A VERY SIGNFICANT PERIOD OF AFRICAN EGYPTIAN HISTORY TO ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND WITH REGARD TO WHO DONE WHAT WHERE? …. IS THE FOLLOWING:

“African Egyptian influences:  African-Egyptian Documents and Literature:
– – – – – – – – – – The instruction for King Meri-Ka-Re, an extract from a work composed by an Egyptian pharaoh for the benefit of his son Meri-Ka-Re during the first intermediate period (2280 B.C. – remember the time of Abraham journey to Canaan from Ur of Chaldeas is c. 28000 B,C. !) ), indicated by Manetho’s 9th and 10th dynasties (2150 B.C. – 2080 B.C.),
Written on three surviving copies of the instruction:  in the hermitage museum in leningrad, b.  (2) in a Moscow museum, and  in the private possession of a scholar living in Switzerland.  … In the main it is concerned with right conduct and just dealings with one’s fellow men.  As indicated by t. W. Thacker:
“It illustrates the high moral plain that the egyptians had already attained by the time Abraham entered Egypt, and it shows also some of the religious and ethical concepts with which the early semitic migrants into Egypt would come into contac
“It is, of ourse, impossible to say to what extent these early visitors were influenced by Egyptian beliefss, but they may well have played some part in shaping the moral codes of the later inhabitants of Palestine
The first few sentences advising Meri-Ka-Re to act justly and to protect the oppressed find their parallel in the utterances of the great 8th century b.c. prophets of Israel:
“Thus Isaiah says: “Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow (i. 17).
“Jeremiah also says: – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – –  — “Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place= (xxii. 3).  In psalm lxxxii. 3f, we read: – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — ‘judge the poor and fatherless; do justice to the afflicted and destitute.  Rescue the poor and needy: deliver them out of the hand of the wicked.”
2200-2050 b.c.
The Middle Kingdom (c. 2050 B.C. – 1800 B.C.)
(1490 b.c. – 1436 B/C/) – 15th century B.C.
Thutmose III (1490 b.c. – 1436 b.c.) and egyptian influence in the Mediterranean region
Joseph – high position under a Hyksos king:
(c. 1800 B.C.- 1570 B.C.), – Hyksos rule of Egypt – Joseph:
“During the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1800 B.C. – 1570 B.C.), the Hyksos, a mixed but preponderantly Semitic people   (supposedly descendants of Shem, one of Noah’s sons – actually a Canaanite people ), invaded Egypt from Palestine about 1720 B.C.  they easily conquered the Delta (Lower Eghypt)  and made the rest of Egypt tributary.
“It was probably at this time that the Hebrew Joseph, if he existed historically, whowas said to have risen to a high position said to have beenunder a Hyksos king, had invited his relatives to settle in the delta (athe land of goshen during a famine.”

