PARALLELS BETWEEN OLD TESTAMENT – KING JAMES VERSION – THE HEBREW BIBLE … AND ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LITERATURE:
WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS?
WAS IT ABRAHAM AND HIS TRIBES AFTER THEY MIGRATED TO CANAAN?
WAS IT THE ISRAELITE JACOB, ISAAC, AND JOSEPH AND TRIBES UNDER THEM?
WAS IT THE ISRAELITE SETTLERS IN ANCIENT EGYPT AFTER ISAAC AND JOSEPH’S BROTHERS MOVED TO ANCIENT EGYPT?
WAS IT UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF MOSES WHO THEN LED THEM OUT OF ANCIENT EGYPT BACK TO CANAAN IN WHAT IS REFERRRED TO AS THE “EXODUS”?
OR WAS IT THE AFRICAN ANCIENT EGYPTIANS?
[NOTE: THE DESCRIPTION OF THE HEBREW / ISRAELITE PEOPLE AS “JEWS” DID NOT OCCUR UNTIL AFTER THE BABYLONIAN EXILE WHEN THE HEBREW / ISRAELITE PEOPLE WERE UNDER ROMAN RULE IN THE ROMAN PROVINCE OF JUDAEA – ‘Encyclopedia Wikipedia: “Not to be confused with the geographical region of Judea.
|Province of the Roman Empire|
|Prefects before 41, Procurators after 44|
|–||26–36 CE||Pontius Pilate|
|–||64-66 CE||Gessius Florus|
|–||117 CE||Lusius Quietus|
|–||130-132 CE||Tineius Rufus|
|King of the Jews|
|Historical era||Roman Principate|
|–||Census of Quirinius||6 CE|
|–||Crisis under Caligula||37–41 CE|
|–||Incorporation of Galilee and Peraea||44 CE|
|–||Destruction of the Second Temple||August 4, 70 CE|
|–||Bar Kokhba revolt||132–135 CE 135 CE|
|Today part of||Israel Jordan Palestine|
|Before August 4, 70 is referred to as Second Temple Judaism, from which the Tannaim and Early Christianity emerged.|
The Roman province of Judea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian Yehûḏāh; Arabic: يهودا; Greek: Ἰουδαία; Latin: IVDAEA), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Judæa, Judaea or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the geographical regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. It was named after Herod Archelaus‘s Tetrarchy of Judea, of which it was an expansion, the latter name deriving from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE.
Judea province was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius and several wars were fought in its history, known as the Jewish-Roman wars. The Temple was destroyed in 70 as part of the Great Jewish Revolt resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus, and after Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.[2”
“Egyptian Literature”: “During the Middle Kingdom literature began to flourish, particularly folk tales and collections of proverbs. ONE NARRATIVE OF IMPORTANCE WAS
THE “TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS”
WHICH HAS STRIKING RESEMBLANCES TO THE BIBLICAL STORY OF JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN.
THE STORY OF JOSEPH AND HIS BROTHERS:
Genesis Chapters 37-50 has the story of Joseph in Egypt. Joseph is commonly cited as a Christ type in the story. Joseph is a very special son to his father.
From his father’s perspective Joseph dies and then comes back to life as the ruler of Egypt. Actually Joseph’s brothers deceive their father by dipping his coat in the blood of a sacrificed animal. Later Joseph’s father finds that not only is Joseph alive but he also is the ruler of Egypt that saves the world of his day from a great famine. …
Joseph (Hebrew: יוֹסֵף , Standard Yosef TiberianYôsēp̄; “May Yahweh add”; Arabic: يوسف,Yūsuf) is an important person in the Hebrew Bible: his story connects the story of Abraham,Isaac and Jacob in Canaan to the subsequent story of the liberation of the Israelites from slaveryin Egypt.
