THE MIDDLE KINGDOM – MOSES AND THE EXODUS – CROSSING THE JORDAN – THE ABSENCE OF THE AFRICAN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CONQUERING PHARAOHS OF ANCIENT ISRAEL / CANAAN IN THE HEBREW OLD TESTAMENT

CHRONOLOGY – ABRAHAM –  THUTMOSE III – MOSES – AKHENATEN – RAMESES II – MERNEPTAH

Note carefully the following chronology:

  1. Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt: 2050 B.C. – 1800 B.C.

Itt was during the Middle Kingdom (2050 B.C. – 1800 B.C.) it was indicated that:

“pharaohs promoted the welfare of the downtrodden”

One of them claimed:

‘I gave to the destitute, and brought up the orphan. I caused him who was nothing to reach his goal, like him who was somebody.’

  • John A. Wilson, trans. “The Burden of Egypt (University of Chicago Press: Chicago), 1951, p. 117, quoted in “Civilizations Past and Present,” Edited T. Walter Wallbank, Alastair M. Taylor, Nels M. Bailkey, George F. Jewsbury, Clyde J. Lewis, Neil J. Hackett (Scott, Foresman and Company: Glenview, Illinois; London, England), 1987, p. 16]

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II.  ABRAHAM – historically given the approximate date of 2000 B.C.

III.  PHARAOH THUTMOSE III (1504 – 1450 B.C.)

Kathleen M Kenyon, Revised Edition by P.R.S. Moorey, The Bible and Recent Archaeology (John

Knox Press: Atlanta), 1978, 1987 indicated:

Archaeological Evidence indicating the conquest and placing in vassalage the inhabitants of the Levant, Canaan, or Ancient Israel by African-Egyptian Pharaoh Thuthmose III is provided by an eminent and respected Jewish archaeologist, Kathleen M Kenyon who stated:

It is now largely agreed that the first organization of Canaan into a political and commercial empire under Egypt’s domination falls a century or so later, under Thutmose III (1479 B.C. – 1425 B.C.), whose campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean are among the best documented in Egyptian History. Following them, towns in western Canan controlling the coastal route and in the north guarding Egypt’s route into Syria, began to flourish as the principal suppliers of food and other needs for the military enterprises and local administration undertaken by Egyptians in the following two centuries.

The Amarna letters were letters to Pharaoh Akhenaten from client rulers of city-states in Canaan composed in a form of the Akkadian language included actual Canaanite words, and written on clay tablets in the cuneiform script.   In the Thirteenth and Earlier Twelfth centuries B.C. both textual and archaeological evidence may now increasingly be seen to indicate that Egypt sharply tightened her military control with increased numbers of Egyptian army and administrative personnel established in Canaan.

1453 – 1419 B.C. – Pharaoh Amenhotep II

1387 B.C. – 1350 B.C. – Amenhotep I

Amenhotep III and his son Akhenaten, who ruled Egypt in the 14th century B.C.

IV.  AKHENATEN (1350 B.C. – 1334 B.C.)

Pharaoh Akhenaton) was a part of the “Golden Age” in Egypt, introduced “monotheism”, abolished old gods, and took the name Akhenaton after Aton, the sun god.

The almost 400 Amarna tablets, now scattered in museums around the world, include letters sent to Pharaoh Akhenaten in Egypt by rulers of powerful states, such as the Hittites of Anatolia and the rulers of Babylonia. But most were sent from rulers of city-states in Canaan, who were vassals of Egypt during this period. The senders included the rulers of Canaanite cities that would later become famous in the Bible, such as Jerusalem, Schem, Megiddo, Hazor, and Lachish. Most important, the Amarna Letters reveal that Canaan was an Egyptian province,closely controlled by Egyptian administration.

The provincial captital was located in Gaza, but Egyptian garrisons were stationed at key sites throughout the country, like Beth-shean south of the Sea of Galilee and at the port of Jaffa (Today part of the city of Tel Aviv).

In the Bible, no Egyptians are reported outside the borders of Egypt and None are mentioned in any of the battles within Canaan. Yet Contemporary texts and archaeological finds indicate that they managed and carefully watched over the affairs of the country. The princes of the Canaanite cities described in the Book of Joshua as powerful enemies) were, in actuality pathetically weak. Excavations have shown that the cities of Canaan in this period were not regular cities of the kind we know in later history. They were mainly administrative strongholds for the elite, housing the king, his family, and his small entourage of bureaucrats, with the peasants living scattered throughout the surrounding countryside in small villages. … But there were no city walls.

The formidable Canaanite cities described in the conquest narrative were not protected by fortifications! The reason apparently was that with Egypt firmly in charge of security for the entire province, there was no need of massive defensive walls. … The minuscule scale of the forces of the period is confirmed by a letter sent by the king of Megiddo, who asks the pharaoh to send a hundred soldiers to guard a city from an attack by his aggressive neighbor, the king of Schechem. The Amarna Letters describe the situation during the 14th century B.C., a hundred or so years before the supposed date of the Israelite Conquest.

We have no such detailed source of informationabout affairs in Canaan during the Thirteenth Century B.C. Yet Pharaoh Ramesses II, who ruled during most of the 13th Century B.C. was not likely to have slackened his military oversight of Canaan. He Was a strong king, possibly the strongest of all Pharaohs, who was deeply interested in foreign affairs.

Other indications both literary and archaeological seem to show that in the 13th century B.C., the grip of Egypt on Canaan was stronger than ever.

Archaeology has uncovered dramatic evidence of the extent of Egyptian presence in Canaan itself. An Egyptian stronghold, was excavated at the site of Beth-shean to the south of the Sea of Galilee in the 1920s. Its various structures and courtyards contained statues and inscribed hieroglyphic monuments from the days of the pharaohs Seto I (1294-1279 B.C.

======…

The historical period of time for Moses:

VI.  MOSES –  Moses in Canaan

JEWISH EXODUS – c.  1300 B.C. – 1280 – 1260 the approximate date for the Jewish Exodus and the crossing of the Jordan after they left Egypt

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V..  RAMESES II –   1291 – 1270 B.C. the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II

Ramesses II and Ramesesses III (1184 B.C. – 1070B.C.).

The ancient Canaanite city of Megiddo disclosed evidence for strong Egyptian influence as late as the days of Ramesses VI, who ruled toward the end of the 12th century B.C.

=======…

1220 B.C. or 1200 B.C. B 1050 B.C. (or 1045 B.C. given as the Period of the Judges

VI.  MERNEPTAH – 1279 B.C. – 1212 B.C. – the reign of the Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah whose inscription on a stele included the name “Israel.”

So you read and decide!

[Excerpt from:   Harold L Carter, The Human Odyssey:   The African Odyssey:  The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History:  From 4.6 Billion Years Ago and the Earliest Civilizations :  5000 – 3000 Years Ago to the 21st Century (Winter, 2015)

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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