In Time-Life Books, “Titans and Olympians: Greek and Roman Myth,” from which it was borrowed, Chapter 20: “The Origins of the World,” in the Section: “The Castration of Uranus,” it was indicated:
“Only Chronus, the youngest, dared to take up his mother’s cause. Gaia made a sickle for Cronus out of a material so hard tht only the gods could make weapons from it. She plotted with her son how to catch Uranus off-guard, and showed him where to lie in wait within her body. As night fell, Uranus spread himself over the Earth and lowered himself towards his wife to make love to her. Cronus slashed out with his sickle, castrating his father, and flung away his genitals.”
Patai and Graves stated: “Some say that at the height of Noah’s drunkenness he uncovered himself, whereupon Canaan, Ham’s son entered the tent, mischievously looped a stout cord about his grandfather’s genitals, drew it tight, and unmanned him. Ham then also entered. When he saw what had happened, he told Shem and Japheth, smiling as if it were a jest for idlers in the marketplace: but earned their curses.
Others say that Ham himself unmanned Noah, who awakened from his drunken sleep and understanding what had been done to him, cried:
“Now I cannot beget the fourth son whose children I would have ordered to serve you and your brothers! Therefore it must be Canaan, your first-born, whom they enslave. And since you have disabled me from doing ugly things in the blackness of night, Canaan’s children shall be born ugly and black! Moreover, because you twisted your head around to see my nakedness your grandchildren’s hair shall be twisted into kinks, and their eyes red; again, because your lips jested at my misfortune, theirs shall swell; and because you neglected my nakedness they shall go naked, and their male members shall be shamefuly elongated. Men of this race are called Negroes ; their forefather Canaan commanded them to love theft and fornication, to be bandied together in hatred of their masters and never to tell the truth.” [Source: “Sanhedrin 72a-b, 108b B. Pesahim113bTanhuma Buber Gen. 49-50; Tanhuma Noah 13, 15Gen. Rab. 341]”
The same midrash passage was quoted by Yosef-ben Jochannan in “Africa: Mother of Western Civilization,” citing Patai and Graves.
Black Fundamentalist Christians, usually ignorant of this passage with regard to the “Biblical Origin of the Black Race,” continue to support preachers and politicians insisting upon a literal belief in the Bible and are told they are going against God’s word to vote for anyone not believing in a literal belief in the Bible – despite what the Bible says about the skin-color of people of the black race and about the role of women in the church!
Beginning Of “Creation” Of First Living Human, The World, The Races Of Humankind
Creation – Genesis I
According To Genesis, Chapter I Of The Hebrew Old Testament, Humankind’s Origin” Began In The Garden Of Eden With The Creation Of Both The World And Humankind Beginning With The Creation Of Adam By God Following The Creation Of The World, Adam Being Created First, And Eve Then Being Created From One Of Adam’s Rib, As Indicated In One Section Of Genesis.
Theodor H. Gaster, Myth, Legend, And Custom In The Old Testament: A Comparative Study With Chapters From Sir James G. Frazer’s Folklore In The Old Testament (Harper & Row, Publishers: New York And Evanston), 1969.
“Knum, The Potter God, Is Said To Have Moulded Man On The Wheel. [Footnote: Cerny, Ancient Egyptian Religion (1952), 49; A. M. Badawi, Der Gott Chnum (1937)]
“On Bas-Reliefs At Luxor Depicting The Births Of Queen Hatshepsut And Of Amenhotep Iii, He (Knum) Is Shown Shaping Two Diminutive Figures In The Same Manner. [Footnote: H. Frankfort, Kingship And The Gods (1948), Fig. 23.]; And In “The Celebrated Admonitions Of Ipuwer,” Which Describe Conditions In Egypt During The Unsettled Days Of The First Intermediate Period (2300 B.C. – 2050 B.C.), It Is Said That Things Are In Such Chaos That ‘Khnum Can No Longer Fashion Mortals.’ [Footnote: Anet 441b (Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating To The Old Testament, Ed. J. B. Pritchard, Princeton, 1955];
“Similarly, In “The Instruction Of Amen-Em-Opet,” Composed (Probably) In The Sixth Or Seventh Century B.C., Man Is Described As >But Clay And Straw, With God As His Builder.” [Footnote: Amen-Em-Opet, Ch. 25; Anet 424b [Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating To The Old Testament, Ed. J. B. Pritchard, Princeton, 1955]. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903: P. 338: In The Lengthy Essay “A Theory Of Population, Deduced From The General Law Of Animal Fertility,” Herbert Spencer (1820-1903, English) Contrasts The Biblical Creation Theory With The Theory That Organic Beings Have Developed Through The Ages, Arguing That Species Have Altered Over The Centuries Because Of Changing Environmental Circumstances. Anticipating Aspects Of The Evolutionary Theory Later Developed By Charles Darwin (1859–Biology), Spencer Extends Thomas Malthus’s Concept Of Population Pressure (1798–Biology) To Animal Societies In General, Concludes That Species Of Necessity Engage In A Struggle For Survival, And Coins The Phrase “Survival Of The Fittest.”