The Book of Genesis tells that Joseph was the 11th of Jacob‘s 12 sons and Rachel‘s firstborn,and tells how Joseph came to be sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, and rose to become the second most powerful man in Egypt next toPharaoh.
|Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law by Rembrandt|
|Born||Goshen, Lower Egypt|
|Died||Mount Nebo, Moab|
|Other names||משה רבנו (Moses our Rabbi), Moshe|
|Parent(s)||Amram (father) Jochebed (mother)|
|Relatives||Aaron (brother) Miriam (sister)|
Moses (/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/; Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה, Modern Moshe Tiberian Mōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše; Syriac: ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; Arabic: موسى Mūsā; Greek: Mωϋσῆς Mōÿsēs in both the Septuagint and the New Testament) is a prophet in Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was a former Egyptian prince who later in life became a religious leader and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, lit. “Moses our Teacher”), he is the most important prophet in Judaism. He is also an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths.
The existence of Moses, as well as the veracity of the Exodus story, is disputed among archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence, and related origin myths in Canaanite culture. Other historians maintain that the biographical details and Egyptian background attributed to Moses imply the existence of a historical political and religious leader who was involved in the consolidation of the Hebrew tribes in Canaan towards the end of the Bronze Age.”
BLACK AFRICAN ANCIENT EGYPTIANS AND THE BUILDING OF THE PYRAMIDS:
Who Built the Pyramids?
- Egyptologists and historians have long debated the question of who built the Pyramids, and how. Standing at the base of the Pyramids at Giza it is hard to believe that any of these enormous monuments could have been built in one pharaoh’s lifetime. Yet scholars think they were built over mere decades for three pharaohs who were father, son, and grandson (Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure).
Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass agree wholeheartedly: Egyptians built the Pyramids. But who were they exactly? Enlarge Photo credit: © Ugurhan Betin/iStockphoto
Egyptologists Mark Lehner and Zahi Hawass have been trying to solve the puzzle of where the 20,000 or 30,000 laborers who are thought to have built the Pyramids lived. Ultimately, they hope to learn more about the workforce, their daily lives, and perhaps where they came from. In the meantime, Lehner has been excavating the bakeries that presumably fed this army of workers, while Hawass has been unearthing the cemetery for this grand labor force.
The two scholars believe that Giza housed a skeleton crew of workers who labored on the Pyramids year-round. But during the late summer and early autumn months, when the Nile flooded surrounding fields, a large labor force would appear at Giza to put in time on the Pyramids. These farmers and local villagers gathered at Giza to work for their god-kings, to build their monuments to the hereafter. This would ensure their own afterlife and would also benefit the future and prosperity of Egypt as a whole. They may well have been willing workers, a labor force working for ample rations, for the benefit of man, king, and country.” – http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/who-built-the-pyramids.html
THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SOURCE:
Dr. Cyrus Gordon also discusses “The Tale of the Two Brothers” paralled in Genesis 1 by the Biblical story of Cain and Abel and Joseph and Potiphar’s wife, and from the Homeric epic, the virtuous Bellerophon and the lecherous Ariteta “and accordingly part of the ancient East Mediterranean repertoire.
Because of the Egyptian location wherein the scene is staged, it is not impossible to detect in the biblical tale of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife a more recent echo of the very old Egyptian fable of the two brothers Bata and Anpu [ [
Source of the text:
- P. D’Orbiney (P. Brit. Mus. 10183); it is claimed that the papyrus was written towards the end of the 19th dynasty by the scribe Ennana. It was acquired by the British Museum in 1857. [Encyclopedia Wikipedia]
THE TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS:
The Tale of Two Brothers is an ancient Egyptian story that dates from the reign of Seti II, who ruled from 1200 to 1194 BC during the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. The story is preserved on the Papyrus D’Orbiney, which is currently preserved in the British Museum.
The story centers around two brothers; Anpu, also called Anubis, the elder, who is married and looks after the younger Bata. The brothers work together, farming land and raising cattle. One day, Anpu’s wife attempts to seduce Bata, but he rejects her advances. The wife then tells her husband that his brother attempted to seduce her. In response to this, Anpu attempts to kill Bata, who flees and prays to Re-Harakhti to save him. The god creates a crocodile-infested lake between the two brothers, across which Bata is finally able to appeal to his brother and share his side of the events. To emphasize his sincerity, Bata severs his genitalia and throws them into the water, where a catfish eats them.
