THE EARLIEST “LIFE” – THE FIRST “REPRODUCTION” – THE FIRST “SEXUAL REPRODUCTION” –


John Reader, The Rise of Life: the First 3.5 Billion Years (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986, p. 9:
John Reader, in the Introduction to (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986, Professor Reader had indicated:
“The story of life on earth begins with a multitude of very simple organisms swarming through the warm seas that covered a good deal of the earth’s surface nearly four billion years ago. Organisms so tiny that 100,000 of them might comfortably occupy the space within this “o”; each a single independent living thing, a cell, made of chemical substances, sustaining itself on chemical substances absorbed direct from the water and reproducing itself by enlarging a little then splitting into two. Where there was one there were now two identical cells, then four, eight, sixteen. … These simple organisms were the basic units from which all forms of life have evolved – bacteria, plants, fish, reptiles, mammals and man, everything. The essential ingredients and processes of life were already present in every one of them. through time, chance and changing environmental circumstances directed the modifications that have produced today’s living world.
Following the title page Professor John Reader indicated:
“The text of this book was written during the summer of Alice’s sixth year. Her company, and her quizzical interest in the things I was writing about, were often an inspiration ande I hope she may one day regard this book as a token of the happy times we spent together.”


In the Acknowledgements John Reader stated:

“My principle aim in writing this book has been to tell a story—I have tried to bring together the facts of evolution and facts from the history of science in a continuous narrative that will tell an interesting and accurate story of both life on Earth and man’s attempts to understand it. If I have succeeded, all well and good … there is a good deal I have left out and to maintain unity between the two threads of the story—evolution and science—I have adopted a rather traditionalist view of things that those at the cutting edge of science might regard as rather old-fashioned. Even so, I believe my position is defensible. I sought to pursue a comprehensible storyline through a fascinating subject. The interest the subject aroused in me was my principal guide, but my editorial decisions were never arbitrary nor matters of mere convenience. Indeed, having written this book, I would now urge interested readers to regard it as a starting point from which to explore and unravel the greater depth, breadth and fascination of the subject.”

The publisher:

“How did life begin on earth? What did prehistoric creatures really look like? What sort of landscape did they crowd or walk or slither through in those unimaginably ancient times? The answer to questions like those are gradually being revealed, disinterred from layers of rock, discovered in test-tubes, reconstructed from fragments of bone, shaped by the imagination of scholars. Thanks to the labors and insights of several generations of biologists, explorers, paleontologists, archaeologissts and others, we can now see back virtually to the beginning.
In The Rise of Life John Reader takes us among these scientists, past and present, as they make each other—and occasionally go wildly astray. We join the Leakeys in their long search for hominid fossils in Africa’s Great Rift Valley, watch George Walcott painstakingly catalogue the remains of primitive organisms in literally miles of sedimentary rocks in the Canadian Rockies, listen as scientists in Berkeley argue that the dinosaurs died when a giant asteroid hit the earth 65 million years ago, speculate upon the origins of life with Sir Fred Hoyle (who thinks it came from outer space) and the biochemists who maintain that it arose spontaneously from a chemical ‘soup’.’
“In the process we get a fascinating, authoritative, and comprehensive history of the development of life on earth. Supporting and enriching Reader’s text, and evoking the worlds of the past with amazing vividness, are dozens of original and highly-detailed paintings and drawings by John Gurche.”

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, ANNUAL EDITIONS –

“The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. Each Annual Editions volume has a number of features designed to make them especially valuable for classroom use: an annotated Table of Contents, a Topic Guide, an annotated listing of supporting websites, Learning Outcomes and a brief overview for each unit, and Critical Thinking questions at the end of each article. Go to the McGraw-Hill Create™ Annual Editions Article Collection at www.mcgrawhillcreate.com/annualeditions to browse the entire collection. Select individual Annual Editions articles to enhance your course, or access and select the entire Angeloni: Annual Editions: Physical Anthropology, 23/e ExpressBook for an easy, pre-built teaching resource by clicking here. An online Instructor’s Resource Guide with testing material is available for each Annual Editions volume. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is also an excellent instructor resource. ”
http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/annual-editions…/1117773489…

