Though no one doubts that the “biological history of humans” and “human origin” began during “prehistorical” times (the period of history prior to “medieval” and “ancient” history) the question still remains, even in the 21st century, as to whether this “biological history,” and “human origins,” are:
(1) religious, history according to Genesis I, of the Hebrew Old Testament or King James version of the Old Testament
(2) “historical,” according to the Bible and Greek, logic, reason, and philosophical speculations
or (3) historical, according to archaeological and scientific method, biological genetic evidence with regard to conclusions about the universe, nature, and events and occurrences in the world resulting in a “history of civilization.”
Using the Bible As History:
Using the “Bible” as history would be a subject matter for a religious or “biblical” discussion and interpretations about the universe and humankind, and events and occurrences in the world:
According to Genesis, Chapter I of the Hebrew Bible generally referred to as the Old Testament, “mankind’s” origin began in the Garden of Eden with the creation of both the world and Adam by God, Adam being created first and Eve created from one of Adam’s rib as indicated in one section of Genesis.
Creation of the World:
Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981, p. 17:
“Genesis 1:1: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” [Asimov 1981: 17]
“The Jews of the Middle Ages calculated the date of the creation to have been October 7, 3761 B.C., and this is still used in calculating the number of the year in the Jewish calendar. Thus September 1968 A.D. is the beginning of the year 5729 by that calendar. [Asimov 1981: 36]
“James Ussher, an Anglican archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, in 1654 decided that the creation had taken place in 4004 B.C. (At 9 A.M. of October 23 of that year, according to some). The date 4004 B.C. is often found at the head of the first pages of the Bible in editions of the King James version.” [Asimov 1981: 36]
Creation of humankind:
Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981:
Genesis 2:7: “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.”
“God creates a woman as a companion for Adam, forming her out of man’s rib.” (Genesis 2: 21-22: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.”)
Origin of Languages and the Races of Humankind:
Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981
The mention of “Ethiopia,” Assyria, and the “Euphrates” river in Genesis:
Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden … “
Genesis 2:13 – 2:14: “And the name of the second river is GIHON (NILE): the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.
And the name of the third river is HIDDEKE (TIGRIS)L: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria.
And the fourth river is EUPHRATES.”
The mention of “Sumeria” in Genesis:
“While the descendants of Noah were still a relatively small group, all speaking a single language, they came to Shinar (SUMERIA) and decided to build a huge tower there (NINEEH – TOWER OF BABEL), with which to ‘reach unto Heaven.’ However, God defeated their purpose by giving each man a different language, making it impossible for them to understand each other. Unable to continue their complex building activities, they had to leave off (LEANING TOWER OF BABEL), and this tale is used to explain the name of the city (BABYLON) in which the tower was built.
The mention of “THE TOWER OF BABEL” and implied reference to Babylonia:
“Genesis 11:9: Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth.
“In other words, the writers of Genesis derived ‘BABEL’ from the Hebrew word ‘BALAL,’ meaning ‘MIXED,’ ‘CONFUSED,’ OR ‘CONFOUNDED.’ This derivation is, however, a false one, for in the BABYLONIAN LANGUAGE, the name of the city is ‘BAB-ILU’ meaning ‘GATE OF GOD (TOWER TO HEAVEN).’
From this is derived the HEBREW ‘BABEL’ and the GREEK ‘BABYLON.’
THERE WAS AS IT HAPPENS, A TOWER IN BABEL; INDEED, THERE WERE TOWERS IN MOST SUMERIAN AND BABYLONIAN CITIES (ARCHEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES). The TEMPLES TO THE GODS took the form of STEPPED PYRAMIDS WHICH WERE ASCENDED BY INCLINED PLANES ABOUT THE OUTSIDE. These were called ZIGGURATS.