Bata states that he is going to the Valley of the Cedar, where he will place his heart on the top of the blossom of a cedar tree, so that if it is cut down Anpu will be able to find it and allow Bata to become alive again. Bata tells Anpu that if he is ever given a jar of beer that froths, he should know to seek out his brother. After hearing of his brother’s plan, Anpu returns home and kills his wife. Meanwhile, Bata is establishing a life in the Valley of the Cedar, building a new home for himself. Bata comes upon the Ennead, or the principal Egyptian deities, who take pity on him. Khnum, the god who is frequently depicted in Egyptian mythology as having fashioned humans on a potters’ wheel, creates a wife for Bata. Because of her divine creation, Bata’s wife is sought after by the pharaoh. When he succeeds in bringing her to live with him, she tells him to cut down the tree in which Bata has put his heart. They do so, and Bata dies.
Anpu then receives a frothy jar of beer, and sets off to the Valley of the Cedar. He searches for his brother’s heart for more than three years, finding it at the beginning of the fourth year. He follows Bata’s instructions and puts the heart in a bowl of cold water, and as predicted, Bata is resurrected. He then takes the form of a bull and goes to see his wife and the pharaoh. His wife, aware of his presence as a bull, asks the pharaoh if she may eat his liver. The bull is then sacrificed, and two drops of Bata’s blood fall, from which grow two Persea trees. Bata, now in the form of a tree, again addresses his wife, and again she appeals to the pharaoh to cut down the Persea trees and use them to make furniture. As this is happening, a splinter ends up in the wife’s mouth, impregnating her. She eventually gives birth to a son, whom the pharaoh ultimately makes crown prince. When the pharaoh dies, the crown prince (a resurrected Bata) becomes king, and he appoints his elder brother Anpu as crown prince. The story ends happily, with the brothers at peace with one another and in control of their country.
There are several themes present in the Tale of Two Brothers that are significant to ancient Egyptian culture. One of these is kingship. The second half of the tale deals largely with Egyptian ideas of kingship and the connection between divinity and the pharaoh. That Bata’s wife ultimately ends up pregnant with him is a reference the duality of the role of women in pharaonic succession; the roles of wife and mother were often simultaneous. Also, the divine aspect of his wife’s creation could be seen to serve as legitimacy for the kingship of Bata, especially since he was not actually the child of the pharaoh. Beyond this, Bata’s closeness with the Ennead in the middle of the story also serves to legitimize his rule; the gods bestowed divine favor upon Bata in his time of need.
There are also several references to the separation of Egypt into two lands. Throughout ancient Egyptian history, even when the country is politically unified and stable, it is acknowledged that there are two areas: Lower Egypt, the area in the north including the Nile Delta, and Upper Egypt, the area to the south. In the beginning of the story, Bata is referred to as unique because there was “none like him in the entire land, for a god’s virility was in him.” Additionally, whenever one of the brothers becomes angry, they are said to behave like an “Upper Egyptian panther,” or, in another translation, like “a cheetah of the south.”
Interpretation and analysis:
There are several issues to consider when analyzing ancient Egyptian literature in general, and the Tale of Two Brothers is no different. It should be noted that one difficulty of analyzing the literature of ancient Egypt is that “such scarcity of sources gives to the observation of any kind of historical development within Ancient Egyptian literature a highly hypothetical status and makes the reconstruction of any intertextual networks perhaps simply impossible.” Loprieno notes that the euhemeristic theory is often successfully employed in the analysis of ancient Egyptian literature; this the historiocentric method of analyzing literature as it pertained to political events.
With relation to the Tale of Two Brothers, Susan Tower Hollis also advocates this approach, saying that the story might “contain reflexes of an actual historical situation.” Specifically, Hollis speculates that the story might have had its origins in the succession dispute following Merneptah‘s reign at the beginning of the 13th century BC. When Merneptah died, Seti II was undoubtedly the rightful heir to the throne, but he was challenged by Amenmesse, who ruled for at least a few years in Upper Egypt, although Seti II ultimately ruled for six full years.