LEON ABRAMS, JR., INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY,PATRICIA THOMPSON, GENERAL EDITOR (GLOBE BOOK COMPANY: NEW YORK, CANADA), 1976 CHAPTER 8: HUMANKIND: ONE RACE OR MANY? WHY DO HUMANS HAVE DIFFERENT SKIN COLORS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES? WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR? THE ROLE OF MELANIN

PREFACE:   ” Anthropologist reject unscientific explanations for skin colors. BUT … THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY WHITE MEN ARE WHITE, BLACK MEN, BLACK, AND RED MEN RED. THEY HAVE FOUND THE EXPLANATION IN A COLOR-MAKING CHEMICAL, CALLED MELANIN.”

=======…

  LEON ABRAMS, JR., INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY,PATRICIA THOMPSON, GENERAL EDITOR (GLOBE BOOK COMPANY: NEW YORK, CANADA), 1976:

CHAPTER 8: HUMANKIND: ONE RACE OR MANY? WHY DO HUMANS HAVE DIFFERENT SKIN COLORS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES? WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR? THE ROLE OF MELANIN:

Anthropologist reject unscientific explanations for skin colors. BUT … THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY WHITE MEN ARE WHITE, BLACK MEN, BLACK, AND RED MEN RED. THEY HAVE FOUND THE EXPLANATION IN A COLOR-MAKING CHEMICAL, CALLED MELANIN. The skin, hair, eyes and other parts of the body contain this chemical. MELANIN IS PRESENT IN THE SKIN OF MOST HUMAN BEINGS. IT TURNS THE SKIN DARK. THE MORE MELANIN, THE DARKER THE SKIN.

Those few who lack melanin are called albinos. Albinos exist throughout the animal kingdom. They also occur in all human groups. It might be said that albinos are the only truly white people in the world. (!)   Their hair, like their skin, is white. Their eyes, lacking melanin also, appear pinkish due to the circulation of blood through them. They have no natural protection from the sun and must avoid too much exposure. All other humans possess various amounts of malanin in their skin. You may wonder why people have melanin in their skin. What purpose does it serve? Sunshine and vitamin D provide the explanation.”

===========

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History And Geography Of Human Genes (Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey), 1994

Luca Sforza Cavallli et al had stated the following with regard to the origin of the Indo-European language-speaking phylum or family and the concept and use of skin color – white skin color:

The time of the origin of the Indo-European language or speaking phylum or family, was during the last 5000 years. [Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994: 103]:. The time of origin of the Indo-European family is usually given as 5000 years B.P. [N (Gimbutas 1966 ; Mallory 1989).

Correlations with climate:

L Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al stated:

“White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light brown’ color characteristic of caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa. A diet especially poor in vitamin D mayhave been characteristic of the farmers who came to Europe from the Middle East and slowly made their way to northern Europe, where they arrived about 5000 years ago. If this is true, then the >white skin color= of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.” Cavalli

a light –brown skin color

L Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al stated:

White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a light brown’color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa. A DIET ESPECIALLY POOR IN VITAMIN D MAYHAVE BEEN CHARACTERISTIC OF THE FARMERS WHO CAME TO EUROPE FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND SLOWLY MADE THEIR WAY TO NORTHERN EUROPE, WHERE THEY ARRIVED ABOUT 5000 YEARS AGO. If this is true, then the white skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.” Cavalli et al 1994

===================

H. Leon Abrams, Jr., Patricia Thompson, General Editor, Inquiry Into Anthropology (Globe Books Company, Inc.: New York, N.Y.), 1976, Section: Epilogue: “The Origin Of The Races:

Inquiry Into Anthropology: (Physical Anthropology)

Humankind – One Race or ManyWHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR?”