Genesis I – The Flood – The Sumerian And Babylonian Versions:
Archaeology Of Bible By Magnus Magnusson:
The Non-Semitic Sumerians Were To Be Found In Southern Mesopotamia As Early As 3500 B.C.
The Sumerians Recorded The Oldest … Stories About The Creation That Would Be Echoed Many Centuries Later In … Genesis.
Several Versions Of The Sumerian Flood Story Have Been Found Over The Years, All Of Them Pre-Dating The Bible.
The Most Sophisticated Version Forms Part Of An Epic Poem About One Of The Ancient Semi-Legendary Kings Of Uruk, A Man Called Gilgamesh.
In One Episode, He Pays A Visit To The Only Human Survivor Of The Great Flood, The Sumerian Noah, In Effect, On Whom The Gods Had Bestowed Immortality.
The Story He Is Told Is So Close In Its Details That The Biblical Flood Story Was Obviously Borrowed Directly From The Much Earlier Sumerian Original. The Individual Names May Be Different, But The Specific Parallels Are Unmistakable. In The Bible As History, 2nd Revised Edition, (1981) Werner Keller States:
“From The Dim Recesses Of The Ancient East An Old Mysterious Story Came To Light: A Heroic Epic, Of 300 Quatrins, Inscribed On Twelve Large Clay Tablets, Which Told Of The Wonderful Experiences Of The Legendary King Gilgamesh.
The Text Was Astonishing: Gilgamesh Told A Tale Exactly Like The Bible–Of A Man Who Was Said To Have Lived Before And After A Mighty And Disastrous Flood. Where Did This Splendid And Remarkable Epic Come From?
During Exacavations In The Fifties Of Last Century (1850’s) British Archaeologists Had Found These Twelve Clay Tablets, Together With About 20,000 Others, All In A Good State Of Preservation, Among The Ruins Of The Library At Nineveh, Which Was Reckoned To Be The Most Famous In The Ancient World. King Ashurbanipal Had It Built In The 7th Century B.C. High Above The Banks Of The Tigris In Old Nineveh.
Shortly Before 1900 … Assyriologists Heard For The First Time The “Epic Of Gilgamesh,” … (Which) Goes Back As Far As Hammurabi, The Great King Of Babylon. … The World Owes Its Original Composition To The Sumerians, The People Whose Capital Stood On The Site Of Ur.”
Magnusson Indicates That The Sumerian Flood Story And Its Later Versions Form Only A Part Of A General History Of Mankind … (And With Respect To The Bible Flood Story (Genesis 6-9) Makes A Comparison):
“The Sumerian Gods Decided To Destroy Mankind By A Flood Because The Population Of The Earth Had Become So Numerous And Noisy;
In Genesis: God Repented Of His Decision To Create Mankind When Men Began To Multiply On The Face Of The Earth.
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The God Enki Conspired To Spare The Life Of One Pious King (So That The Practice Of Offering Sacrifices To The Gods Might Be Continued);
In The Bible, In Genesis: ‘Noah Found Grace In The Eyes Of The Lord,’
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The Pious King Is Instructed To Build A Huge Cube-Shaped Vessel Into Which He Was To Take ‘The Seed Of All Living Things’;
In Genesis: Noah Is Instructed To Build A Huge Rectangular Vessel Of Gopher Wood, An Ark, Into Which He Was To Take Two Of Every Sort Of Every Living Thing Of All Flesh.
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The Sumerian Deluge Lasted Seven Days; In Genesis: The Biblical Deluge Lasted Forty.
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The Ark Came To Rest On ‘Mount Nisir’, Presumed To Be In The Kurdestan Mountains;
In Genesis: Noah’s Ark Came To Rest On Mount Ararat, In Eastern Turkey.
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The Sumerian Noah Sent Out A Dove, A Swallow, And A Raven;
In Genesis: The Biblical Noah Sent Forth A Raven And A Dove (Twice).
In The Sumerian Flood Story: The Sumerian Noah Offered Sacrifice To The Gods, And ‘The
Gods Smelled The Sweet Savour’;
In Genesis: The Biblical Noah Built An Altar And Offered Burnt Offerings, ‘ And The Lord
Smelled A Sweet Savour.'”
Dr. James B. Pritchard of the University Museum Of Pennsylvania, Editor Of The Authoritative Anthology, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, … Points Out That Although The First Discovery Of The Ancient Mesopotamian [Sumerian] Versions Of The Creation And Flood Stories Profoundly Altered The Prevailing Thinking About The Uniqueness Of The Hebrew View Of Cosmology, It Established A New Way Of Understanding The Cultural Milieu From Which The Bible Sprang. It Proved That The Bible Did Not Exist In A Vacuum, That The Hebrew Writers Fully Participated In The Culture Of Their Day, That They Shared The Current Traditions About The Creation Of The World And Mankind And Adapted Them As A Means Of Presenting Their Own Views About Life And Religion.
Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan, in Africa: Mother of Western Civilization in comparing the Teachings of Amenhotep III (1420-1379 B.C.), who began the ‘Golden Age in Egypt,” and introduced “monotheism”, and abolished old gods, and who took the name Akhenaton after Aton, the sun-god
With that of the teachings of King Solomon (961 B.C.-922 B.C.) – the teachings of Amenhotep III having been written over 400 years before that of the Hebrew King Solomon
Referred to Proverbs 22: 17, 22:20, 21; 22:22; 22:24,25; and 22:29 as compared with the Teachings of Amenhotep III, pharaoh of Egypt, using two versions of the kKing James version, with one text conformable to that of the edition of 1611, and the following similarity is revealed:
Israel (asia minor) Egypt (North Africa)
Proverbs 22: 17, 20-22, 24- the teachings of Amenhotep III
25, and 29 (1420 b.c. – 1379 b.c.)
The teachings of king solomon
(961 b.c. – 922 b.c.)
Incline thine ear, and hear my words, give thine ear, and hear what I And apply thine heart to apprehend; say,
For it is pleasant if thou keep them and apply thine heart to apprehend;
In thy belly, it is good for thee to place them
That they may be fixed like a peg upon in thine heart,
Thy lips. Let them rest in the casket of thy belly
That they may act as a peg upon thy tongue
Bow down thine ear, and hear the
Words of the wise, and apply thine
Heart unto my knowledge
For it is a pleasant thing if thou
Keep them within thee; they shall
Withal be fitted in thy lips.
2. Have i not written for thee thirty consider these thirty chapters;
Sayings they delight, they instruct,
Of counsels and knowledge! Knowledge how to answer him that
That thou mayest make known truth speaketh,
To him that speaketh. And how to carry back a report to one that sent him.
Have i not written to thee
Excellent things in counsels and
That i might make thee know the
Certainty of the words of truth;
That thou mightest answer the words
Of truth to them that send unto thee?
3. Rob not the poor for he is poor, beware of robbing the poor,
Neither oppress the lowly in the and of oppressing the afflicted.
Rob not the poor, because he is
Poor: neither oppress the afflicted
In the gate.
4. Associate not with a passionate Associate not with a passionate
Nor go with a wrathful man, nor approach him for conversation;
Lest thou learn his ways leap not to cleave to such a one,
And get a snare to thy soul that the terror carry thee not away.
Make no friendship with an angry
Man; and with a furious man thou
Shalt not go:
Lest thou learn his ways, and get a
Snare to thy soul.
5. A man who is skillful in his business a scribe who is skillful in his
Shall stand before kings business
Findeth himself worthy to be a courtier.
Seest thou a man diligent in his
Business? He shall stand before
Kings; he shall not stand before
Isaac asimov, a noted scientist and writer, in asimov’s guide to the bible: the old and new testaments (1981 edition), indicated that the bible was first translated into another language in the course of the third century b.c. And that other language was greek. This greek version was, according to tradition, based on the work of seventy learned scholars, and it is therefore known as the septuagint, from a latin word meaning “seventy.” in the septuagint the various books of the bible were given greek names. The first book was named “genesis,” which means, literally, “coming into being.” he said it implied a concern with births and beginnings which is appropriate for a book that begins with the creation of heaven and earth. By ancient tradition, the first five books of the bible were written by moses, the folk hero who, according to the account given in the second through fifth books, rescured the israelites from [black african] egyptian slavery.
Modern scholars, asimov indicates, are convinced that this theory of authorship is not tenable and that the early books of the bible are not the single work of any man. Rather they are
The combined and carefully edited version of a number of sources.
Despite this, the full name of the first book of the bible as commonly given in english translation remains “the first book 0f moses, called genesis.” the first five books of the bible give not only the traditional history of the ancestors of the israelite people, but also describe a legal code as having been given to moses by god and by moses to the israelites generally. Because of moses’ traditional role in what was, in actual fact, a set of laws that developed slowly over the centuries, the whole is termed the “mosaic law” or, more simply still, “the law.” the hebrew word for the first five books is “torah,” which is the hebrew word for “law.” the greek word for the first five books is “pentateuch” (“five books”).
In recent times, it has been recognized that the sixth book of the bible is closely connected with the first five and is derived from similar sources.
All six books being referred to as the “hexateuch” (“six books”).
Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide To The Bible: The Old And New Testaments (1981) Divides The Bible Into Periods Of History:
The Period From The Beginnings Of The Earliest Civilizations, Say 4000 B.C. To 100 A.B. Is Lumped Together As “The Biblical Period.” Of Thisthe Ancient Near East:
The Early Civilization Of Egypt And Mesopotamia:
The Early History Of Mesopotamia: The Sumerian Period:
(3100 B.C. – 2000 B.C.): Sumer, Akkad, And Babylon
First Egyptian Dynasty: 3200-3150 B.C.
