JOHN BAINES – ONE OF THE 26 “EUROCENTRIC” INTELLECTUALS INCLUDED IN MARY LEFKOWICH’S “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED” AND HIS SUPPORT OF ANCIENT AFRICAN EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE ON GREEK AND ROMAN RELIGION, ETC. AND “GREEK CIVILIZATION” AND “WESTERN CIVILIZATION” !

 

FROM WALLBANK, ET AL.  “WORLD HISTORY” TEXTBOOK:

 

NOTE EXTREMELY …. VERY CAREFULLY … THE RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS OF

 

JOHN BAINES

 

ONE OF HE 26 EUROCENTRISTS OPPOSING THE TEACHING OF “BLACK HISTORY” – THE HISTORY OF PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT

 

AND PARTICULARLY TEACHING THAT THE ANCIENT AFRICANEGYPTIANS “WERE BLACK” AND “INFLUENCED “GREEK CIVILIZATION” WITH REGARD TO RELIGION, ETC. AND THE SO-CALLED “WESTERN CIVILIZATION” (MADE  UP TO INCLUDE THE NORTHEASTERN EURASIA (EUROPE) GERMANIC TRIBES AND CENTRAL EURASIAN CELTIC TRIBES THAT INVADED ROME AND BECAME ASSIMILATED OR A PART OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

 

THOUGH HE DID NOT WANT TO BE IDENTIFIED AS  SUPPORTIVE OR THE ABOVE HIS RSEARCH CONCLUSIONS LED HIM TO PUBLISH THE FOLLOWING:

 

CHECK IT OUT – IT IS NEAR THE END OF THIS POST AFTER PHARAOH AKHENATON’S HYMN – INCLUDING

 

“HOW MANIFEST ARE THY WORKS”

 

====== 

THIS IS WHAT TO LOOK FOR:

 

…  

“[FOOTNOTE: AQUOTED BY JAMES H. BREASTED, THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION AND THOUGHT IN ANCIENT EGYPT (CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS: NEW YORK), 1912, P. 324, 326.

 

ERIK HORNUNG,

 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

 

BY JOHN BAINES, CONCEPTIONS OF GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT: THE ONE AND THE MANY (CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESS: ITHACA, NEW YORK), 1971, 1982, 1996

 

Emmanuel de rouge initiated a new and lasting period of achievement in french egyptology.  HE WAS PROBABLY THE FIRST EXPLICIT EXPONENT OF THE CONVICTION THAT EGYPTIAN RELIGION WAS ORIGINALLY AND FUNDAMENTALLY MONOTHEISTIC.  

 

FOR DE ROUGE ITS AENDURING AND SUBLIME FOUNDATION WAS THE UNITY OF THE SUPREME BEING, HIS ETERNITY AND OMNIPOTENCE,- WHICH WERE NEVER SMOTHERED BY POLYTHEISM.

 

==========  

THE WALLBANK,  ET AL. QUOTE:

 

 

“… THE MOST IMPRESSIVE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE OLD KINGDOM WAS THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PYRAMIDS, TOMBS DESIGNED TO PROTECT EACH DEAD RULER’S BODY SO THAT, AS THE REPRESENTATIVE OF HIS PEOPLE, HE MIGHT BECOME IMMORTAL.  AIN TIME THE STRONG CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT OF THE OLD KINGDOM WAS UNDERMINED BY THE RISE OF INDEPENDENT PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS AND THE AUTHORITY OF THE PHARAOHS COLLAPSED.

 

Eventually, the princes of thebes, a city in the upper nile, succeeded in reestablishing national unity.  Athis new epoch, the middle kingdom, flourished between 2050 and 1800 b.c.  While the old kingdom is famous for its pyramids,

 

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM IS NOTEWORTHY FOR ITS LITERATURE AND GENERAL EXCELLENCE IN THE ARTS.

 

Alien invasion of the Hyksos:

 

But once more the country fell upon evil days with its conquest in 1800 b.c. By an alien asian people known as the hyksos.  More than two centuries elapsed before the princes of the south restored independence to the unhappy land.

 

The last magnificent period in Egyptian history, the empire, began in 1570 b.c. And lasted for a few vigorous centuries:asubsequently, the last magnificent period in egyptian history, the empire, began in 1570 b.c. And lasted for a few vigorous centuries.

 

A NEW DYNASTY ESTABLISHED NAVAL SUPREMACY IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND CONQUERED STRATEGIC AREAS IN THE FERTILE CRESCENT.

 

 

A GREAT PHARAOH OF THIS EPOCH WAS THUTMOSE III (1490 B.C. – 1436 B.C.), A REDOUBTABLE WARRIOR, WHO CONQUERED PALESTINE, PHOENICIA, AND SYRIA,  AND CROSSED THE EUPHRATES AND RECEIVED GIFTS FROM DISTANT BABYLONIA.

 

One of the most important egyptian contributions to civilization was the development of writing, and especialy the introduction of semi-alphabetic writing.

 

Writing originated through the use of picturelike signs first to represent objects and later ideas.  The next advance was to use the same signs to represent the sounds of the words expressing those ideas.  Once the signs were identified with sounds, some were conventionalized to represent the sounds of syllables, the stage of syllabic writing.  With syllables signs an indefinite number of words could then be written phonetically with symbols representing their sounds.