A LARGE ZIGGURAT IN BABYLON WAS BEGUN BY A SUMERIAN KING AND WAS LEFT UNFINISHED PERHAPS AS A RESULT OF THE DISORDERS INVOLVED IN THE SOUTHWARD MARCH OF SARGON OF AGADE [SARGON OF AGADE:
Encyclopedia Wikipedia: Sargon II (Akkadian Šarru-ukin “he [ the god] made firm the king”; reigned 722 – 705 BC) was an Assyrian king. Sargon II became the ruler of the Assyrian Empire in 722 BC after the death of Shalmaneser V. In his inscriptions, he styles himself as a new man, rarely referring to his predecessors; however he took the name Sharru-kinu (“true king”), after Sargon of Akkad — who had founded the first Semitic Empire in the region some 16 centuries earlier. Sargon is the Biblical form of the name.
Sargon was beset with wide-spread rebellions by at the beginning of his rule. Marduk-apla-iddina II, a chieftain of the Chaldean tribes in the marshes of the south, declared himself king of Babylon and was crowned king in 721 BC. In 720 BC, Sargon and Marduk-apla-iddina met in battle on the plains east of Babylon. Marduk-apla-iddina was supported by Elam. The Elamite troops were able to push back the Assyrian army, and he retained control of the south and the title of king of Babylon.
In 717 BC, the Syro-Hittite city of Carchemish on the Upper Euphrates. Carchemish was a small kingdom situated at an important Euphrates crossing. Sargon violated existing treaties in attacking the city, but with the wealth seized was able to continue to fund his army.
In 716 BC he moved against the Mannaeans, where the ruler Aza, son of Iranzu, had been deposed by Ullusunu with the help of the Urartuans. Sargon took the capital Izirtu, and stationed troops in Parsuash (the original home of the Persian tribe, on lake Urmia) and Kar-Nergal (Kishesim). He built new bases in Media as well, the main one being Harhar which he renamed Kar-Sharrukin. In 715 BC, others were to follow: Kar-Nabu, Kar-Sin and Kar-Ishtar — all named after Babylonian gods and resettled by Assyrian subjects.
The eighth campaign of Sargon against Urartu in 714 BC is well known from a letter from Sargon to the god Ashur (found in the town of Assur, now in the Louvre) and the bas-reliefs in the palace of Dur-Sharrukin. The reliefs show the difficulties of the terrain: the war-chariots had to be dismantled and carried by soldiers (with the king still in the chariot); the letter describes how paths had to be cut into the intractable forests. The campaign was probably motivated by the fact that the Urartians had been weakened by incursions of the Cimmerians, a nomadic steppe tribe. One Urartian army had been completely annihilated, and the general Qaqqadanu taken prisoner.
The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var pass near the village of Tang-i Var, Hawraman, Zagros
After reaching Lake Urmia, he turned east and entered Zikirtu and Andia on the Caspian slopes of the Caucasus. When news reached him that king Rusas I of Urartu was moving against him, he turned back to Lake Urmia in forced marches and defeated a Urartian army in a steep valley of the Uaush (probably the Sahend, east of Lake Urmia, or further to the south, in Mannaea country), a steep mountain that reached the clouds and whose flanks were covered by snow. The battle is described as the usual carnage, but King Rusas managed to escape. The horses of his chariot had been killed by Assyrian spears, forcing him to ride a mare in order to get away, very unbecoming for a king.
Sargon plundered the fertile lands at the southern and western shore of Lake Urmia, felling orchards and burning the harvest. In the royal resort of Ulhu, the wine-cellar of the Urartian kings was plundered; wine was scooped up like water. The Assyrian army then plundered Sangibuti and marched north to Van without meeting resistance, the people having retreated to their castles or fled into the mountains, having been warned by fire-signals. Sargon claims to have destroyed 430 empty villages.
After reaching Lake Van, Sargon left Urartu via Uaiaish. In Hubushkia he received the tribute of the “Nairi“ lands. While most of the army returned to Assyria, Sargon went on to sack the Urartian temple of the god Haldi and his wife Bagbartu at Musasir (Ardini). The loot must have been impressive; its description takes up fifty columns in the letter to Ashur. More than one ton of gold and five tons of silver fell into the hands of the Assyrians; 334,000 objects in total. A relief from Dur-Sharrukin depicted the sack of Musasir as well (which fell into the Tigris in 1846 when the archaeologist Paul-Émile Botta was transporting his artifacts to Paris). Musasir was annexed. Sargon claims to have lost only one charioteer, two horsemen and three couriers on this occasion. King Rusa was said to be despondent when he heard of the loss of Musasir, and fell ill. According to the imperial annals, he took his own life with his own iron sword.
