CHAPTER ON SUMERIA
CONTRARY TO THE PREDOMINANTLY FEATURED IN AMERICA’S HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS – MESOPOTAMIA WAS A INVENTED WORD FOR BOTH THE UPPER AND LOWER TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEY REGION –
THE SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION WAS LOCATED IN THE AFRICAN BLACK-SETTLED LOWER OR SOUTHERN TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEY REGION
HERE IS THE AUTHENTIC WORLD HISTORY FOR THAT HISTORIC PERIOD OF TIME AS PRESENTED IN HAROLD L CARTER’S “THE HUMAN ODYSSEY: THE AFRICAN ODYSSEY: THE AFRICAN HERITAGE IN WORLD HISTORY …”:
The Earliest Sumerian Cities
Ur itself, while not the earliest of the great Sumerian cities, was arguably the most important. … Written records acknowledge her existence until 440 B.C.
The third dynasty itself lasted for nearly a century, 2112 b.c. – 2015 b.c., under the reign of five brilliant rulers who elevated Ur to the status of a great empire.
The third dynasty rulers of Ur assumed the titles of “King of Sumer and Akkad” and this was not the first time a Sumerian city-state had reached out to embrace the surrounding regions.
During the reign of its powerful Governor Gudea, 2142 B.C – 2122 B.C.,
Lagash subjugated Susa and much of Elam.
The powerful rulers of the third dynasty had initially been able to hold these nomadic and half savage tribes at a distance, but by the end of the third millennium B.C., the dam was ready to burst. The northern food producing regions first attracted the attention and then the violent assaults of the interlopers, who through the domestication of the horse, afflicted the Sumerians with wave after wave of lightning swift attacks, creating both panic and famine in the populous southern city-states.
AThe Sumerians called these roving tribes: … the Mar-tu who know no grain. … the Mar-tu who know no house or town, the boors of the mountain. … the Mart-tu who does not bend (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after his death.
[Footnote: E. Chiera, Sumerian Epics and Myths (Chicago), 1934, Nos. 58 & 112]@
Professor Rashidi stated:
Invasion of Sumeria by Elamites and of Akkad by Amorite tribes B
Mesopotamian empires then ruled by Semite:AIs this how the now mighty Semites and Indo-Europeans entered history? If so, as seems apparent, it is quite ironic. … Any of these factors might have caused the declineof Sumer. Combined they spelled their doom.
The seemingly stable empire rapidly fell apart and Sumer’ former vassals turned on her with a vengeance. [Footnote: The death blow came at the hands of the Elamites from the eastern hills, who overran Sumer and carried off the last king of the third dynasty, with the temples plundered of their treasures.
At the same time, amorite tribes led by the ruler of Mari occupied the land of Akkad. This disaster marks the end of Sumerian political leadership in Mesopotamia.
The territories of the third dynasty broke apart into city-states, such as Isin and Larsa; and the empires to follow in Mesopotamia, down to the Persian, were run by Semites.
[Footnote: William H. Mc Neill, The Origins of Civilization (Oxford University Press: London), 1968, pp. 67-68]Who were the Semites:
(one must remember that there were different racial and cultural elements in Susa/Elam).
By the beginning of the second millennium B.C., non-africoid types became predominant in Iran’s mountainous regions).
By 1700 B.C., the Sumerian black-heads, who for a thousand years had dominated the Mesopotamian center stage and laid the foundation for every near eastern civilization that was to come after it, had, in essence, vanished from history.
Over the black-headed people the winds swept.
[Footnote: ‘Over the black-headed people the winds swept. The people groan … Covered Ur like a garment, enveloped it like linen. … The raging storm has attacked unceasingly. The people groan. … In its boulevards where the feasts were celebrated they were viciously attacked. In all its streets where they were wont to promenade, dead bodies were lying about; in its places where the festivities of the land took place the people were ruthlessly laid low. Mothers and fathers who did not leave (their) houses were overcome by fire. The young lying on their mother=s bosoms like fish were carried off by the waters. The nursing mother – pried open were their breasts. The black-headed people wherever they laid their heads were carried off.
“Lamentations over the Destruction of Ur,” N. Kramer, ed. Assyriological Studies, no. 12, Oriental Institute (University Of Chicago Press: Chicago), 1940.]
Elam was the first high culture of Iran. It had many affinities with Sumer and shared her eastern border. The country was divided into two parts: Anshan and the mountainous north, and Susiana with its capital of Susa in the south. The early Elamites seem to have titled their land Anzan-Sousounka, with the term Elam perhaps introduced by the early Hebrew writers.
Who were the Elamtes?
As is to be expected, a number of scholars, e.g. elliot smith, demonstrate numerous similarities between the material cultures of early Elam and the Nile Valley, including arrow-heads, polished stone implements, pressure-flaking, mace heads, scripts, pottery forms, stone vases, female figurines, art motifs, and metal mirrors.
[footnote: g. Elliot Smith, Human History (Norton & Co: New York), 1929, pp. 365-368.
Sumarian and Babylonian Myths
Runoko Rashidi – “The invasion of Sumeria by savage barbrians “from the east”:
“Invasion by half-savage Indo-European and Semitic people: … The continuing spread of Indo-European and Semitic peoples after the mid-third millenium B.C. had begun to isolate Sumer and seriously challenge, not only her dominance of Lower Mesopotamia, but her existence itself.”