The Annual Editions Article Collection contains thousands of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a…
mcgrawhillcreate.com
Professor John Reader – “John Reader –

By Professor John Reader:
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader (Sep 7, 1999)

Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent by John Reader (Mar 29, 2011)

In Search of Human Origins by John Reader (Nov 15, 2011)

ropitious Esculent: The Potato in World History by John Reader (May 6, 2008)

The Rise of Life: The First 3.5 Billion Years by John Reader and John Gurche (Jun 1, 1986)

Missing Links: The Hunt for Earliest Man by John Reader (May 1981)

Cities: A Magisterial Exploration of the Nature and Impact of the City from Its Beginnings to the Mega-Conurbations… by John Reader (Aug 12, 2005

 The recent African origin of modern humans is the mainstream model that describes the origin and early dispersal of anatomically modern humans. The theory is called the (Recent) Out-of-Africa model in the popular press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), Replacement Hypothesis, and Recent African Origin (RAO) model. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin (monogenesis) was published in Charles Darwin’s Descent of Man (1871). The concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens. According to genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved to anatomically modern humans solely in Africa, between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa by 60,000 years ago and over time replacing earlier human populations such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. –

by Harold L Carter
21st Century Archaeological Discoveries providing evidence of the existence of African Homo sapiens sapiens 70,000 years ago in southern Eurasia (Australia) prior to the existence of Homo sapiens sapiens in either the Middle East, Europe, or Asia!

View Album
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/…/AAAS20Science20Septembe… ache

 HISTORY OF HUMAN SEXUALITY – PREHISTORIC – PRIMATE SEXUALITY – SEX IN VARIOUS CULTURES – AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY GREECE AND ROME TO 20TH CENTURY SEXUAL REVOLUTION

PREHISTORIC – HUMAN BIOLOGY – EVOLUTIONARY ORIGN OF SEX

John Reader, The Rise Of Life: The First 3.5 Billion Years (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986:

HISTORY OF HUMAN SEXUALITY “History of human sexuality

PREHISTORIC – HUMAN BIOLOGY – EVOLUTIONARY ORIGN OF SEX

John Reader, The Rise Of Life: The First 3.5 Billion Years (Alfred A. Knopf: New York), 1986:

In the introduction, Professor Reader had indicated:

Earliest Reproducton: (Prior to Sexual Reproduction)

III.A.2.a)6 The story of life on earth begins with a multitude of very simple organisms swarming through the warm seas that covered a good deal Of the earth=s surface nearly four billion years ago. Organisms so Tiny that 100,000 of them might comfortably occupy the space Within this o; each a single independent living thing, a cell, made Of chemical substances, sustaining itself on chemical Substancesabsorbed direct from the water and reproducing itself by Enlarging a little then splitting into two. Where there was one There were now two identical cells, then four, eight, sixteen.

III.A.2.a)7 “ … These simple organisms were the basic units from which all forms of life have evolved – bacteria, plants, fish, reptiles, mammals and man, everything. The essential ingredients and processes of life were already Present in every one of them. Through time, chance and changing Environmental circumstances directed the modifications that have produced today’s living world. [Reader 1986: 9]

[Excerpt: Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey: The African Odyssey: The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History: From Prehistoric Times: 4.6 Billion Years Ago and the Earliest Civilizations: 5,000 Years Ago Including the Social Construction of the Negro Race and the Ebla Archaeological Discoveries Controversy (Winter, 2015)

PRIMATE SEXUALITY: (National Geographic) http://www.nydailynews.com/…/national-geographic-photos-sho…

Bonobos are known for their creative sexual behavior that goes beyond mating purposes.

Fellow homo sapiens, meet one of our closest living relatives: the bonobos. They may share 98.6 percent of their DNA with humans, but these simians are in a league of their own when it comes to their sexual behavior.

Bonobos, along with chimpanzees, are the closest primates to humans and only found in a remote forest bank along the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Young bonobos are born with pink faces that darken as they mature.
Christian Ziegler

Young bonobos are born with pink faces that darken as they mature.

