Nubian Dynasty 716-664 B.C.

Shabaka – 716-702 B.C.

Shebitku – 702-690 (Assyria – Ashurbanipal)

(Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-535 B.C.)

(597, Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, many Jews exiled – 587 B.C., Fall of Jerusalem, more Jews into exile)

Jewish archaeologist, Kathleen M. Kenyon, in “The Bible and Recent Archaeology” (1978, 1987) did indicate:

“We are on firmer ground in the relation between the Bible and archaeology when we turn south to review the archaeology of Palestine in the Late Bronze Age ( c. 1550 – 1200 B.C.) for here at this time not only did the inhabitants of the region call themselves “Canaanites,” but so did foreigners. Moreover, it is, whatever attitude is taken to the historical relevance of Genesis and Exodus, the background to the coming of the Israelites and the Philistines who did so much to transform the region in the last two centuries of the second millennium B.C.

In 1987, Professor Kenyon stated:

A… It is now largely agreed that the first organization of canaan into a political and commercial empire under egypt’s domination (was) … UNDER Thutmosis III ( C. 1479 – 1425 B.c.), whose campaigns in the east are among the best documentated in egyptian history.

A… IN THE 13TH AND EARLIER 12TH CENTURIES B.C., both textual and archaeological evidence may now increasingly be seen To indicate that egypt sharply tightened her military control, with increased numbers of Egyptian army and administrative personnel established in Canaan. In this phase more of almost every type of Egyptian object, and distinctive types of Egyptian architecture, as at Beth-Shan and Tells Farah (South), Hesi Jemmeh, Masos and esh-Sharia, appear in Palestine than in any comparable period in the Bronze Age.

A … in the mines of Serabit el-Khadim in Sinai, Egyptians and Asiatics worked together under the patronage of the egyptian goddess hathor, whose small temple at timna has yielded numerous votive offerings, some inscribed.

AThese suggest a major period of exploitation from at least the reign of Seti I ( c. 1306-1200 B.C. – the period of time historically attributed to the leadership of Moses and the Exodus) to that of Ramses VI ( c. 1156-1151 B.C. close to the period of time historically attributed to Rameses II). … ”



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  1. Robert Jastrow, The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe (Simon and Schuster: New York), 1981, pp. 20 21


  1. Stars and planets began to form nearly 20 billion years ago. Countless stars were formed before the sun and earth were born: many can still be seen forming in the sky today. … Man can trace his origins back to a cloud like this (picture), that condensed out of the gas and dust of the Galaxy 4.6 billion years ago. According to the scientist=s reconstruction of the story of Genesis, every grain of rock, every molecule of water, and every living thing on the surface of the earth is descended from the atoms of that parent cloud.@


The Fossil Book: A Record Of Prehistoric Life (With Over 1500 Illustrations), Carroll Lane Fenton & Mildred Adams Fenton (The Classic Work For Fossil Collectors And Enthusiasts Revised And Expanded By Patricia Vickers Rich, Thomas Hewitt Rich, And Mildred Adams Fenton (Doubleday: New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland), 1958, 1989

AFossils are remains or traces of organisms that lived during past geologic times and were buried in rocks that accumulated in the earth=s outer portion or crust.


AThe Earth=s History and the Rise of Life:John Reader, the Rise of Life: the First 3.5 Billion Years (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986:

The Earth=s History:AFor convenience of description and reference science has divided its account of the Earth=s history into four broad sections called eras, and named each according to the status of life at the time – as revealed by the fossil record.

Precambrian Era known as the Azoic:

Paleozoic Era

Mesozoic Era

Cenozoic Era

Going Back from the Present the Eras Are the Cenozoic Era, Meaning Recent Life

the Paleozoic Era, Early Life, and the Precambrian Era, Which Was Known as the Azoic.

By far the greatest part of the information available on the earth and life comes from the cenozoic era; less comes from the mesozoic, even less from the paleozoic, and least of all from the precambrian.

And Yet the Precambrian Encompasses Nearly 90 Percent of the Earth=s History, Stretching from 4.5 Billion Years Ago, When the Earth Condensed to Become Solid Planet, to 570 Million Years Ago, When the Fossil Evidence First Reveals Living Cells Combined in the Form of Multicellular Organisms. The Precambrian Era – So Vast, So Distant, So Veiled by the Knowledge of More Recent Times – Is Easiest to Imagine in Terms of What it Lacked, like a Distant Empty Desert Lying Beyond the Consciousness of a Dynamic City.

ABut Deserts Have Their Dynamics Too. For the First Thousand Million Years or So of the Precambrian Era These Dynamics Were Simply the Physical Forces of the Planet Itself, but Once Some Enigmatic Molecules Had Acquired the Knack of Replicating Themselves Around 3.5 Billion Years Ago, the Process of Life Became the Dynamic Force Most Responsible for the Way the Earth Looks Today. Without the Advent of Life the Earth Would Have Taken on an Entirely Different Aspect – Most Probably Resembling That of the Moon, or of Mars.

AThe Effects of Life on the Earth Have Been Accumulative, but Slow Moving. For the Best Part of its First 2.5 Billion Years Life Would Have Been micoscopic in Scale. A Host of Organisms, Each Barely One Thousandth of a Millimetre in Diameter, Teeming Through the Oceans and All the Awarm Little Ponds@of the World.

In the Introduction, Professor Reader Had Indicated: the Story of Life on Earth Begins with a Multitude of Very Simple organisms Swarming Through the Warm Seas That Covered a Good Deal of the Earth=s Surface Nearly Four Billion Years Ago. Organisms So Tiny That 100,000 of Them Might Comfortably Occupy the Space Within this O; Each a Single Independent Living Thing, a Cell, Made of Chemical Substances, Sustaining Itself on Chemical substancesAbsorbed Direct from the Water and Reproducing Itself by Enlarging a Little Then Splitting into Two. Where There Was One There Were Now Two Identical Cells, Then Four, Eight, Sixteen. A … These simple organisms were the basic units from which all forms of life have evolved – bacteria, plants, fish, reptiles, mammals and man, everything.   The essential ingredients and processes of life were already Present in every one of them. Through time, chance and changing Environmental circumstances directed the modifications that have produced today=s living world. [Reader 1986: 9]


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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