Amorite Invasian 2000 B.C.
First Date In Ancient Egyptian Calendar. It Is Now Common Knowledge That In 4236 B.C. The Egyptians Had Already Invented A Calendar Based On The Heliacal Rising Of Sothis Or Sirius (The Brightest Star In The Sky) Which Appeared Every 1,460 Years. Indeed The Egyptians Knew The Two Types Of Year: 365 Days And 365 Days + 1/4.
The First One Contains 12 Months And 30 Days = 360 + The Five Epagomenal Days Which Were Dedicated To The Birthdays Of Osiris (Similar To Christian “Jesus Christ”), Horus, Seth, Isis (Similar To Christian “Mary”), And Nephthys, The Five Egyptian Gods.
So Methologically Speaking, Osiris Was Indeed Born The Night Of December 25 As Was Jesus Christ Who Can Be Compared To Osiris In This Case And In Many Others.
This Egyptian Calendar That Was Unlike Mesopotamia Which Never Managed To Establish A Calendar Worthy Of The Name And Which, Even At Its Highest Period Of Development Had Not Gone Beyond The Stage Of Drawing Up “Ephemerides.”
It Must Be Said That, Traditionally, Philosophers And Scientists Were Persecuted In The Greek Athenian State.
On The Contrary, The Egyptian State Has Always Encouraged The Development Of Science, Philosophy, And Arts. Up To The End Of The History Of The Indo-European State, Science And Philosophy Were As Antinomical To The State In Continental Greece As They Were Inseparable From The State In Egypt.
Most Of The Scientists Who Gave Greece Its Scientific Fame Were Persecuted And Had To Flee From Greece To Take Refuge In Egypt.
Almost All Of Them Went To Egypt For Training.
Anexagos, Socrates, Aristotle, Plato Were Persecuted Or Had To Flee To Escape Persecution.
Aristotle Did Not Hesitate To Testify To The Fact That If The Egyptian Priests Reached Such A High Level In Theoretical And Speculative Science, It Was Because They Were Free From Material Worries. And This Was Because The State Supported Them.
The Egyptians Invented Algebra. [Mathematics: The “Rhind Mathematical Papyrus” And “Berlin Papyrus”].
The Egyptians Were The First To Invent Trigonometry.
Archimedes, Who Is Regarded As The Most Ingenious Representative Of Greek Mathematics And Intellectualism, And Said To Have Been The Greatest Scientist And Mathematician Of Ancient Times, With His Equal Not Arising Until Newton 2,000 Years Later, Went To Study Or To Further His Studies In Egypt.
It Was Only When He Came Back From Egypt That He “Invented” The Endless Screw That Egyptians Had Been Using For Centuries Before He Was Born For The Extraction Of Percolated Water. In His Treatise Entitled On The Equilibrium Of Planes Or Centres Or Gravity Of Planes, Nowhere Did Archimedes Show That The Egyptians Had Already Mastered The Theory Of Levers Of All Kinds, As Well As That Of The Inclined Plane, Before He Did.
The Sphere And The Circumscribed Cylinder, The “Formula” Found By The Scribe 1,700 Years Before Archimedes: S=2 R2 (S=”2 Pie Radius Squared”) For The Surface Area Of The Hemisphere Is Rigorously Accurate.
Archimedes Considered This Body Of Figures To Be His Most Remarkable Discovery And Chose It As An Epitaph; And It Is Indeed This Epitaph Which Authenticated The Discovery By Cicero Of Archimedes Grave In Syracuse, Sicily.
But Archimedes Could Not Have Been Unaware That Prior To Him The Egyptians Had Discovered The Very Same Theorem That He Probably Used, Arranged And Presented In His Own Way. His Other Dealings With Egyptian Science Testify To That.
Speaking Exclusively Of What Is Certain, One Must Say That The Egyptians Have Passed Down To Posterity The Formula Of The Exact Surface Area Of The Sphere And The Exact “Formula” Of The Volume Of The Cylinder, Calculated With The Value Of (Pie) = 3.16.
Archimedes Did Not Mention These Results At All In His Treatise Entitled On The Sphere And Cylinder Written About 2,000 Years After The Egyptian Mathematical Papyri.