What makes them unique from chimps is their sexual activity.

Bonobos share a junglesop fruit — a delectable snack for both bonobos and humans.

“Whereas the chimpanzee shows little variation in the sexual act, bonobos behave as if they have read the Kama Sutra, performing every position and variation one can imagine,” biologist Frans de Waal said in the March issue of National Geographic magazine.

The Congo River’s channels have proved to be impassable for the local primates, keeping bonobos separated on the left bank and chimps and apes on the right bank.

The Congo River’s channels have proved to be impassable for the local primates, keeping bonobos separated on the left bank and chimps and apes on the right bank.

“The range of activities includes mouth-to-mouth kissing, oral sex, genital caressing by hand, penis-fencing by two males, male-on-male mounting, and genito-genital rubbing by two estrous females, who smoosh their swollen vulvas back and forth against each other in a spate of feverish sisterly cordiality. ..

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation, and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times.

1 The study of the history of human sexuality 1.1 Sources

2 Sex in various cultures 2.1 India
2.2 China
2.3 Japan
2.4 Classical antiquity 2.4.1 Greece
2.4.2 Etruria
2.4.3 Rome

2.6 Twentieth Century: Sexual revolution

3 Same-sex relations
4 Religion and sex 4.1 Judaism 4.1.1 Mosaic law

4.2 Christianity 4.2.1 New Testament
4.2.2 Later Christian thought

4.3 Hinduism
4.4 Islam

5 Technology and sex
6 Pederasty
7 Zoophilia
8 Prostitution
9 Sexually transmitted diseases 9.1 AIDS

External links 13.1 Sexual orientation

The study of the history of human sexuality[edit]

The work of Swiss jurist Johann Bachofen made a major impact on the study of the history of sexuality. Many authors, notably Lewis Henry Morgan and Friedrich Engels, were influenced by Bachofen, and criticized Bachofen’s ideas on the subject, which were almost entirely drawn from a close reading of ancient mythology. In his 1861 book Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World Bachofen writes that in the beginning human sexuality was chaotic and promiscuous. This “aphroditic” stage was replaced by a matriarchal “demeteric” stage, which resulted from the mother being the only reliable way of establishing descendence.

Only upon the switch to male-enforced monogamy was paternity certainty possible, giving rise to patriarchy – the ultimate “apolloan” stage of humanity. While the views of Bachofen are not based on empirical evidence, they are important because of the impact they made on thinkers to come, especially in the field of cultural anthropology. Modern explanations of the origins of human sexuality are based in evolutionary biology, and specifically the field of human behavioral ecology.

Evolutionary biology shows that the human genotype, like that of all other organisms, is the result of those ancestors who reproduced with greater frequency than others. The resultant sexual behavior adaptations are thus not an “attempt” on the part of the individual to maximize reproduction in a given situation – natural selection does not “see” into the future. Instead, current behavior is probably the result of selective forces that occurred in the Pleistocene.[1]

For example, a man trying to have sex with many women all while avoiding parental investment is not doing so because he wants to “increase his fitness”, but because the psychological framework that evolved and thrived in the Pleistocene never went away.[2]

Sources

Sexual speech—and by extension, writing—has been subject to varying standards of decorum since the beginning of history. For most of historic time writing has not been used by more than a small part of the total population of any society. Only in the 19th century and later are there societies where over half the population are basically literate.

The resulting self-censorship and euphemistic forms translate today into a dearth of explicit and accurate evidence on which to base a history. There are a number of primary sources that can be collected across a wide variety of times and cultures, including the following:

Records of legislation indicating either encouragement or prohibition
Religious and philosophical texts recommending, condemning or debating the topic.

Literary sources, perhaps unpublished during their authors’ lifetimes, including diaries and personal correspondence

Medical textbooks treating various forms as a pathological condition – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_human_sexuality

[EXCERPTS FROM:  Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey:  The African Odyssey:  The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History:  From Prehistoric Times:  4.6 Billion Years Ago and the Earliest Ancient World Civilizations:  Ancienty Egyptian Civilization:  5,000 Years Ago to the 21st Century (Winter, 2015)

and “Authentic African and World History”

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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