Microsoft Encarta Interactive World Atlas 2001 Indicated:

 Scientists Believe That about 4.7 Billion Years Ago, a Swirling Interstellar Cloud of                      Gas and Dust Began to Fragment and Form Clusters That Eventually Coalesced into the Sun, Earth, and the Other Planets.”

 Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, General Editor James Trefil, and Contributing

Editors Harold Morowitz, and Paul Ceruzzi, (Routledtge: New York, London), 2001 Indicated in a Section:   “Oceans, Origin and Evolution Of”:


The Origin of the Oceans, Which Cover More than Three-quarters of Earth=s Surface, Dates Back to Earths Formation 4.6 Billion Years Ago.”

 Time Magazine, The Century’s Greatest Minds – physicist Albert Einstein, March 29, 1999:

 “Albert Einstein Discovered, Just by Thinking about It, the Essential Structure of the Cosmos. The Scientific Touchstones of Our Age – the Bomb, Space Travel, Electronics – All Bear His Fingerprints. In 1916 Einstein Proposes General Theory of Relativity and Is Proved Correct Three Years Later. In 1939 Einstein Urges Franklin D. Roosevelt to Develop the Atom Bomb.   … Humanity Was Standing on a Brink, Ready to See Something New. It Was Einstein Who Saw It. Space and Time Were Not Apples and Oranges, He Realized, but Mates – Joined, Homologous, Inseparable.@

 Time Magazine, A”person of the Century: Albert Einstein: 1879-1955,”@ and A”a Brief History of Relativity@ by Stephen Hawkins (Awhat Is It? How Does it Work? Why Does it Change Everything? An Easy Primer by the World’s Most Famous Living Physicists,” December 31, 1999:

 Professor Stephen Hawking Was Quoted as Having Stated:

 “ … the Theory of Relativity Is Now Completely Accepted by the Scientific Community, and its Predictions Have Been Verified in Countless Applications. … Einstein=s General Theory of Relativity Transformed Space and Time from a Passive Background in Which Events Take Place to Active Participants Inthe Dynamics of the Cosmos. … Einstein Found That His Equations   Didn=t Have a

Solution That Described a Universe That Was Unchanging in Time. … If Einstein Had Stuck with His Original Equations, He Could Have Predicted That the Universe must Be Either Expanding or Contracting.”

 The History of the Planet Earth:

 Robert Jastrow, in Enchanted Loom (Simon and Schuster: New York), 1981, in Chapter 1: “Across the Threshold of Life,” Discussed:   The Formation of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Humans:

 The Sudden Beginning of the Universe and of Every Star, Every Planet and  Every Living Creature in the Universe ‑ the Formation of the Sun, Earth, Moon, And Humans,”


 “Scientific Discoveries of the Last Decades Have Created a New Explanation for the Appearance of Man on the Earth. In the Scientist’s Version of Genesis, as in the Bible, the World Begins with the Dazzling Splendor of the Moment of Creation.   Afew Astronomers Could Have Anticipated That this Event ‑ the Sudden Birth of the Universe ‑ Would Become a Proven Scientific Fact, but Observations of the Heavens Through Telescopes Have Forced Them to That Conclusion.


“The First Scientific Indication of an Abrupt Beginning for the World Appeared about Fifty Years Ago. At That Time, American Astronomers,

Studying the Great Clusters of Stars Called Galaxies, Stumbled on Evidence

That the Entire Universe Is Blowing up Before Our Eyes. According to Their Observations, All the Galaxies in the Universe Are Moving Away

From Us and from One Another at Very High Speeds, and the Most

Distant Are Receding at Extraordinary Speeds of Hundreds of Millions of Miles an Hour.

 The Birth of the Universe:

 “This Discovery Led Directly to the Picture of a Sudden Beginning for The Universe; for If We Retrace the Movements of the Expanding Galaxies Backward in Time, We Find That at an Earlier Time They must Have Been Closer Together than They Are Today; at a Still Earlier Time, They must Have Been Still Closer Together; and If We Go Back Far Enough in Time, We Find That at a Certain Critical Moment in the Past, All the Galaxies in The Universe Were Packed Together into One Dense Mass, at an Enormous Pressure and Temperature. Reacting to this Pressure, the Dense, Hot Matter must Have Exploded with Incredible Violence. The Instant of the Explosion Marked the Birth of the Universe. The Seed of Everything That Has Happened in the Universe Was Planted in That First Instant; Every Star, Every Planet and Every Living Creature in the Universe Came into Being as A Result of Events That Were Set in Motion in the Moment of the Cosmic Explosion. It Was Literally the Moment of Creation.

