26 DEDICATED “EUROCENTRIST” INTELLECTUALS CHALLENGE THE RACIALLY BLACK IDENTITY OF ANCIENT EGYPTIANS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON “GREEK CIVILIZATION” AND “WESTERN CIVILIZATION”

TWENTY-SIX DEDICATED “EUROCENTRIST” INTELLECTUALS  RALLY IN A PUBLISHED BOOKI:  “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED” 1996, EDITED BY MARY LEFKOWITZWELLESLEY COLLGE, AUTHOR OF “NOT OUT OF AFRICA”  AND GUY MACLEAN ROGERS, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, AUTHOR OF “THE SACRED IDENTITY OF EPHESOS: FOUNDATION OF MYTHS OF A ROMAN CITY”  

TO ARGUE AND PRESENT EVIDENCE THAT:

  1.  “WESTERN CIVILIZATION” WAS NOT FOUNDED BY ANCIENT AFRICAN “EGYPTIANS”
  2. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WERE NOT “BLACK”
  3. THE ANCIENT GREEKS DID NOT BORROW RELIGION, SCIENCE, AND PHILOSOPHY FROM THE ANCIENT AFRICAN EGYPTIANS
  4. “SCHOLARS” HAVE NOT “IGNORED” THE AFRICAN (OR ASIAN) ROOTS OF “WESTERN CIVILIZATION” AS A RESULT OF RACISM (AND “ANTI-SEMITICISM”)
  5. CHALLENGED MARTIN BERNAL FOR PROPOSING “RADICAL” REINTERPRETATION OF THE ROOTS OF “CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION”  BY CONTENDING THAT “ANCIENT GREEK CULTURE” DERIVED FROM ANCIENT EGYPT (AND “PHOENICIA”) AND THAT “EUROPEAN SCHOLARS” HAVE BEEN BIASED AGAINST THE NOTION OF “ANCIENT EGYPTIAN” (AND “PHOENICIAN”) INFLUENCE ON “WESTERN CIVILIZATION”
  6. THAT BERNAL’ S CLAIMS ARE “EXAGGERATED” AND IN MANY CASES “UNJUSTIFIED”
  7. THE PUBLISHER INDICATE THEY DISCUSS:
    1. THE QUESTION OF AN EGYPTIAN INVASION OF GREECE
    2. THE ORIGINS OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE, PHILOSOPHY, AND SCIENCE, AND
    3. “RACISM” AND “ANTI-SEMITICISM” IN “CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP” AND
    4. PROPOSE AN ENTIRELY “NEW” SCHOLARSHIP FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CULTURES OF THE “ANCIENT NEAR EAST” AND “GREECE” AND
    5. THE “ORIGINS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION”
    6. THE CONTRIBUTORS ARE:  JOHN BAINES, KATHRYN A BARD, LORING BRACE, JOHN E COLEMAN, EDITH HALL, JAY H JASANOFF, RICHARD JENKYNS, MARY R LEFKOWICH, MARIO LIVERANI, SARAH P MORRIS, ROBERT E NORTON, ALAN NUSSBAUM, DAVID O CONNOR, ROBERT PALTER, GUY MACLEAN ROBERS, FRANK M SNOWDEN, JR., LAWRENCE A TITLE, EMILY T VERMEULE, AND FRANK YURCO “NOT ALL OF THE REVIEWS THAT WERE REPRINTED IN “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED 1996” RECEIVED RESPONSES HERE.  NOTABLY I HAVE EXCLUDED MY MANY PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED REPLIES TO JOHN COLEMAN BECAUSE VIRTUALLY ALL OF THE POINTS HE MAKES HAVE BEEN RAISED BY OTHER REVIEWERS.  IN REVISING MY INITIAL REPLIES, I HAVE TRIED TO AVOID EXCESSIVE REPETITION.  I USE THE WORD “EXCESSIVE” BECAUSE SOME REPETITION HAS BEEN INEVITABLE:  DIFFERENT CRITICS HAVE LEVELED LOOSELY OVERLAPPING CHARGES AGAINST BLACK ATHENA AND I HAVE RESPONDED TO THEM IN SIMILAR IF NOT IDENTICAL WAYS.  I ALSO DO NOT REPLY TO SOME OF THE CHAPTERS OF “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED 1996” THAT HAVE NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN PUBLISHED AS REVIEWS.  IT IS OF PARTICULAR INTEREST TO READERS OF THIS DISCUSSION THAT MARTIN BERNAL MADE THE FOLLOWING DECISION WITH REGARD TO THE CRITICAL QUESTIONS RAISED ABOUT THE “ANCIENT BLACK EGYPTIANS” WHO THEY WERE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GREEK CIVILIZATION AND “WESTERN CIVILIZATION.”  PROFESSOR KEITA’S ESSAY IS LISTED IN BERNAL’S BIBLIOGRAPHY AS:  KEITA, S.O.Y. 1990 “STUDIES OF ANCIENT CRANIA FROM NORTHERN AFRICA,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 85: 35-48; 1991:  “FURTHER STUDIES OF ANCIENT NORTHERN AFRICAN CRANIA,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 87:  445-454; 1993a: “BLACK ATHENA:  ‘RACE’ BERNAL AND SNOWDEN,”ARETHUSA 2G 205-214; 1993b:  “RESPONSE TO BERNAL AND SNOWDEN,” ARETHUSA 329-334;  1996:  “ANALYSIS OF NAQADA PREDYNASTIC CRANIA:  A BRIEF REPORT,” IN INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS IN THE LATER PREHISTORY OF NORTHEASTERN AFRICA ED.L KRZYZANIAK, K KROEPER AND M KOBUSIEWICZ , POZNANZ:  POZNAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, pp 203-213; KEITA, S. AND R. A. KITTLES (1997) “THE PERSISTANCE OF RACIAL THINKING AND THE MYTH OF RACIAL DIVERGENCE, AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 99.3: 534-544.
    7. BERNAL STATED:  WE DECIDED THAT IT WOULD BE BETTER TO LEAVE THE RESPONSE TO LORING BRACE’S TECHNICAL ARTICLE TO A PROFESSIONAL PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGIST SHOMARKA KEITA; HIS EXTENSIVE REPLY IS INCUDED IN “DEBATING BLACK ATHENA.”  AS MY ONLY SUBSTANTIAL DISAGREEMENT WITH FRANK YURCO’S CHAPTER ARE SPECIALIZED ONES ON CHRONOLOGY, WE DECIDED NOT TO INCLUDE A REPLY TO HIS PIECE IN EITHER BOOK.
    8.  
    9. MARTIN BERNAL RESPONDED WITH “BLACK ATHENA WRITES BACKK:  MARTIN BERNAL RESPONDS TO HIS CRITICS (2001) AND STATED THE FOLLOWING IN RESPONSE TO CERTAIN SELECTED CRITICS:
    10. “NOT ALL OF THE REVIEWS THAT WERE REPRINTED IN “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED 1996” RECEIVED RESPONSES HERE.  NOTABLY I HAVE EXCLUDED MY MANY PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED REPLIES TO JOHN COLEMAN BECAUSE VIRTUALLY ALL OF THE POINTS HE MAKES HAVE BEEN RAISED BY OTHER REVIEWERS.  IN REVISING MY INITIAL REPLIES, I HAVE TRIED TO AVOID EXCESSIVE REPETITION.  I USE THE WORD “EXCESSIVE” BECAUSE SOME REPETITION HAS BEEN INEVITABLE:  DIFFERENT CRITICS HAVE LEVELED LOOSELY OVERLAPPING CHARGES AGAINST BLACK ATHENA AND I HAVE RESPONDED TO THEM IN SIMILAR IF NOT IDENTICAL WAYS.  I ALSO DO NOT REPLY TO SOME OF THE CHAPTERS OF “BLACK ATHENA REVISITED 1996” THAT HAVE NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN PUBLISHED AS REVIEWS. 