Africa’s Contribution To World Civilization: The Exact Sciences By Cheikh Anta Diop In Great African Thinkers, Ed. Ivan Van Sertima
Cyrus H. Gordon, Author Of The World Of The Old Testament, In Before The Bible: The Common Background Of Greek And Hebrew Civilizations (Harper & Row, Publishers: New York, Evanston, And London), 1961, In The Introduction, Stated:
“Archaeological Discoveries At Sites Like Ugarit Prevent Us From Regarding Greece As The Hermetically Sealed Olympian Miracles, Or Israel As The Vacuum-Packed Miracle From Sinai. The Thesis Of This Book Is Simply That Greek And Hebrew Civilizations Are Parallel Structures Built Upon The Same East Mediterranean Foundation. (Professor Gordon=S Italics). This Statement, Like Any Brief Formulation Of A Complex Subject, Is Meaningful Only In The Light Of The Evidence. It Will Soon Be Plain To The Reader That There Is No Dearth Of Evidence. To The Contrary, The Evidence Is So Abundant That Our Problem Is One Of Selection And Arrangement. Lest The Reader Suppose That Our Thesis May Detract From The Greek Or Hebrew Achievements, Let Us State Here And Now That The Greatness Of Homer And Bible Emerges, As Never Before, When We See How They Towered Above Their Predecessors And Contemporaries. (Emphasis Added)
“For Centuries Scholars Have Been Forced To Grapple With The Problem Of Accounting For The Parallels Between Greek Literature And The Bible. Did Greece Borrow From Israel? Or Did Israel Borrow From Greece? Can The Parallels Be Accidental? And Even If They Are Accidental, Do They Not Obliterate The Uniqueness Of Both Israel And Greece? These And Other Questions Have Been Asked. Pagan Critics Of Early Christianity Confronted The Church Fathers With Some Embarrassing Parallels; But The Fathers Were Equal To The Challenge And Provided Answers In Keeping With The Spirit Of Their Times. There Were Fathers Who Honestly Recognized The Reality Of The Parallels But Explained Them As The Mischief Of Demons Who Had Planted Them In Greek Literature To Harass The Church. For Better Or Worse, Demonology Has Given Way To Other Schools Of Thought In Academic Circles, And Accordingly The Problem Has In Modern Times Been Handled In Other (But Not Always Better) Ways. … The Fact Is That Both Flourished During The Same Centuries In The Same East Mediterranean Corner Of The Globe, With Both Ethnic Groups In Contact With Each Other From The Start.
[EXCERPTS FROM: Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey: The African Odyssey: The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History Including Social Construction of the Negro or African Race and the Ebla Controversy over Israel’s Sacred Documents (Winter, 2015)
Samuel Noah Kramer, in “History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Man’s Recorded History” (The University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia), 3rd Revised Edition, 1980 (published 1956, 1981, first paperback 1988) referred to new books, monographs, and articles relating to the Sumerians and their literature that have been published since 1956, 1981, and 1988 and indicated cuneiformists the world over will find them itemized and listed in the annual bibliographies of the two scholarly journals: Orientalia (Rome) and Archiv fur Orientforschung (Graz), and by a group of scholars in their dissertations at various universities, particularly the University of Pennsyvania and the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Among the Contents of History Begins at Sumer were:
“Wisdom: The First Proverbs and Sayings,” 116,
“Paradise: The First Biblical Parallels,” 141;
“A Flood: The First “Noah,” 148;
“Tales of Gilgamesh: The First Case of Literary Borrowing,” 181;
In Chapter 23: “Tales of Gilgamesh”: “The First Case of Literary Borrowing” the following was indicated:
“George Smith, an Englishman who had been studying the thousands of clay tablets and fragments brought to the British Museum from the mounds
covering ancient Nineveh, read a paper, on December 3, 1862, before the then recently organized Society of Biblical Archaeology. His paper proved
to be a milestone for Biblical studies. In this paper Smith announced that, on one of the clay tablets dug up from the long-buried library of
King Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the seventh century B.C., he had discovered and deciphered a version of the deluge myth which showed
marked resemblances to the flood story in the Book of Genesis. “The announcement caused no small sensation in scholarly circles and even
aroused the enthusiasm of the general public the world over. The Daily Telegraph, a London newspaper of the period
immediatelyvolunteered funds for a new expedition to Nineveh. George Smith died in the field at the early age of thirty-six.
“Not long after he had announced the discovery of the Babylonian flood story, Smith realized, on further study of the tablets and fragments from
the Ashurbanipal library, that this deluge myth formed but a small part of a long poem, and that the ancient Babylonians themselves referred
to it as the “Gilgamesh Cycle.” According to the ancient scribes, it consisted of twelve songs or cantos of about three hundred lines each. Each
canto was inscribed on a separate tablet in the Ashurbanipal library. The deluge story formed the major part of the eleventh tablet. Since the days of
George Smith, numerous new pieces of this (Kramer referred to it as) Semitic Gilgamesh Cycle, or “Epic of Gilgamesh” as it is now generally called,
have been excavated in Iraq.
“Some of these were inscribed in the Old Babylonian period—that is, as early as the 17th century B.C. or the 18th century B.C. Ancient translations
of parts of the poem into Hurrian, as well as the Indo-European Hittite anguage, have been found on clay tablets excavated in Asia Minor, from the
second half of the second millennium B.C. It is thus evident that the Babylonian “Epic of Gilgamesh” was studied, translated, and imitated in
ancient times all over the Near East.