 When Did it Happen? When Did the Universe Explode into Being?

Calculations Based on the Present Positions of Galaxies Show That this

Great Event Occurred Twenty Billion Years Ago. Twenty Billion Years Is

The Age of the Universe, According to the Astronomers. This Is a Very

Long Time.


The Age of the Sun and the Earth and Life on Earth:

 “The Sun and the Earth Have Only Existed for Four and a Half

Billion Years, and Life Has Been on the Earth for Even less Time than That. The Age of Humans: Ahumanity Has Existed on Our Planet for Only One Million Years, Which Is less than One Ten‑thousandth as Long as The Age of the Universe.

 “These Intervals of Time Begin to Place Man’s Existence in a Cosmic Perspective. Astronomers Have Been Working on Bits and Pieces of this Remarkable Story for Years, Little Dreaming That They Were Making Contributions to a New and Updated Version of the Book of Genesis.

 “Many Details of the Scientific Account Differ from Those in the Bible; in Particular, the Age of the Universe Appears to Be Far Greater than the 6000 Years of the Biblical Genesis; but the Essential Feature Is the Same in Both Stories.

 There Was a Beginning, and All Things in the Universe Can Be Traced Back to It.


“The Earth’s History and the Rise of Life:

 John Reader, the Rise of Life: the First 3.5 Billion Years (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986:


the Earth=s History:

 “For Convenience of Description and Reference Science Has Divided its Account of the Earth’s History into Four Broad Sections Called Eras, and Named Each According to the Status of Life at the Time – as Revealed by the Fossil Record.


Precambrian Known as the Azoic:







Going Back from the Present the Eras Are


the Cenozoic, Meaning Recent Life,

the Mesozoic, Middle Life,

the Paleozoic, Early Life, and

the Precambrian, Which Was Known as the Azoic.

 by Far the Greatest Part of the Information Available on the Earth and Life Comes from the Cenozoic Era; less Comes from the Mesozoic, Even less From the Paleozoic, and Least of All from the Precambrian. And Yet the

Precambrian Encompasses Nearly 90 Percent of the Earth’s History,

Stretching from 4.5 Billion Years Ago, When the Earth Condensed to Become

A Solid Planet, to 570 Million Years Ago, When the Fossil Evidence First

Reveals Living Cells Combined in the Form of Multicellular Organisms. The Precambrian Era – So Vast, So Distant, So Veiled by the Knowledge of More Recent Times – Is Easiest to Imagine in Terms of What it Lacked, like a Distant Empty Desert Lying Beyond the Consciousness of a Dynamic City.

 Pre-cambrian Era:

“but Deserts Have Their Dynamics Too. For the First Thousand Million Years or So of the Precambrian Era These Dynamics Were Simply the Physical Forces of the Planet Itself, but Once Some Enigmatic Molecules Had Acquired the Knack of Replicating Themselves Around 3.5 Billion Years Ago, the Process of Life Became the Dynamic Force Most Responsible For the Way the Earth Looks Today. Without the Advent of Life the Earth Would Have Taken on an Entirely Different Aspect – Most Probably Resembling That of the Moon, or of Mars.

“The Effects of Life on the Earth Have Been Accumulative, but Slow Moving. For the Best Part of its First 2.5 Billion Years Life Would Have Been Micoscopic in Scale. A Host of Organisms, Each Barely One Thousandth of a millimetre in Diameter, Teeming Through the Oceans and All the “Warm Little Ponds”of the World.


The Geological Time Scale


Geologic Time Scale:

 590 Million Years Ago to Present:


Paleozoic Era: 590 ‑ 250


Cambrian Period ‑ 590 ‑500

Ordovician Period ‑ 500 ‑440

Silurian Period ‑ 440 ‑ 410

Devonian Period ‑ 410 ‑ 360

Carboniferous ‑ 360 ‑ 290

Mississippian ‑ 360 ‑ 325

Pennsylvanian ‑ 325 ‑ 290

Permian Period ‑ 290 ‑ 250


Mesozoic Era: 250 ‑ 67


Triassic Period ‑ 250 ‑ 210

Jurassic Period ‑ 210 ‑ 140

Cretaceous Period ‑ 140 ‑ 67


Cenozoic Era: 67 ‑ .01 Million Years


Tertiary Period ‑ 67 ‑ 1.7

 Paleocene Epoch ‑ 67 ‑ 55 (12 Milion Years)

Eocene Epoch ‑ 55 ‑ 37 (18 Million Years)

Oligocene Epoch ‑ 37 ‑ 24 (13 Million Years)

 Miocene Epoch ‑ 24 ‑ 5 (21 Million Years)



80 Million Years Ago:

 Mesozoic Era – Cretaceous Period:


North America:

 Late Cretaceous and Paleocene Age:

Cretaceous Period ‑ 140 ‑ 67

 Paleocene Epoch ‑ 67 ‑ 55 (12 Milion Years)


The Fossil Record Begins in

 North America:

 The Upper Cretaceous, about 80 Million Years Ago.