       

      IT IS OF PARTICULAR INTEREST TO READERS OF THIS DISCUSSION THAT MARTIN BERNAL MADE THE FOLLOWING DECISION WITH REGARD TO THE CRITICAL QUESTIONS RAISED ABOUT THE “ANCIENT BLACK EGYPTIANS” WHO THEY WERE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GREEK CIVILIZATION AND “WESTERN CIVILIZATION.” 

      BERNAL STATED:  WE DECIDED THAT IT WOULD BE BETTER TO LEAVE THE RESPONSE TO LORING BRACE’S TECHNICAL ARTICLE TO A PROFESSIONAL PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGIST SHOMARKA KEITA; HIS EXTENSIVE REPLY IS INCUDED IN “DEBATING BLACK ATHENA.”  AS MY ONLY SUBSTANTIAL DISAGREEMENT WITH FRANK YURCO’S CHAPTER ARE SPECIALIZED ONES ON CHRONOLOGY, WE DECIDED NOT TO INCLUDE A REPLY TO HIS PIECE IN EITHER BOOK.

      PROFESSOR KEITA’S ESSAY IS LISTED IN BERNAL’S BIBLIOGRAPHY AS:  KEITA, S.O.Y. 1990 “STUDIES OF ANCIENT CRANIA FROM NORTHERN AFRICA,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 85: 35-48; 1991:  “FURTHER STUDIES OF ANCIENT NORTHERN AFRICAN CRANIA,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 87:  445-454; 1993a: “BLACK ATHENA:  ‘RACE’ BERNAL AND SNOWDEN,”ARETHUSA 2G 205-214; 1993b:  “RESPONSE TO BERNAL AND SNOWDEN,” ARETHUSA 329-334;  1996:  “ANALYSIS OF NAQADA PREDYNASTIC CRANIA:  A BRIEF REPORT,” IN INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS IN THE LATER PREHISTORY OF NORTHEASTERN AFRICA ED.L KRZYZANIAK, K KROEPER AND M KOBUSIEWICZ , POZNANZ:  POZNAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, pp 203-213; KEITA, S. AND R. A. KITTLES (1997) “THE PERSISTANCE OF RACIAL THINKING AND THE MYTH OF RACIAL DIVERGENCE, AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 99.3: 534-544.

 

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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