1865, No. 112. Sec. 4, Laws of Mississippi, Nov., 1865, Chap. VI. Laws of Florida, 1865, Chap. 1467, No. 4, Sec. 1.”]
“James G. Blaine, a member of that Congress, a speaker of the House, and a candidate for the presidency, says in his ‘Twenty Years of Congress,” page 94: ‘No fair man could fail to see that the whole effect, and presumably the direct intent of this law was to reduce the helpless Negro to slavery for half the year—a punishment that could be repeated whenever desired, a punishment sure to be desired for the portion of each recurring year when his labor was specially valuable in connection with the cotton crop, while for the remainder of the time he might shift for himself. By this detestable process the ‘master’ had the labor of the ‘servant’ for a mere pittance; and even that pittance did not go to the servant, but was paid into the treasury of the county, and thus relieved the white men from their proper share of taxation.’
“In Mississippi, by the provisions of the Black Code, as these enactments were known, all Negroes were called upon to provide comfortable homes for themselves and families within twenty days or be sold for the remainder of the year. The freedmen, is will be recalled, had been discharged penniless, and most of them had been evicted from their homes, which was the property of their former masters. The punishment could be repeated at will at the expiration of the sentence, virtually making the victim a slave for life. In Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, sheriffs were ordered to report all minors under eighteen years of age whose parents were considered unable to provide a decent home for them. These minors were to be bound to employers of labor for a period of six years, with the provision that ‘former owner of said minor shall have the preference.’ Anyone, parents included, caught enticing away a minor was to be fined $500, and be sold if unable to pay. Negroes who met in any assembly were likely to have their gathering declared ‘disorderly’ and be fined fifty dollars each. In South Carolina Negroes were forbidden to follow any occupation, except field labor. “No person of color,’ ran the law, ‘shall pursue or practice the art, trade, or business of an artisan, mechanic or shopkeeper, or any othr employment, or business (besides that of husbandry, or that of servant under contract for service of labor) on his own account and for his own, or in partnership with a white person until he shall have obtained a license therefor from the Judge of the District Court, which shall be good for one year … and upon payment by the applicant to the Clerk of the District Court of one hundred dollars. …’ (Statutes at large, S. Carolina, 1865, Vol. XIII, p. 269.)
That is to say, a freedman, regardless of ability, was not only compelled to follow field labor, but must sell his labor to a white person. To work for himself, he was compelled to pay for the privilege. ‘ “
Joel A. Rogers continued the section with details about Mississippi, indicating: “In Mississippi no Negro could lease or rent land. Chap. IV, Sec. 1, of the laws of Nov., 1865, said: ‘ … the provisions of this section shall not be so construed as to allow any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to rent or lease lands or tenements, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places, the corporate authorities shall control the same.’ … And so on with the Black Codes of the other states. The laws of many of the townships were even more drastic. These laws, it will be seen, were enacted either in 1865, or early in 1866. [Footnote: “Laws of Alabama, Feb. 1866, No. 120. Laws of Louisiana, 1865, Nos. 16 and 19. Laws of Mississippi, Nov. 1865 Chap. V. Laws of Florida, 1865, Chap. 1470, Sec. 2, No. 4, Rept. No. 261, 43rd Congress, 2nd Session.]”
“South Placed Under Military Rule”: “Congress now saw no hope for the restoration of order in the South and on March 4, 1867, it passed the Reconstruction Act, over the veto of the President, placing the refractory states under martial law. They were divided into five military districts, and were each to be ruled by a Major-General of the Union Army until ‘said rebel states shall have formed a constitutional government in conformity with the Constitution of the United States.’ This step, it would appear, should have been the one taken at the start.”
There followed sections, “Second Period of Reconstruction: The South Again Fails to Keep Its Word,” “Origin of the Ku Klux Klan Proper,” “Extent of the Invisible Empire,” “Tactics of the Klan When Ghosts Ceased to Frighten,” and “Psychic Factors of Reconstruction: Reaction of the Slaveholders to the Loss of Their Slaves.” … “The members of the Confederacy, on its disbandment in April, 1865, immediately began to join and to form secret societies to oppose Northerners and to keep the Negroes in what was considered their place. Many of these secret societies had been in existence long before the war. One of these, the Paddle Patrol, or patter-rollers, as the slaves called it, had been formed to keep the slaves in check and to oppose the abolitionists. By September, 1865, these secret organizations existed by the hundreds.
Joel A. Rogers than placed the following paragraph in italics:
“It is important to remember the year, 1865. The majority of historians assert that the purpose of these societies was to prevent Negro domination at the polls and ‘carpet bag’ rule. As was seen the Fourteenth Amendment did not become law until 1868, and the Fifteenth until 1870. The Thirteenth Amendment itself was not ratified until December 1865, nor did the Civil Rights Bill become law until April, 1866.