=============  

Stephen Molnar, in Human Variation, Races, Types, And Ethnic Groups (Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1975, 1983, Chapter 2: The Biological Basis for Human Variation, the Gene,and Gene Combinations and Interactions, and Definitions of Race, stating:

In 1909, the particles of inheritance described by Johann Gregor Mendel, (1822-1884) became known as genes, a term derived from the Greek root “gen” (“to become or to grow out of”). The term allele is used today to describe the variety of gene forms of a trait. … The paired combination of alleles, one carried at a locus on each of the chromosomes of the pair, is called the genotype. … The trait that is the result of the genotype combination is the phenotype (“visible type or trait”). [Note: visible racial characteristics, i.e. “hair type” and “color”,(“skin color”) extended to “cranial-facial features,” “body form or shape”]

Human traits: skin color is a “polygenic trait”: three or four genes are responsible for the inheritance of skin color:

“… Many human traits are of complex inheritance, and several genes may determine the phenotype through their combined action. Such traits are called polygenic. Human “skin color” is one example, because normal human skin pigmentation is under the control of several genesThree or four genes are responsible for the inheritance of skin color.

[Note: On the other hand, note the following reference by Cavalli as to the origin of modern humans and the presence of modern humans in Eurasia and the root origin skin color]

“Alleles”:

L Luca Cavalli_Sforza et al stated:

“1.12.d. The location of the root: this finding (four alleles … only one is found in nonhuman primates … and it is the same as one of the three alleles found in Africa. This form is probably the ancestral form of the gene.

“… Another allele is found only in human populations living outside Africa). …

THIS FINDING MAY SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE MOST DIRECT DESCENDANTS OF MODERN HUMANS ARE AFRICANS AND THAT OTHER HUMAN ALLELES FOUND ONLY OUTSIDE AFRICA PROBABLY ORIGINATED IN ASIA AFTER THE PASSAGE OF MODERN HUMANS

FROM AFRICA TO ASIA.

Africa and Asia: ORIGIN OF ALLELE D IS AFRICA – ORIGIN OF ALLELE C IS ASIA

TABLE 1.12.2: Frequency of four alleles at the locus erv3, enzyme mspl, in primates and several human populations, INDICATING THAT THE ORIGIN OF ALLELE D IS LATE AFRICAN, WHEREAS THAT OF C IS ASIAN (Pacciarini et al. unpublished – m. l. Pacciarini, a. m Bowcock, K. K. Kidd, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (unpubl.) Variation and Evolution of an Endogenous Retrovirus (Erv3) in Humans and Primates, 1-10). C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, and B. Vandermeersch, “The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe,” in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, ed. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 80-81:

=================

IT WAS INDICATED IN “EPILOGUE: THE ORIGIN OF THE RACES,”

IN INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY: (Physical Anthropology – Humanity – One Race Or Many (

Why Does Human Skin Have Color?):

Anthropologists reject unscientific explanations for skin colors. BUT … THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY WHITE MEN ARE WHITE, BLACK MEN ARE BLACK, AND RED MEN RED. 15 They have found the explanation in a color-making chemical, called “melanin” the skin, hair, eyes, and other parts of the body contain this chemical. 15 In temperate climates, dark skin filtered out too much of the sun’s rays. Clearly under these conditions dark-skinned people found it hard to survive. [Note: In the exceptionally extremely cold climate of the Upper Paleolithic in Eurasia between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago] …..16

FRANK E. POIRIER, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, William A. Stini, University of Arizona, Kathy B. Wreden, University of Arizona, IN IN SEARCH OF OURSELVES: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Fifth Edition (Prenticee Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1994, CHAPTER 10: “TRENDS IN HUMAN EVOLUTION: EVOLUTION OF BIPEDALISM,” p. 309, included a discussion of the following issues::

p. 52 MELANIN

=================

CONCLUSION:

SKIN MUTATION FIRST MENTIONED BY DIOP IN 1974 AND 1981, 1985

AFRICAN HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS IN EUROPE AND THE EVELUTION OF THE CAUCASIAN RACE – NATURAL SELECTION AND MUTATION INCLUDED CHANGE OF SKIN-COLOR:

=============

Dr Cheikh Anta Diop:

[Note: Though perhaps startling to you now in 2015 due to the faulty educational system – from elementary school through collegesand universities – Dr Cheikh Anta Diop made the following points during his lecture while in America in Atlanta at Morehouse College at the Martin Luther King Jr International Chapel:

It was reported in Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop, Editor Ivan Van Serrtima, Morehouse College Edition (1986, 1989) in Larry Williams, “Cheikh Anta Diop in America: An Overview”

that Dr Diop was the official guest of Morehouse College, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Mayor’s Office, the Martin Luther King, Jr Center For Non-Violent Social Change, the Morehouse School of Medicine and Delta Airlines. On April 3, 1985, Dr Diop flew to Washingto, D.C. and addressed the black college and university presidents at the annual meeting at the National Association of Equal Opportunity and Higher Education abd tgat “?Dr Diop held the audience spellbound” discussing the topic: “The New Renaissance: Black Colleges in the Re-Discovery of Africa’s Contribution to World Civilization.” Ancient Egypt was the focal point. Dr Diop spoke of the need for black colleges and universities to boldly take up the challenge of giving Egypt its proper place as an African civilization and indeed the mother of western civilization. Larry Williams indicated: “His message signaled the disintegration of age old myths that Europe was the center of world civilization.”

On April 4, 1985 in the Martin Luther King Jr International Chaoek before over two thousand students, the President Hugh M Gloster conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters and in his honorary degree citation stated: “CHEIKH ANA DIOP … MAN OF MANY TALENTS, YOU ARE NOT LIMITED TO ONE PROFESSION. YOU HAVE CLIMBED TO THE HEIGHTS IN PHYSICS, HISTORY,ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, LINGUISTICS AND POLITICS. IN THIS PERIOD OF SPECIALIZATION YOU ARE A RENAISSANCE MAN WITH AN OUTSTANDING RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENT IN MANY FIELDS.

OTHER GUESTS IN THE PROGRAM WERE MRS. CORETTA SCOTT KING, MAYOR ANDREW YOUNG, DR JOSEPH LOWERY, MRS. ELLEN STEWARD, PROFESSOR IVAN VAN SERIMA, DR ALTON HORNSBY, DR CHARLES S FINCH, DEAN LAWRENCE E CARTER AND THE MOREHOUSE GLEE CLUB.

THAT EVENING DR JOSEPH LOWERY PRESENTED DR DIOP THE FIRST AFRICAN HERITAGE AWARD OF S.C.L.C. FOR HIS DISCOVERIES AS AN EGYPTOLOGIST AND AN AUTHORITY ON ANCIENT AFRICA. A PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING DR DIOP RECEIVING THE “DRUM MAJOR” AWARD FROM SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE INCLUDED COMEDIAN DICK GREGORY AND DR JOSEPH LOWERY OF S.C.L.C. DICK GREGORY PRESIDED AT THE ANNUAL DRUM MAJOR BANQUET SPONSORED BY THE S.C.L.C. WHERE DR DIOP WAS THE RECIPIENT OF THEIR FIRST AFRICAN HERITAGE AWARD.

It was indicated that Dr Diop’s first visit to the United States was remarkable for the ten illustrated lectures and addresses he gave, using a series of black and white and and color slides. SOME OF HIS TOPICS WERE: “THE ORIGIN OF TRHE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS,” “THE CHALLENGE OF THE FUTURE FROM THE PAST,” “THE BLACK AFRICAN AS FATHER OF THE HUMAN RACE,” “THE EGYPTIAN RACE ACCORDING TO THE CLASSICAL AUTHORSOF ANTIQUITY,” “THE AFRICAN HUMAN SCIENCES\,” AND THE EGYPTIANS AS THEY SAW THEMSELVES.” … It was indicated: “Dr Diop’s visit was a pilgrimage that he felt he had to make. IT IS NOW TIME FOR THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY TO HEED HIS MESSAGE WE MUST BOLDLY CHALLENGE THOSE WHO WOULD PLACE ANCIENT EGYPT INTO A WHITE MIST OVERSHADOWING ITS ROLE AS A GREAT AFRICAN CIVILIZATION.”