 

ABOUT 3000 B.C. THE EGYPTIANS HAD REACHED THE POINT OF USING SPECIAL CHARACTERS FOR CERTAIN VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.

 

[THIS BECAME THE ARGUING POINT FOR THE “BEGINNING OF THE SO-CALLED “MESOPOTAMIAN” CIVILIZATION – USING “MESOPOTAMIAN TO COVER BOTH THE BABYLONIAN AND SUMERIAN CIVILIZATIONS … THOUGH THE SUMERIAN CIVILIZATIONS EXISTED CENTURIES BEFORE THE BABYLONIAN.  THIS IS SO THE CONCLUSION CAN BE MADE “THAT CIVILIZATION “AROSE” EQUALLY IN THE “MIDLE EAST” … “MESOPOTAMIA”  … AND IN THE NILE RIVER VALLEY IN ANCIENT AFRICAN EGYPT ! ]

 

THE INVENTION OF WRITING REPRESENTS ONE OF THE GREAT MILESTONES OF HUMAN PROGRESS.  NOW MAN COULD ACCUMULATE KNOWLEDGE, RECORD IT AND PASS IT ON TO HIS DESCENDANTS.

 

SOME OF THE OLDEST WRITING IS FOUND IN PYRAMID TEXTS, WHICH WERE MAINLY RELIGIOUS, THEIR PURPOSE BEING TO ASSIST THE DECEASED IN TOMBS TO OBTAIN IMMORTALITY.AEGYPTIAN LITERATURE.

 

====

 

DURING THE MIDDLE KINGDOM LITERATURE BEGAN TO FLOURISH, PARTICULARLY FOLK TALES AND COLLECTIONS OF PROVERBS.

 

=======

 

EGYPTIAN FOLK TALES AND COLLECTION OF PROVERBS:

 

ONE POPULAR STORY RECOUNTED THE PERILS OF A SHIPWRECKED SAILOR, a narrative which is a prototype of sinbad the sailor.

 

HEBREW RABBINICAL “BORROWING” OF

 

“THE TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS “ – THE BIBLICAL STORY OF “ JOSEPH”

 

(HEBREW TRIBAL MIGRATION TO EGYPT –

 

JOSEPH BECOMING A PHARAOH –

 

ORIGIN OF

 

THE HEBREW

 

“EPIC PROSE  – LEGEND OF MOSES ! )

 

 

ANOTHER NARRATIVE OF IMPORTANCE WAS THE TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS, WHICH HAS STRIKING RESEMBLANCE TO THE BIBLICAL STORY OF JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN.

 

MOST OF THE LITERATURE WAS EXPRESSED

 

IN POETIC LANGUAGE, EVEN THOUGH IN PROSE FORM.

 

THE MOST BEAUTIFUL SURVIVING PIECE OF EGYPTIAN LITERATURE IS IKHNATON’S HYMN TO THE SUN.  A FEW LINES WILL SUFFICE TO GIVE SOME IDEA OF ITS POETIC QUALITY AND ITS CONCEPTION OF AN ALL POWERFUL CREATOR AND HEAVENLY FATHER.A >THY DAWNING IS BEAUTIFUL IN THE HORIZON OF THE SKY,

 

O living aton, beginning of life!

When thou risest in the eastern horizon,

Thou fillest every land with thy beauty

Thou are beautiful, great, glittering, high above every land,

Thy rays, they encompass the lands, even all that thou hast made,

HOW MANIFOLD ARE THY WORKS!

They are hidden from before us,

 

O SOLE GOD, WHOSE POWERS NO OTHER POSSESSETH,

THOU DIDST CREATE THE EARTH ACCORDING TO THY HEART

WHILE THOU WAST ALONE.

 

[FOOTNOTE: AQUOTED BY JAMES H. BREASTED, THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION AND THOUGHT IN ANCIENT EGYPT (CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS: NEW YORK), 1912, P. 324, 326.

 

ERIK HORNUNG,

 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

 

BY JOHN BAINES, CONCEPTIONS OF GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT: THE ONE AND THE MANY (CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESS: ITHACA, NEW YORK), 1971, 1982, 1996

 

Emmanuel de rouge initiated a new and lasting period of achievement in french egyptology.  HE WAS PROBABLY THE FIRST EXPLICIT EXPONENT OF THE CONVICTION THAT EGYPTIAN RELIGION WAS ORIGINALLY AND FUNDAMENTALLY MONOTHEISTIC.

 

FOR DE ROUGE ITS AENDURING AND SUBLIME FOUNDATION WAS THE UNITY OF THE SUPREME BEING, HIS ETERNITY AND OMNIPOTENCE,- WHICH WERE NEVER SMOTHERED BY POLYTHEISM.

 

=============  

 

 [FOOTNOTE:

 

ACCORDING TO E. A. W. BUDGE,

 

THE GODS OF THE EGYPTIANS OR STUDIES IN EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY I (LONDON, 1904) 142,

 

CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, THE BROTHER OF THE DECIPHERER OF THE HIEROGLYPHIC SCRIPT

 

HAD ALREADY PROPOSED A “MONOTHEISTIC” INTERPRETATION OF EGYPTIAN RELIGION

 

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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