Joel A. Rogers then stated:
“How, then, could these klans have been formed for that purpose, at that time, when the freedmen could not vote, but was unarmed? As was mentioned in the introduction, the Encyclopedia Britannica itself gives the date of the formation of the KuKlux Klan ass 1865. In the Ku Klux Klan inquiry by Congress, in 1871, it developed that these secret societies had begun their outrages immediately after the war and that Negro suffrage had but served to intensify them. … “
In the Section: “Conduct of the Freedmen Immediately After the Close of the Civil War,” Rogers indicated:
“ … But the strongest testimony regarding the conduct of the Negroes came from their enemies as the following from the sworn testimony of Gen. Gordon, second in command of the Ku Klux:
‘Gen. Gordon … ‘One of the things which I mentioned and which Gen. Clanton also mentioned was the behavior of the Negroes during the war, the fact which when almost the entire white population old enough to bear arms was in the army, and large plantations were left to be managed by the women and children, not a single insurrection had occurred, not a life had been taken, and that, too, when the Federal armies were marching through the country with freedom, so to speak, on their banners.’ Question: ‘Scarcely an outrage occurred on the part of the Negroes at that time?’ Gen. Gordon: ‘Scarcely an outrage. When I made that speech at Montgomery I may say, without intending to compliment myself, that when I referred to the handsome behavior of the Negro during our absence in the army and his protection of our families at that time, my remarks were heartily responded to, and with great feeling by every man in the convention.’ Question: ‘Do you mean the colored men responded to them?’ Answer: ‘No, sir, I mean the white men in that convention.’ [Footnote: “U.S. Ku Klux Reports, Vol. VI, p. 320”]
Reconstruction: An Anthology of Revisionist Writings, Edited by Kenneth M. Stampp and Leon F. Litwack (Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge), 1969, copyright 1969 by Louisiana State University Press
THE AFRICAN HERITAGE IN WORLD HISTORY – ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY – THE FOUR EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS:
NILE RIVER VALLEY – AFRICA
TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALEY – THE MIDDLE EAST – SOUTHEN MESOPOTAMIA, SUMERIA
CHINESE (YANTZ) RIVER VALLEY
INDUS RIVER VALLEY – IDIA
- Harry G ood,History of Western Education and James D Teller, Third Edition (The Macmillan Company: Collier Macmillan Limited: Lndn)1947, 1960, 1969
Early man was ignorant, but his ability to learn, not his ignorance, was his most important characteristic. Man is permanently a learning animal. However, in the beginning what he learned died with him unless and until he was able to communicate it, which was possible only through language or gesture in direct and friendly contact with others. When men came togetjer in groups and, after centuries in settlement, communicatin became easier: it became in fact a form of unsystematic instruction, the earliest example of adult education. The young were inquisitive, and we shall assume, convinced that they could improve on the ways of their elders.
When more stable groups developed, traditions also began and became man’s earliest effort to preserve his history. As long as this was an oral record repeated around the campfire, it was constantly subject to additions and distortions. What was needed was a written record, the funding of experience so that it could be recovered at will, drawn like money from a bank or apples from a bin. This need was met by the evolution of writing and later by libraries, museums, galleries, and other collections. Schools to teach writing and libraries to preserve what was written were the earliest efforts to fund knowledge but we must not expect too much too soon. Writing has often been invented but it is more difficul to perfect it and to spread the art widely. We learn about the beginning of the writing art from the young science of archaeology, a study that began independently in France, England, Denmark, and elsewhere. Thomas Jefferson in 1784 excavated an Indian burial mound in Virginia and described its contents and their arrangement. He was so far an archaeologist . …
By a high civilization we mean first one that became relatively settled and permanent, in which villages developed and in time grew into towns and then cities. In cities and even in towns there were permanent buildings some of them for public use. Officials were chosen to make regulations, to maintain order within, and to guard against attacks from without. In cities specialized trade arose , the literary and fine arts were cultivated. And education arose but did not for a long period became a public interest.
The main fact is that civilization reached an advanced stage not over wide areas or at an equal pace but only in a few locations while all the rest of the world remained barbarous or savage.
There were only a few high civilizations and they arose in four places:
- in Egypt: in the river valley north of the Persian Gulf:
- in northern India on the Indus River:
- and in east central China on the Yellow River.” …
- Indus River Valley in India
- William Lee Miller, Arguing About Slavery: The Great Battle in the United States Congress (Alfred A Knopf, Inc: New York , ), 1996Lists the U.S. Presidents who were slaveholders from the American Revolutionary War to the Civil War and the pro-slavery arguments of various Senators and U.S. House of Representatives citing the African slaves as being black due to “Noah’s Curse” or “Hamitic Curse” as described in the Babylonian Talmud rabbinic interpretation of Genesis I – referring to the African slaves as the cursed “descendants of Ham” !
- Slavery in Greece and Rome
- White Slavery in Greece and Rome
- Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870 (Simon & Schuster:New York), 1997]
- Origins Of Slavery – Western Civilization’s First Slaves – Slavery In Greece And Rome:
- “Most settled societies at one time or another have employed forced labor; and most peoples, even the proud French, the effective germans, the noble English, the dauntless Spaniards and, perhaps above all, the poetical Russians, have experienced years of servitude.