In 713 BC, Sargon stayed at home; his troops took, among others, Karalla, Tabal and Cilicia. Persian and Mede rulers offered tribute. In 711 BC, Gurgum was conquered. An uprising in the Philistine city of Ashdod, supported by Judah, Moab, Edom and Egypt, was suppressed, and Philistia became an Assyrian province.
Conquest of Israel
Under his rule, the Assyrians completed the defeat of the Kingdom of Israel, capturing Samaria after a siege of three years and exiling the inhabitants. This became the basis of the legends of the Lost Ten Tribes. According to the Bible, other people were brought to Samaria, the Samaritans, under his predecessor Shalmaneser V (2 Kings 18). Sargon’s name actually appears in the Bible only once, at Isaiah 20:1, which records the Assyrian capture of Ashdod in 711 BC.
Campaign against Babylonia
In 710 BC Sargon felt safe enough in his rule to move against his Babylonian arch-enemy Marduk-apla-iddina II. One army moved against Elam and its new king Shutur-Nahhunte II to prevent them from supplying aid to Marduk-apla-iddina; the other, under Sargon himself, proceeded against Babylon. Sargon first moved against Dūr-Athara which he renamed Dūr-Nabû and made the capital of the new province of Gambalu. He then laid siege to Babylon, and Marduk-apla-iddina II fled. Sargon claimed that he entered Babylon at the request of the priests and civil servants. Babylon yielded to Sargon and he was proclaimed king of Babylonia in 710, thus restoring the dual monarchy of Babylonia and Assyria. He remained in Babylon for three years; in 709 BC, he led the new-year procession as king of Babylon.
Marduk-apla-iddina attempted to flee to Elam but the king forbade him entry. Taking hostages from Ur, Uruk, and other towns, he went to his ancestral city of Dūr-Jakin which he further fortified by adding to the walls and digging a canal from the Euphrates to flood the surrounding area. In 709 BC Sargon’s troops gained a victory outside the city but could not take Dūr-Jakin, where Marduk-apla-iddina had fled. A negotiated settlement was reached whereby Sargon would spare Marduk-apla-iddina’s life provided the city walls were demolished. It is not clear whether they were, since two years later, Sargon returned to take the down himself.
Sargon had his son, crown-prince Sennacherib, married to the Aramean noblewoman Naqi’a, and stayed in the south to pacify the Aramaic and Chaldean tribes of the lower Euphrates as well as the Suti nomads. Some areas in Elam were occupied as well.
In 710 BC, the seven Greek kings of Ia’ (Cyprus) had accepted Assyrian sovereignty; in 709, Midas, king of Phrygia, beset by the nomadic Cimmerians, submitted to Assyrian rule and in 708 BC, Kummuhu (Commagene) became an Assyrian province. Assyria was at the apogee of its power. Urartu had almost succumbed to the Cimmerians, Elam was weakened, Marduk-apla-iddina II was powerless, and the Egyptian influence in the Levant had been thwarted.
Human-headed winged bull, found during Botta’s excavation.
Dur-Sharrukin (“Fort Sargon”) was constructed as a new capital city by Sargon II shortly after he came to the throne in 721 B.C. The city measured about a square mile in area. It was enclosed within a great wall of unbaked brick pierced by seven gates. Protective genies were placed on either side of these entrances to act as guardians. The palace was richly decorated with relief-carved stone slabs.
The land in the environs of the town was taken under cultivation, and olive groves were planted to increase Assyria’s deficient oil production. The town was of rectangular layout and measured 1760 by 1635 m. The length of the walls was 16,280 Assyrian units, corresponding to the numerical value of Sargon’s name. The town was partly settled by prisoners of war and deportees under the control of Assyrian officials, who had to ensure they were paying sufficient respect to the gods and the king. The court moved to Dur-Sharrukin in 706 BC, although it was not completely finished.