In another one of his publications Dr Diop had stated:

IT SHOULD BE CAREFULLY NOTED THAT THE SAME MUTATION OR SKIN CHANGE IN MODERN HUMANS (ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS) DURING THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC (50,000 – 20,000 YEARS AGO) IN EUROPE AND CHINA (NORTHERN CHINA OR SIBERIA) WAS REPORTED BY CHEIK ANTA DIOP (1985): “AFRICA: CRADLE OF HUMANITY,” NILE VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS IN(1985):

THE MAN BORN IN AFRICA WAS NECESSARILY DARK-SKINNED DUE TOTHE CONSIDERABLE FORCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN THE EQUATORIAL BELT. AS HE MOVED TOWARD THE MORE TEMPERATE CLIMATES, THIS MAN GRADUALLY LOST HIS PIGMENTATION BY PROCESS OF SELECTION AND ADAPTATION. IT IS FROM THIS PERSPECTIVE THAT THE APPEARANCE OF CRO-MAGNON MAN IN EUROPE MUST BE SEEN”

In 1981, published in 1991, Cheikh Anta Diop, in Civilization or Barbarism, Chapter 1: “Prehistory: Race and History–Origin of Humanity and Racial Differentiation, ” Runoko Rashidi in The African Presence in Asia reported:

“Dr. Diop in Asia: “Highlights and Insights,” in the Section: “The Origin and Evolution of Mongoloid Ethnic Groups;” in Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop (1986, 1989) in “The Beginnings of Man and Civilization,”

in a lecture by Dr Diop at the Martin Luther King Jr. Internatinal Chapel at Morehouse College in the U.S.,” p. 322-351, p. 324-325, Dr Diop had stated:

HE (HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS) WAS ONLY IN AFRICA FOR A VERY LONG TIME, AND NOT ON ANY OTHER CONTINENT. HE LIVED IN AFRICA AT LEAST UNTIL 40,000 [NOTE: UPDATED MORE RECENTLY TO 46,000) YEARS AGO ]-BEFORE HE LEFT AFRICA. DURING THIS TIME NO OTHER PART OF THE WORLD WAS POPULATED BY (MODERN) MAN LIKE US.” (!)

[Note: Again, though perhaps startling to younow in 2015 due to the faulty educational system – from elementary school through collegesand universities – Dr Cheikh Anta Diop made the following points during his lecture while in America in Atlanta at Morehouse College at the Martin Luther King Jr International Chapel:

AND IF THIS MAN HAD STAYED IN AFRICA AND NOT GONE TO OTHER CONTINENTS, THE REST OF THE WORLD WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN PEOPLED. … MANKIND WOULD NOT BE OF MANY RACES, MAN WOULD SIMPLY BE BLACK AND HOMOGENEOUS–ONE COLOR ONLY. SO YOU SEE THAT RACE IS SIMPLY A MATTER OF CLIMATE

THIS MAN LEFT AFRICA (HOMO ERECTUS) (SLIDE .1.1). HE GAVE BIRTH EVENTUALLY TO MAN AS WE KNOW HIM AND LATER IN EUROPE TO THAT MAN WE CALL WHITE. AT THAT TIME THE CLIMATE IN EUROPE WAS VERY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE KNOW IT NOW.”

=============

Cavalli et al. indicated:

“White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a light brown’color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa. A diet especially poor in vitamin D mayhave been characteristic of the farmers who came to Europe from the Middle East and slowly made their way to northern Europe, where they arrived about 5000 years ago. If this is true, then the white skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.” Cavalli et al 1994

[Note: So that if you are from India or Egypt with straight or kinky hair and dark brown or light brown skin, you can identify yourself in the U.S. Census as a “Caucasian” or non-Negro or non-Hispanic. This is further discussed in an essay published in the Columbia University African American Department’s Soul magazine in Chapter 12: “Middle East Natufians and South America Luiza.”]

[EXCERPT FROM:  Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey:  The African Odyssey:  The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History:  From Prehistoric Times:  4.6 Billion Years Ago and the Earliest Ancient World Civilizations:  5,000 Years Ago to the 21st Century Including The Social Construction of the Negro Race and the Ebla 1970s Archaeological Discovery and Anthropologists’ Controversy over the Discover’s  Interpretation of Israel’s Sacred Scriptures  (Winter, 2015) – (Excuse some repetitions … it’s rough draft!) ]

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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