Now back to the African Egyptian Presence In The Middle East

The middle kingdom pharaohs promoted the welfare of the downtrodden
“Know n as the First Intermediate Period (c.2200 B.C.- 2050 B.C.),
“ ‘Civil war raged among contenders for the throne.  Outsiders raided and infiltrated the land.  The lot of the common people became unbearable as they faced famine, robbery, and oppression by petty tyrants.
‘All happiness has vanished,wrote a contemporary.’ I show you the land in turmoil, … Each man’s heart is for himself. … A man sits with his back turned, while one slays another.’
The Middle Kingdom (c. 2050 B.C. – 1800 B.C.):
The authors continue:
“Egypt was rescued from anarchy by the pharaohs of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties, who reunited the country and ruled from thebes.  Stressing their role as watchful shepherds of the people, the middle kingdom pharaohs promoted the welfare of the downtrodden.
One of them claimed:
– – – – — – – – – – – – – ‘I gave to the destitute and brought up the orphan.  I caused him who was nothing to reach [his goal], like him who was [somebody].
———————
Fifteen hundred years earlier, thet African Egyptian pharaoh stated:
‘do justice … Oppress not the widow. … Do not kill: it shall not profit thee.  It is the mild man who … A lifetime.’  [the leningrad papyrus]
W. Thacker stated:
‘the second paragraph is concerned with life after death and is one of the most remarkable utterances that have survived from ancient Egypt. … The Egyptians held that – – – –  – – – –  – – not merely a man’s soul, but also his personality and whatever other attributes go to make up the individual, lived on after death.  In order that they should do so it was necessary that the physical body should be preserved in its entirety. … The fourth dynasty pyramids and the royal tombs hewn in the cliffs of thebes by the rulers of the 18th dynasty are examples of the lengths to which Egyptian kings would go to preserve the body.@
First intermediate period (c. 2200 B.C. – 2050 B.C.):
In Civilization past & Present, ed. T. Walter Wallbank, Alastair M. Taylor, Nels M. Bailkey, George F. Jewsbury, Clyde J. Lewis, Neil J. Hackett (Scott, Foresman and Company: Glenview, Illinois; London, England), 1987, p.15, it was indicated:
“for about a century and a half,  civil war raged among contenders for the throne.  Outsiders raided and infiltrated the land.  The lot of the common people became unbearable as they faced famine, robbery, and oppression by petty tyrants
‘All happiness has vanished,’  wrote a contemporary. ‘I show you the land in turmoil, … Each man’s heart is for himself. … A man sits with his back turned, while one slays another.’ [The Middle Kingdom (2050 B.C. – 1800 B.C..):
The authors continue:
“Egypt was rescued from anarchy by the pharaohs of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties, who reunited the country and ruled from thebes.  Stressing their role as watchful shepherds of the people, the middle kingdom pharaohs promoted the welfare of the downtrodden.
One of them claimed:
– – – – – – – – – – –  – – ‘I gave to the destitute and brought up the orphan.  I caused him who was nothing to reach [his goal, like him who was somebody.’
Second Intermediate Period (c. 1800 B.C. – 1570 B.C.):
The authors’ versio of the Hebrew presence in Egypt:
“Following the Twelfth dynasty, Egypt again was racked by civil war as provincial governors fought for the pharaohs throne.  During this second intermediate period (c. 1800 – 1570 b.c.), the Hyksos, a mixed but preponderantly semitic people, invaded egypt from palestine about 1720 b.c.  they easily conquered the delta and made the rest of egypt tributary.  It was probably at this time that the Hebrew Joseph, who had risen to a high position under a Hyksos king, invited his relatives to settle in the delta (athe land of Goshen) during a famine.
“The Egyptians viewed the Hyksos conquest as a great humiliation imposed on them by detested barbarians.
An aggressive nationalism emerged, promoted by the native prince of Thebes who proclaimed:
‘No man can settle down, when despoiled by the taxes of the Asiatics. (said to be used by the Ancient Egyptian – not Asians as we know them today:  Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, etc. but nomadic Canaanite tribes).  The Pharaoh stated:    I will grapple with him, thatI I may rip open his belly!  My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatics!
“Adopting the new weapons introduced by their conquerors–the composite bow, constructed of wood and horn, and the horse-drawn chariot–the Egyptians (under Pharaoh Kamose and Aamose) expelled the hyksos and pursued them into Palestine.  The pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty, who reunited Egypt and founded the new kingdom, made Palestine the nucleus of an Egyptian empire in western Asia.
Thutmose III (1490 B.C. – 1436 B.C..) and Egyptian influence in the Mediterranean region:
“The outstanding representative of the aggressive state that Egypt now became was Thutmose III (1490 b.c. – 1436 B.C.). … This ‘Napoleon of Egypt’ led his professional standing army on 17 campaigns into Syria, where he set up his boundary markers on the banks of the Euphrates. … T
“The native princes of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria were left on their thrones, but their sons were taken to Egypt as hostages.  Here they were brought up and, thoroughly egyptianized, eventually sent home to rule as loyal vassals.
Thutmose III erected obelisks – tall, pointed shafts of stone – to commemorate his reign and to record his wish that >his name might endure throughout the future forever and ever.  Four of his obelisks now adorn the cities of Istanbul, Rome, London, and New York.
Michael Grant in The History of Ancient Israel (1993) stated
re: Egypt and the name of Thutmose III
“Enduring throughout the future forever and ever and the failure of Jewish writers of the Hebrew Old Testament to acknowledge his and the presence of Africans in in the Levant – Canaan – what is now the modern state of Israel
Cheikh Anta Diop:
“It is important to first show that in the sixteenth century B.C.., The Eighteenth Egyptian dynasty, under Thutmose III (1504 B.C. – 1450 B.C.) In particular, had effectively conquered the whole eastern Mediterranean (Crete, Cyprus, the Cyclades, etc.) and all of Western Asia (Hatti,or the Hittite country (Anatolia), Mitanni, Amourrou, Kadesh, Syria, the country of Akkad, and Babylonia).  In total, according to Thutmose III’s Hymn Of Triumph, written in verse and engraved on the poetic stela at Karnak, facing Thebes in Upper Egypt, 110 foreign states were conquered and integrated to different degrees into the Egyptian empire.  During the fifteenth through the Thirteenth centuries b.c. Syro-Palestinian kings were tribute-paying vassals of Egypt, and the pharaohs of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties undertook frequent military campaigns to punish cities whose rulers rebelled.  Egyptian governors watched over the area, and some cities contained small garrisons of Egyptian troops. [footnote: Drower 1973: 467-483; Albright 1975a: 102-107; Redford 1985: 192-194; Margaret Drower, Assyria c. 1500-1400 B.C.,in Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd edition, Volume II, part I, edited by I.E.S. Edwards, et al. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge), 1973; William Foxwell Albright, The Amarna Letters From Palestine, in The Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd edition, volume ii, part 2, chapter XX, edited by i. E. S. Edwards, et al. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge), 1975.”
=====================
Donald B. Redford, Akhenaton: the Heretic King (Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey), 1984]
“So complete was Egyptian control that when a babylonian baggage train was attacked by bandits in canaan during the amarna period, the babylonian king complained to the egyptian pharaoh, holding him responsible and demanding that he pay compensation! [footnote: Knudtzon 1915: no. 8, lines 16-29: j. A. Knudtzon, die el-amarna tafeln, 2 volumes (hinrichs:  leipzig), 1915]
“Yet the books of Joshua and Judges do not mention Egyptian activities in Canaan or conflicts between Israel and Egyptian troops after the crossing of the Yam Suph.  How could the Israelites have destroyed cities and taken control of much of the land of canaan in the fourteenth century b.c. Without a major military confrontation with the armies of egypt?  Why do accounts of the judges correctly preserve descriptions of the various peoples of syria-
Palestine (AMORITES, CANAANITES, HURRIANS, AMMONITES, AND THE PHILISTINES, FOR EXAMPLE)  YET TOTALLY IGNORE THE EGYPTIANS, WHO CONTROLLED THE MAJOR CITIES AND ROADS THROUGHOUT THAT AREA?
– – – – – – – – – – – – -“ … In recent years most scholars have rejected a fifteenth century B.C. date for the Exodus.  Clearly, the picture of palestine in the books of joshua and judges agrees much better with the chaotic situation at the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the iron age (c. 1200 b.c. -1050 b.c.) – when >everyone did what was right in his own sight (judges 17:1) – than it does with the earlier era of Egyptian control over Canaan.”

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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