In 705 BC, Sargon fell while driving the Cimmerians from Ancient Iran, where they were attacking Sargon’s Persian and Median vassals. They later ravaged the kingdoms of Urartu and Phrygia, before being finally subdued by the Assyrians. Sargon was succeeded by his son Sennacherib (Sin-ahhe-eriba.
For many centuries, the ziggurat remained incomplete and perhaps gained fame because of its shortcomings (as does the Leaning Tower of Pisa or Schubert’s Unfinished Symphony). It served as the model, one might assume, for the Biblical tale of the unfinished tower in Babel.
However, in the sixth century B.C., Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, finished the largest ziggurat ever built. It was formed in seven diminishing stages (one for each of the planets). .. This would make a respectable skyscraper now, and it was much smaller than the tremendous pyramids built by the Egyptians. It was however, the largest structure in southwestern Asia and more remarkable still, it was what is now so familiar to us as the ‘tower of Babel’ – finished at last.”[emphasis added]
Biblical Origin of the Greeks:
Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: the Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981
“The Greeks, it seems, must be considered – in Biblical terms – to be among the descendants of Japheth (in modern times “designated as people from “Europe, western Asia, and North Africa”!).
“Genesis 9:18: And the sons of Noah … were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan.”
“The writers of Genesis may even in this respect have been influenced by Greek traditions, reaching them dimly from the west.
For instance, Japheth himself has been identified by some with the Titan/Iapetus in the Greek myths. (Since the initial ‘J’ in Hebrew names is pronounced like a’Y’ in Hebrew, as is the initial “I’ in Greek names, the similarity between Japheth and Iapetus is greater than it appears in print.)
According to Greek myths, Iapetus was the father of Prometheus who, in turn, fathered the human race by molding them out of clay. For this reason, Iapetus was considered by the Greeks to be the ancestor of mankind; and, to the Hebrews, Iapheth was the ancestor of that portion of mankind in which the Greeks belonged. The sons and grandsons of Japheth are listed in the tenth chapter of Genesis:
THE SONS OF JAPHETH – THE NON-JEWISH (NON-SHEMITIC) BRANCH OF HUMANKIND – GOMER, MAGOG, MADAI, AND JAVAN
THE SONS OF GOMER: ASHKENAZ, RIPHATH, AND TOGARMAH:
- “Genesis 10:2: The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
“Genesis 10: 3: And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
“Genesis 10:4: And the sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodamim.”
“We must remember that such genealogies reflect the geographic and political situation of the Assyrian period, when the various parts of Genesis were reduced to writing. [See “When Genesis as Written,” below] Of the sons of Japheth, Gomer seems to be identical with the people who, in Assyrian inscriptions, were the ‘Gimirrai’ and these in turn were the people known in Latin spelling as the ‘Cimmerians.’
- In earlier times they lived north of the Black Sea but in the seventh century B.C., pushed on by new bands of barbarians in the rear, they invaded Asia Minor (Anatolia, modern day Turkey) and met the Assyrians there in earth-shaking battles. They were eventually defeated, to be sure, but Assyria was badly wounded in the process.
CIMMERIANS – DESCENDANTS OF GOMER – FIRST BORN OF JAPHETH:
“The Cimmerians would certainly be in prominent view at the time the tenth chapter was being written and their eponym, ‘Gomer,’ would, very reasonably, be viewed as the first-born of Japheth. (emphasis added)
LYDIANS (PEOPLE OF WESTEN ASIA MINOR) – DESCENDANTS OF MAGOG:
“As for Magog, that may represent ‘the land of Gog’ where Gog is the ruler known to us from the Greek historians as Gyges. He was king of the Lydians, a people in western Asia Minor (Anatolia, modern day Turkey) and was one of the important adversaries of the invading Cimmerians. In fact, he died in battle against them about 652 B.C. (emphasis added)
MEDES (EAST OF ASSYRIA) – DESCENDANTS OF MADAI:
“Madai is supposed to refer to the Medes, who inhabited the territory east of Assyria, and who were son to be among the final conquerors of Assyria. Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras are all thought to represent minor tribes of Asia Minor. The name ‘Tiras’ bears some similarities to the Greek ‘Tyrsenoi,’ which was applied to a people who, it was thought, dwelt originally in Asia Minor but migrated to Italy. If so, Tiras could represent the Etruscans. (emphasis added)
“The most interesting of the sons of Japheth is Javan. This name is almost certainly identical with an archaic form of the Greek ‘Ion,’ who was the eponym of the Ionian Greeks.