Today (1980) about half of its approximately 3,500 lines of text have been recovered. A superb edition of practically all the available material was
published in 1930 by another Englishman, the late archaeologist and humanist R. Campbell Thompson. Since then two new and more up-to-date
English translations have appeared: Alexander Heidel’s “The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels” and Ephraim Speiser’s in
“Ancient Near Eastern Texts” (edited by James Pritchard).”
The author, Harold L Carter, has a copy of Alexander Heidel’s “The GilgameshEpic and Old Testament Parallels.” and in it Alexander Heidel in
Chapter IV states:
“The most remarkable parallels between the Old Testament and the Gilgamesh Epic – in fact, the most remarkable
parallels between the Old Testament and the entire corpus of cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia – are found in the deluge accounts of
the Babylonians and Assyrians, on the one hand, and the Hebrews, on the other. With the study of this material we therefore enter a field
which, a priori, should prove most fruitful in our examination of the genetic relationship between the Mesopotamian records and our Old Testament
The publisher indicated:
“Cuneiform records made some three thousand years ago are the basis of this essay on “the ideas of death and the afterlife” and “the story of the
flood which were current among the ancient peoples of the Tigris and Euphrates Valley. With the same careful scholarship shown in his previous
volume The Babylonian Genesis, Heidel interprets the famous Gilgamesh Epic and other related Babylonian and Assyrian documents.
He compares them with corresponding portions of the Old Testament in order to determine the inherent historical relationship of Hebrew
and Mesopotamian ideas.”
Biblical version of the creation of the universe, the planet Earth, human beings, and the origin of languages or races of humankind
In Isaac Asimov, Asimov=s Guide to the Bible: Two Volumes in One: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981, it Was Indicated:
A.Agenesis 2:7: and the Lord God Formed Man of the Dust of the Ground, and Breathed into His Nostrils the Breath of Life, and Man Became a Living Soul.@
B.Athe Word >Man= Is a Translation of the Hebrew Word Adam, Which Is a General Expression Rather Akin to What We Mean When We Say >Mankind.= the Word Adam, Used in Reference to this First Created Man, Came to Be a Proper Name, Adam. The King James Version … Indicated:
(1)Agenesis 2:29: .. the Lord God Formed Every Beast … and Every Fowl … and Brought Them unto Adam … a
References to the Nile River Valley, the Indus River Valley, and the Tigris-euphrates River Valley:
Biblical references some believe refer to the Nile River Valley, the Whole Land of Ethiopia (Africa), the Whole Land of Havilah (India), and Athe Tigris-euphrates River Valley
(2)Agenesis 2:10: and a River Went out of Eden to Water the Garden; and from Thence it Was Parted, and Became into Four Heads:
The Garden of Eden:
(A)at the Time the Book of Genesis Was Reduced to Writing, the Tigris and the Euphrates Had Already Joined to Form the Common Stream and Surely the Reference in Genesis 2:10 Is to the Parting (Working Upstream) of the Shatt-al-arab (A Single Joined River) into the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Reference to the Garden of Eden Would Then Be, Specifically, to the Lower Stretches of Those Two Rivers, near Where They Come Together and as it Happens, it Was Precisely There (In the Days Before the Two Rivers Had Yet Come Together That Civilization Arose (Ashinar@ – Asumeria@).
The Indus River:
(B)Genesis 2:11: the Name of the First Is Pison (Indus River); That Is it Which Compasseth the Whole Land of Havilah (India).
I)havilah Is Pictured as a Land of Wealth, Where One Can Find Gold and Other Precious Material. In Searching for a Fabled Land of Wealth That Will Represent Havilah, Later Europeans Had a Tendency to Fix upon India with its Proverbial >Wealth of the Indies.= in That Case, the Pison (Or Pishon) Might Be the Indus River, the Long River – as Long as the Euphrates – That Drains What Is Now Pakistan, Flowing into the Arabian Sea.
(C)genesis 2:13: and the Name of the Second River Is Gihon: the Same Is it That Compasseth the Whole Land of Ethiopia (Africa).The Nile River:
I)ethiopia Was, in Ancient Times, a Land to the South of Egypt, and a Nation Bearing That Name Is Still Located about Five Hundred Miles South of Egypt Nowadays. A Tributary of the Nile River Rises in Ethiopia and it Seems Logical to Suppose, Then, That the Gihon Is the Nile River.
(D)genesis 2:14: and the Name of the Third River Is Hiddekel (Tigris), That Is Which Goeth Toward the East of Assyria. And the Fourth River Is Euphrates.
I)the Third River Is the Hiddekel, Which Is the Hebrew Version of the Assyrian >I-di-ik-lat.= Assyria Is the Greek Form of the Hebrew >Ashur,= Which Applied Not Only to the Nation, but to its Original Capital City. It Is the City That Is Meant Here and the Hiddekel Does Indeed Skirt the City on the East. It Is Perhaps Because of the Savage Danger of its Turbulence That the Greeks Gave it the Name >Tigris=), the Name by Which it Is Known Today.
