Michael Brown, In The Search For Eve (Harper & Row, Publishers: New York), 1990, Asked The Following Questions With Regard To Evolution And What Issues Are Involved In A Theory Of The Origin Of The Universe, The Planet Earth, Life On Earth, And Human Life In Particular:

Was Mankind Only 6,000 Years Old? … [NO!

Was Modern  Mankind (Sic) Only 6,000 Years Old As The Religious Fundamentalists Believed, Or A Million Years Old, As Old-Time Anthropologists Preferred?

Did Our Particular Subspecies Originate In Europe Where The Modern-Looking, Cave-Painting Cro-Magnon Man Began Around 30,000 B.C. Or In Africa

Or Perhaps Even In North America Or Australia, As Some Dared To Speculate?

Or Did Round-Skulled, Big-Brained, Small-Browed Humans – The Very First Anatomically Modern Humans, Like The Ones Characterized In The First Chapter, With No Pronounced Apelike Features Evolve In Several Regions Independent Of Each Other?

Was Erectus As Best Personified By Java (southeast Eurasia) And Peking Man (Central Eurasia) The True Founding Stock?

Was Erectus As Best Personified By Java And Peking Man The True Founding Stock, As So Many Scholars Had Come To Accept?   (About 1 Million Years Ago?

Was Neandertal An Ancestor Of Modern Humans Or An Extinct (Eurasian – Euroean) Offshoot?

Again, Where (Africa) And How Did The First Modern Humans Arise To Take Over The Globe. Causing

The Less Human Hominids To Head For The Dustbin Of Extinction?

[Not Quite – Archaeological Discovery of Ardipithecus! – “A. ramidus was named in September 1994. The first fossil found was dated to 4.4 million years ago on the basis of its stratigraphic position between two volcanic strata: the basal Gaala Tuff Complex (GATC) and the Daam Aatu Basaltic Tuff (DABT).[5] The name Ardipithecus ramidus stems mostly from the Afar language, in which Ardi means “ground/floor” (borrowed from the Semitic root in either Amharic or Arabic) and ramid means “root”. The pithecus portion of the name is from the Greek word for “ape” …

] In 1992–1993 a research team headed by Tim White discovered the first A. ramidus fossils—seventeen fragments including skull, mandible, teeth and arm bones—from the Afar Depression in the Middle Awash river valley of Ethiopia. More fragments were recovered in 1994, amounting to 45% of the total skeleton. This fossil was originally described as a species of Australopithecus, but White and his colleagues later published a note in the same journal renaming the fossil under a new genus, Ardipithecus. Between 1999 and 2003, a multidisciplinary team led by Sileshi Semaw discovered bones and teeth of nine A. ramidus individuals at As Duma in the Gona Western Margin of Ethiopia’s Afar Region.[7] The fossils were dated to between 4.35 and 4.45 million years old.”

What Were The Biological And Cultural Processes That Gave Rise To The Earliest Human Communities?

With Regard To Geneticists And The Dramatic Claims Of The Late 1980s Upon Discovering What Was Considered The Very First Point Of True Modern Origin, And The Specific Time Of Origin, Michael Brown Indicated:

It Was On New Year’s Day That The Geneticists Staked Their Claim. On Page 31 In The January 1, 1987, Issue Of Nature, Two Scientists From The University Of California At Berkeley And Another From The University Of Hawaii Presented A Highly Technical Paper Entitled: AMitochondrial Dna And Human Evolution.

Under The Heading Was A Summary (Known As The Abstract) That Made All Of Paleoanthropology Take Note. It Was Even Startling:

“Mitochondrial Dnas From 147 People, Drawn From Five Geographic Populations, Have Been Analyzed By Restriction Mapping. All These Mitochondrial Dna Stem From One Woman Who Is Postulated To Have Lived About 200,000 Years Ago … [IN AFRICA!]. …


Christopher Stringer And Robin Mckie, In African Exodus: The Origin Of Modern Humanity (A John Macrae Book: Henry Holt And Company: New York), 1996, 1997, Chapter 5: AThe Mother Of All Humans?@ Began With A Quote:

Fossil Bones And Footsteps And Ruined Homes Are The Solid Facts Of History. But The Surest Hints, The Most Enduring Signs, Lie In Those Minuscule Genes. For A Moment We Protect Them With Our Lives, Then Like Relay Runners With A Baton, We Pass Them On To Be Carried By Our Descendants.- And:

There Is A Poetry In Genetics Which Is More Difficult To Discern In Broken Bones,And Genes Are The Only Unbroken Living Thread That Weaves Back And Forth Through AllThose Boneyards.”

—  B Jonathan Kingdon, Self-Made Man And His Undoing


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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