“The Ionians had, about 1000 B.C., migrated eastward to occupy the islands of the Aegean Sea and the coasts of Asia Minor. Of the various Greek tribes they were the nearest to Canaan and would be best known to the Israelites of Assyrian times. Their tribal name would be naturally applied to the Greeks generally. (emphasis added)
Origins of the “Teutonic’ or ‘Germanic” Tribal Names: Scythians and Cimmerians:
“Of Gomer’s sons, ‘Ashkenaz’ may be identical with the name ‘Ashguza’ found among Assyrian inscriptions. This seems to refer to the people known to the Greeks and therefore to ourselves, as the Scythians.
“The Scythians were nomadic tribes who entered Europe from somewhere in central Asia some time before 1000 B
“North of the Black Sea” – “Ashkenaz” – Germanic tribes:
“It was their pressure southward against the Cimmerians that drove the Cimmerians north of the Black Sea, and from that standpoint, Ashkenaz (Scythia) might well be considered the eldest son of Gomer (Cimmeria). For some reasons, the later Jews viewed Ashkenaz as the ancestor of the Teutonic people. For this reason German-speaking (Jews) were called ‘Ashkenazim’ as contrasted with the Spanish-speaking ‘Sephardim.’ (emphasis added)
JAVAN – DESCENDANTS OF JAVAN (PEOPLE IN THE GREEK-SPEAKING REGIONS CLOSEST TO ISRAEL – ELISHAH (ISLAND OF CYPRUS COLONIZED BY GREEKS – CLOSEST TO CANAAN – KITTIM (CITY ON THE SOUTHERN COAST OF CYPRUS USED FOR ENTIRE ISLAND)
“It would be expected that the sons of Javan listed in Genesis 10;4 would refer to those Greek-speaking regions closest to Israel. Elishah seems to be similar to the ‘Alashiyah’ found in Assyrian documents and this refers to the island of Cyprus. This had already been colonized by Greeks in Assyrian times, and it was the closest of all Greek-speaking lands to Canaan, being only two hundred miles to the northeast. Indeed Cyprus is mentioned twice, for Kittim surely represents Kition (Citium in Latin), a city on the southern coast of the island, the name of which was often used for the entire island. (emphasis added)
DODANIM – DESCENDANTS OF DODANIM (RODANIM, ISLAND OF RHODES WEST OF CYPRUS)
“Dodanim is widely thought to be a misprint for Rodanim; in fact, it is given as Rodanim in some early copies of the Bible. If the name is Rodanim then it is tempting to equate it with the island of Rhodes, two hundred miles west of Cyprus.
TARSHISH – DESCENDANTS OF TARSHISH (A CITY IN SPAIN OR TARSUS, A GREEK TOWN NORTH OF CYPRUS – SOUTHERN COAST OF ASIA MINOR – GREEKS OF ASIA MINOR)
“Tarshish, on the basis of references later in the Bible, is usually taken to represent a city in Spain. However, it occurs to me that in this one instance, it might represent Tarsus, an important Greek town, a hundred miles north of Cyprus, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. It was an important city in Assyrian times and might represent the Greeks of Asia Minor generally. (emphasis added) —————————
- In A Section Entitled AWhen Did The Whites First Reach Egypt And From Where?@ Joel A. Rogers Indicated:
PROFESSOR BREASTED’S REFERENCE TO A “WILDERNESS OF SAVAGE EUROPE‘UNTOUCHED BY ‘ INHABITED BY GERMANIC AND CELTIC TRIBES;
For Centuries Even After Caesar Wrote, London, Paris, Berlin Were Wildernesses With Not The Faintest Glimmer Of What They Were To Be.