The Garden of Eden:
Ii)one of the Sources of the Tigris River Is a Lake in Eastern Turkey That Lies Only a Dozen Miles South of One of the Streams That Go to Make up the Euphrates. There Might Therefore Be a Strong Temptation to Attempt to Locate the Garden of Eden Specifically in Eastern Turkey, Except That There Is No Need to Suppose That the Writers of Genesis Felt Obligated to Make Use of Our Modern Geographical Convention.
Isaac Asimov States:
(1)the Rivers Are Listed in Order of Increasing Familiarity to the Writer So That the Fourth River, the Euphrates, Is Merely Mentioned. This Is Understandable since the Euphrates Was Familiar to the Jews of the Assyrian Period and Before and Parts of it Were Not Very Distant. Indeed, in the Time of David, When the Jewish Kingdom Was at its Most Extensive and Powerful, its Northern Boundary Lay on the Upper Euphrates.
(A)the Euphrates Was Known to the Assyrians as >Pu-rat-tu= from a Still Earlier Term Which Meant >Great River.=
The Euphrates Is Indeed a >Great River.= it Is the Longest River in Southwestern Asia, Flowing for Seventeen Hundred Miles. Two Streams Rise in Eastern Turkey, the More Northerly Only Seventy-five Miles South of the Black Sea. They Flow West Separately for about Two Hundred Miles, Then Join to Form the Euphrates.
flowing South Now, Th River Approachs Within a Hundred Miles of the Mediterranean Sea, Enters Syria and Turns Southeast, Leaving Syria and Passing Through Iraq until it Finally Pours its Waters into the Persian Gulf. Though Rising and Passing So Closely to Seas That Open into the Atlantic Ocean, the River Reaches the Indian Ocean at Last.
(A)the Hebrew Term Used in the Bible Is >Perath,= Clearly a Form of the Assyrian Name
(B)and Our Word >Euphrates= Originated with the Greeks, Who Converted the Strange Assyrian Syllables into a Set That Made More Sense to Their Own Ears.
The English Bible:
the English Bible Has Reached Us, To a Large Extent, from the Hebrew Avia First Greek, Athen Latin. Many Hebrew Names Reach Us in Graeco-latin Form Therefore. in General, the Catholic Version of the Bible Clings More Closely to the Graeco-latin, where the King James Version and Even More the Revised Standard Version Tend to Return to the Original Hebrew.
Creation of the World:
Isaac Asimov, Asimov=s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981, P. 17:
Genesis 1:1: in the Beginning God Created the Heaven and the Earth. [Asimov 1981: 17]
The Jews of the Middle Ages Calculated the Date of the Creation to Have Been October 7, 3761 B.c., and this Is Still Used in Calculating the Number of the Years in the Jewish Calendar. Thus September 1968 A.d. Is the Beginning of the Year 5729 by That Calendar. [Asimov 1981: 36]
James Ussher, an Anglican Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, in 1654 Decided That the Creation Had Taken Place in 4004 B.c. (At 9 A.m. on October 23 of That Year According to Some). The Date 4004 B.c. until Recent Years Was Often Found in the Heading of the First Pages of the Bible in Editions of the King James Version.@ [Asimov 1981: 36]
Origin of Languages: the References to Sumeria the Building of the Tower of Babel, Why the City of Babylon Was Named Babel,” and the Origin of the “Races of Humankind”
the Hebrew word ”Balal,” meaning ”mixed,” ”confused,” or “confounded.” In the Babylonian language, the name of the city is”Bab-ilu” meaning ”Gate of God.” the Greek ”Babylon”
The Geographical Location of Sumeria (“Shinar”) “Traditionally” Included with “Babylonia” and Referred to as “Mesopotamia” (Defined As “Between the Two Rivers,” the Tigris and Euphrates:
How the “Tower of Babel” story was created:
In Genesis it was indicated that while the descendants of Noah were still a relatively small group, all speaking a single
language, They came to Shinar (Sumeria) and decided to build a huge tower there, with which to “reach unto heaven.”
however, God defeated their purpose by giving each man a different language, making it impossible for them to understand
each other. Unable to continue their complex building activities, they had to leave off, and this tale is used to explain the
name of the city in which the tower was built (Babylon).
The Mention of ”the Tower of Babel” and Implied Reference to the city and later empire of “Babylonia”:
Genesis 11:9: Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the lord did there confound the language of all the Earth. In
other words, the writers of genesis derived ”Babel” from the Hebrew word ”Balal,”= meaning ”mixed,” ”confused,” or
“confounded.” this derivation is, however, a false one, for in the Babylonian language, the name of the city is”Bab-ilu” meaning
”Gate of God.” From this is derived the Hebrew ”Babel” and the Greek ”Babylon.”