A Few Fossil Teeth Characteristic of Tree Shrews Have Been Found in North American Deposits of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene Age.



 Paleocene Epoch and Eocene Epochs:


Paleocene Epoch ‑ 67 ‑ 55 (12 Milion Years)

Eocene Epoch ‑ 55 ‑ 37 (18 Million Years)

Oligocene Epoch ‑ 37 ‑ 24 (13 Million Years)


Similar Remains That Resemble Modern Lemurs Have Been Found in Paleocene and Eocene Deposits in Western North America and Europe.

 Eocene, Oligocene and Early Miocene Epochs:


North America and Europe:


Several Kinds of Primates Related to the Tarsier Lived in Europe and North America During the Eocene, Oligocene, and Early Miocene Epochs.


Primates up to the African Proconsul:

 From Mammals to Homo Sapiens:


Class: Mammalia


Order:    Primates


226-227: All Primates That Do Not Belong to the New World Group, the Platyrrhini, Belong to the Much More Varied Old World Group, the Catarrhini (‘Hanging Noses’). These Consist of Two Superfamilies the Hominoidea (Hominoids) … and the Cercopithecoidea (‘Apes with Tails’)–the Monkeys of Africa and Asia. The Earliest Homoinds:   the Lothidok Species in Northern Kenya Is Dated by K-ar to the Early Miocene Between 20 and 19 Million Years Ago, and the Lothidok Species, Proconsul Hamiltoni, Is Possibly 6 Million Years Older, Is the Earliest Known Hominoid.




suborder:    Catarrhini



Primate Evolution:




Large Bodied Hominoids




Cenozoic Era:   67 ‑ .01 Million Years Ago


Cenozoic Era: 67 Mya ‑ 5 Mya ‑ 1.7 Mya ‑ .01 Mya





Miocene Epoch: 21 Mya


Eocene Epoch: 18 Mya



Eocene Era:Primate Evolution:


55 Million Years Ago:Eocene Primates (55-34 (M.y.a.)

Oligocene Primates (Er-22.5 Mya)Miocene Primates (22.5-5 Mya): Hominoids:Plio-pleistocene Hominids:




Family:   Hominidae

 “Hominids: 230:

The First Europeans:

 BBC News, Sci/tech, Afossils May Be >First Europeans,= May 11, 2000 Reported the Discovery of remains of What May Be the Earliest Human Ancestors to Migrate from Africa into Europe That Were Found in the Republic of Georgia@ and Reported in the Journal Science.


This Is the First Proof for the Presence of Humans Outside of Africa at this Time,’ David

Lordkipanidze, at the Republic of Georgia State Museum in Tbilisi, Told the Bbc. >This Is

Most Significant.=


The Georgian, German, French and Ameican Scientists Involved in the Latest Discovery

Believe this Tool Evidence – Stone Tools Found with the Dmanisi Fossils Are of the less

Sophisticated >Oldowan= or >Pebble-chopper= Type That Preceded Acheulean Technology

– More than 1,000 Such Artefacts Were Recovered – That this Tool Evidence Overturns The Idea That a More Sophisticated Rechnology Was Required to Survive the Rigours of Migration .


Commenting on the Paper, Dr. Chris Stringer, of the Natural History Museum in London,

An Expert on the >Out of Africa Theory of Modern Human Origins, Said it Is Doubtful That the Dmanisi Hominids Were Our Direct Ancestors.


The Line That These People Gave Rise to May Have Died out as Recently as 50,000 Years Ago in the Far East, He Told the BBC


… We’re Descended from Similar People Who Stayed in Africa, Africa in a Sense Kept Pumping out Migrations and Dispersals of People and this Included People like the Neanderthals Who, Equally, it Doesn=t Seem Were Our Ancestors. The Ancestors of Modern Humans May Have Left Africa Only in the Last 100,000 Years.

[ ]



About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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