As Professor Breasted Says with regard to any “fair sinned invaders from the North”:
‘On The Borders Of This Earliest Civilized World Of Egypt And Western Asia
Lay For Some Two Thousand Years
The Wilderness Of Savage Europe Stretching Far Westward To The Atlantic, Untouched By Civilization,
Except At Its Southeastern Corner, Where The Greek Islands Looked Southeastward To The Mouth Of The Nile
And Eastward Toward Hittite Asia Minor. [Footnote: James H. Breasted, American Historical Review, January, 1929, P. 219]
There Is No Definite Proof Of The Coming Of The First Whites To Egypt, Or Of When Race-Mixing Began. We Do Know That They Came In Large Numbers As Conquerors Under the Babylonians and Assyrians and Alexander The Great,
But That Was Thousands Of Years After The Founding Of Egypt by Africans then inhabiting the Great Lakes region close to the Equator.
There were no such thing as a “white Nordic” invasion by civilized any civilized “fair skinned invaders from the North,” more likely “light brown skinned descendants of the African migrants 50,000 to 40,000 years ago during at the time of the Wurm III glacial ice period. The barbaric, uncivilized Germanic and Celtic tribes of northeastern Europe (Eurasia) had been enslaved by the Romans after 300 B.C. and invasions of northern Africa did not begin until after 700 B.C. by Babylonians, Assyrians, and Macedonians under Alexander the Great.
Inhabitants north of Egypt from the Middle East or the Tigris and Euphrates River valley First Came In As vassals, captives and slaves after 1500 B.C. after invasions by and extensions of the Ancient African Egyptian empire by Ancient African Egyptian Pharaohs Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, and Ramess II
Although Mixing Between Black And Middle East Asians Might Have Begun Before The Fifth Dynasty. Petrie, mistakenly assuming that there had been a racial mixing of “whites from the North,” spoke Of The Ancient Egyptian ruling race Said,
“There Is A ‘Coarse Type Of Mulatto’ Appearance; And It Is Certain That There Is Much Negro Blood In The Oldest Egyptians. We Have One Element Of The Mulatto In Evidence … The Negroes Were Most Likely To Have Mixed With The ‘Fair Races Which Bounded On The North’ …
[Footnote: Petrie, Religion And Conscience In Ancient Egypt, New York, 1898, Pp. 26-27]
At That Time The so called “Nordics” Were On A Social Scale Comparable With That Of The Lowest New Guinea Native Today. Julius Caesar And Tacitus Have Given Us A Most Precise Description Of What They Were As Late As The Beginning Of The Christian Era And St. Jerome Late As The Fourth Century A.D.
There Is Now Sufficient Archaeological, Anthropological, Molecular Biological, Genetic, And Linguistic Evidence, To Provide The Needed Historical
Evidence Or Proof That There Is A Valid And Legitimate “racially black” identified African Heritage Inhuman biological and cultural history.
Contrary to 19th and 20th century and some 21st century textbooks there have been Historically Great Men Of Achievement And Distinction whose history consisted of very much more than over 500 Years As Slaves .
Established Or Laid The Foundations Of Science, Philosophy, Religion, And Medicine, building the world’s First Hugh Tombs And Pyramids, Including as One Of The Seven Wonders Of The World, and Outstanding Architectually Designed Religious Temples, And Palaces, Colossal Monuments, Edifices, And Statutes.
The Establishment Of Political Governments And Urban Bureaucratic Administrative Institutions That Meet The Necessary Imperatives And Essential Pivotal Elements That Are Said To Form An Integral Part In The Definition Of What Is A ACivilization.@
The Creation By Those Africans Of Those Civilizations Thousands Of Years Prior To The Greek And Roman Civilizations, Which Were The Beginnings Of AWestern Civilization, And
Following The Invasions Of The African Nile River Valley After 700 B.C.
Invasions of the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley Civilizations
By Assyrians And Babylonians.
- The Tigris-Euphrates River Valley Civilization
- The Indus River Valley Civilization
- The Chinese (Yangze) River Valley Civilization
- The Greek And Roman Civilization
Joel A. Rogers, Sex And Race: Negro – Caucasian Mixing In All Ages And All Lands, Volume I: The Old World (Helga M. Rogers: New York), 1967, Foreward, p. 50.