There was as it happens, a Tower in Babel; Indeed, there were towers in most Sumerian and Babylonian Cities. The temples to the
gods took the form of stepped pyramids which were ascended by inclined planes about the outside. These were called ziggurats.”
A large ziggurat in Babylon was begun by a Sumerian king and was left unfinished perhaps as a result of the disorders
involved in the southward march of Sargon of Agade. For many centuries, the ziggurat remained incomplete and perhaps
gained fame because of its shortcomings (as does “The Leaning Tower of Pisa or” Schubert’s “Unfinished Symphony).” It
served as the model, one might assume, for the Biblical tale of the unfinished tower in Babel.
“However, in the Sixth Century B.C., Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, finished the largest ziggurat ever built. it was formed
in seven diminishing stages (one for each of the planets). .. this would make a respectable skyscraper now, and it was much
smaller than the tremendous pyramids built by the Egyptians. It was however, the largest structure in southwestern Asia and
more remarkable still, it was what is now so familiar to us as the Tower of Babel finished at last. [Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to
the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981
The Mention of the Country Ethiopia (The Continent of Africa) and the Nile River in Genesis” by Saying “The Name of the Second River Is
Gihon: the Same Is it That Compasseth the Whole Land of Ethiopia” (Africa).
Genesis 2:8: Aand the Lord God Planted a Garden Eastward in Eden; and There He Put the Man Whom He Had Formed.a
Genesis 10-11: and a River Went out of Eden to Water the Garden; and from Thence it Was Parted, and Became into Four Heads. The Name
Of the First Is Pison: That Is it Which Compasseth the Wholeland of Havilah, Where There Is Gold.
Genesis 2:13 – 2:14: Aand the Name of the Second River Is Gihon: the Same Is it That Compasseth the Whole Land of Ethiopia. And the Name
Of the Third River Is Hiddekel: That Is it Which Goeth Toward the East of Assyria. And the Fourth River Is Euphrates.@
So then what does modern history books and and archaeological discoveries and research findings covering
the ancient Mediterranian world about the time of the writing of Genesis by the Jewish rabbinical writers have to say about
Jewish History and Noah and his sons;
and the founding of the nations “north of the Caspian and Baltic Seas”; and of Greece: the “Mother of Western Civilization”!
Indo-Aryan Migration from Anatolia and Settement in Greece
Robert Graves & Raphael Patai, in Hebrew Myths: Stories of Cosmic Forces, Deities, Angels, Demons, Monsters, Giants and Heroes – Interpreted in the Light of Modern Anthropology and Mythology (Anchor Books: Doubleday: New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland, Australia), 1963,
1964, Pp. 226-227, indicated:
“Genesis, which is far more closely linked with Greek, Phoenician, Hittite, Ugaritic, Sumerian, and other bodies of myth than most pious Jews and Christians care to admit, was edited and re-edited from perhaps the 6th Century B.C. onwards, for moralistic ends. [pp. 14-15)
C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky and Jeremy A. Sabloff, “Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica, 2nd Edition (
The origin of man and the emergence of the three main races
Evolution of the Caucasoid
Vast sheets of ice, about a mile thick, had covered great parts of europe and, in a slightly warmer period when the ice was retreating,
We find a type of man settled in the southwestern part of eurasia (russia).
His bones are that of an africoid type. He stayed in that area even when the ice began to advance again. This is about 40,000 years ago. For the next 10,000 years he is walking about in extreme cold, covered in heavy animal skins, under an overcast sky. Something begins to happen to this man. His original black skin cannot, in the new frigid and twilight environment, produce enough vitamin d, so crucial to the proper mineralization of the bones. The ice age creates a serious survival crisis for the africoid inhabitants of europe. Black skin or melanin cover is a decisive advantage in the tropics. It screens off intense ultraviolet light to protect the body from the burn of the sun, but vitamin d is still adequately produced since the sunlight is so abundant. In the ice of europe at that point in time, the weak and tangential sunlight, the heavy animal skins required to protect the almost hairless body of the hominid from excessive cold, the long dark spells in the caves, called for a dropping of the melanin shield. A skin without that cover could, in a glacial environment, more easily assimilate the greatly reduced sunlight. … Evolutionary changes of this kind which occur in such a short time (about 10,000 years) can only be brought about by “genetic mutations.” the one genetic mutation that could account for the loss of pigmentation–the change of black skin to white skin–is albinism. But genetic mutations are usually dangerous to the organism.
In Africa, albinism–the inability of the body to produce melanin–would be a disaster. Albinos die very early in africa. In Europe, however, the albino lives out a full life span. What began, therefore, as a deviation became a stabilized norm. The facial structure also, not only the skin, underwent change. The narrower nose of the caucasoid is also related to this crisis in the ice. It is more effective in warming cold air. Who was this African (Black African Migrants to Eurasia (“Europe and Asia”) that underwent those critical changes in the ice of Europe?