- “Humanity is divided into two: the masters and the slaves.” Aristotle, Politics.
- “In the golden years of both Greece and Rome, slaves worked as domestic servants, in mines and in public works, in gangs, and individually, on farms, as well as in commerce and in cottage industries. They both managed and served in brothels, trading organizations, and workshops.
- There were slaves in Mycenae (1600 B.C.- 1100 B.C.) , and Ulysses had fifty female slaves in his palace. … Athens (600 B.C. – 100 B.C.) had in her heyday about 60,000 slaves. Her police force was a body of 300 Scythian archer slaves; her famous silver mines at Laurium employed over 10,000 slaves until a rebellion in 103 B.C. and 20 slaves – perhaps a quarter of those so employed – helped to build the Parthenon. The Athenians used slaves to fight for them at Marathon, even though they freed them first.
- “The Romans made use of slaves in all the categories employed by the Greeks, though they had many more domestic ones: a prefect in the days of the Emperor Nero might have 400 in his house alone. There may have been 2 million slaves in Italy at the end of the Republic. From the first century B.C. to the early Third century A.D., the use of these captives was the customary way in which prosperity was created.
- “That did not mean all these were equal: rural and urban domestic slaves lived different lives; a man working in a gang in the fields had a different life from one in a workshop in the city; some slaves practiced as doctors or lawyers, and others acted as majordomos to noblemen, or as shepherds in the hills. Cicero’s slave Tiro was a confidential secretary and was well educated; he even invented a shorthand named after himself.
- “Half a million captives seem to have been required every year in Rome during its most self-confident age – say, 50 B.C. to 150 A.D. The Roman state itself possessed innumerable: 700, for example, were responsible for maintaining the imperial city’s aqueducts. Perhaps one out of three members of the population was a slave during the early empire. One rich lady, Melania, is said to have liberated 8,000 slaves in the early 5th century A.D., when she decided to become a Christian ascetic.
- German, French and Saxon Slaves:
- “… Caesar, it will be recalled, brought many captives home to Rome from the Gallic Wars. Many Germans were enslaved in later centuries. Then Septimius Severus brought 100,000 captives home after defeating the Parthians at Ctesiphon. Fifteen thousand Gallic (French) slaves a year were exchanged for Italian wine in the first century B.C. …
- “FAIR GERMANS”
- Many slaves of old Rome were fair Germans, including Saxons: ‘The beautiful faces of the young slaves’ wrote Gibbon, ‘were covered with a medicated crust or ointment which secured them against the effects of the sun and frost.’ (Footnote: Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. VII (New York, 1907), 244]
- They must have been from northern Europe, perhaps from the historian’s own land.”
- Claude Nolan In Claude H. Nolen, in The Negro’s Image In The South: The Anatomy Of White Supremacy, indicated:
“Slavery needed no apology, apologists maintained, for when the Bible spoke, there was an end to controversy.
In the Old Testament, numerous passages testified to God’s approval of slavery and the very persons he singled out for his special regard, notably Abraham, were owners of slaves.
“Since Christ came to fulfill the law, not to destroy it, everything in the old precepts of the Apostles taught slaves to obey their masters.
In fact, said pro-slavery men, St. Paul’s warning to servants to obey their masters must have been called forth by the activities of Godless abolitionists.
Descendants of Ham face eternal damnation:
“According to those who searched the scriptures for arguments to use against Yankee abolitionists, slavery was an institution of Divine mercy.
But for that institution, millions of Ham’s descendants in the south would have faced eternal damnation, remaining strangers to the Gospel and knowing nothing of God.
So the Creator had blessed these savages by prompting southern Christians to become their masters.”
“ … In 1874 bitterly opposed as they wre to racial equality, white supremacists threatened to destroy the new system of public schools rather than see them integrated.
The demand of the Alabama press to abolish public schools in the event of the passage of (Senator) Sumner’s civil rights bill was practically unanimous.
The ‘little dirty, greasy, filthy, odoriferous descendants of Ham would be educated if at all, by their parents, not at white expense and in the same schools with Anglo-Saxon children. Whites would tear down with their own hands school buildings, sooner than submit.
If the bill became law, one editor said, the question would be ‘How to get rid of the Negro Race.’
[Footnote: Alabama Press on Civil Rights, in Carrollton West Alabamian, June 17, 1874
- Melvin Drimmer, Black History: A Reappraisal (Anchor Books: Doubleday & Company, Inc: Garden City, New York), 1968, 1969, pp. 253-254, that originally appeared in an article in a magazine “Independent” written by Theodore Tilton, August 20, 1863, concerning African slaves in America, the following statement by Frederick Douglass was quoted:
” … ‘Take any race (ethnic group/nationality) you please, French, English, Irish, or Scotch,’ said Frederick Douglass:
‘Subject them to slavery for ages – regard and treat them everywhere, every way, as property.
… Let them be loaded with chains, scarred with whip, branded with hot irons, sold in the market, kept in ignorance
… and I venture to say that the same doubt (“stigma”) would spring up concerning either of them, which now confronts the Negro.’ “