AFRICAN HISTORY AND HERITAGE – PREHISTORIC TIMES – THE NEOGENE WORLD – NORTH AMERICA – AFRICA – 7 MILLION YEAR OLD SKULL FOUND IIN AFRICA – SAHELANTHROPUS IN CHAD, EAST AFRICA

Steven M Stanley, Earth System History, 2nd Edition, (2005) – Historic Geology – Physical Geology

“Tectonic and Volcanic Events in Western North  America

Geologic Features of Western North America in Pliocene Time

The Appalachian Bobbed Up and Shed Sediment Eastward

Tectonic Development of the Carribean Sea

North and South America Exchanged Mammals 

The Himalayas is a part of a great series of mountain chains of Cenozoic originthat stretch from Spain and North Africa to Southeast Asia

Human Evolution

Early Apes Radiated in Africa and Asia

The Earliest Hominids lived between 7 and 6 million years ago

The Skull of Sahelanthropus from Chad – Sahelanthropus was an early genus of of the human family

Strategraphic Ranges of Species of Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, as recognized from fossil data .  Early homo includes more than one species.

Reconstruction of the skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis from partial skeletal remains of the individual named “Lucy”.”  This skeleton from Hadai , Ethiopia, is about 3.2 milliion years old.

The human genus made a sudden appearance.

Homo erectus resembled us.

The Neanderthals Emerge in Eurasia.

Homo sapiens Evolved in Africa and Spread North.

SAHELANTHROPUS FROM CHAD, EAST AFRICA:

JUNE 8 2014 THE PREHISTORIC WORLD THE NEOGENE WORLD NORTH AMERICA AND AFRICA

Sahelanthropus — 7 mya skull

A human-like skull which is being described as the most
important find of its type in living memory.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2118000/2-
118055.stm
It’s the most important find in living
memory Henry Gee — Nature
It was found in the desert in Chad by an international team
and is thought to be approximately seven million years old.
“I knew I would one day find it… I’ve been looking for
25 years,” said Michel Brunet of the University of
Poitiers, France.
Scientists say it is the most important discovery in the
search for the origins of humankind since the first
Australopithecus “ape-man” remains were found in Africa in
the 1920s.
The newly discovered skull finally puts to rest any idea that
there might be a single “missing link” between humans and
chimpanzees, they say.
Analysis of the ancient find is not yet complete, but already
it is clear that it has an apparently puzzling combination of
modern and ancient features.
Henry Gee, senior editor at the scientific journal Nature,
said that the fossil makes it clear how messy the process of
evolution has been.
“It shows us there wasn’t a nice steady progression from
ancient hominids to what we are today,” he told BBC News
Online.
“It’s the most important find in living memory, the most
important since the australopithecines in the 1920s.
“It’s amazing to find such a wonderful skull that’s so
old,” he said.
What is the skull’s significance?
The skull is so old that it comes from a time when the
creatures which were to become modern humans had not long
diverged from the line that would become chimpanzees.
There were very few of these creatures around relative to the
number of people in the world today, and only a tiny
percentage of them were ever fossilised.
So despite all the false starts, failed experiments and
ultimate winners produced by evolution, the evidence for what
went on between 10 and five million years ago is very scarce.
There will be plenty of debate about where the Chad skull fits
into the incomplete and sketchy picture researchers have drawn
for the origins of the human species.
The hominid’s jaw was found later — Image: MPFT
“A find like this does make us question the trees people have
built up of human evolution,” Chris Stringer of the Natural
History Museum told the BBC.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, as the find has been named, may
turn out to be a direct human ancestor or it may prove to be a
member of a side branch of our family tree.
The team which found the skull believes it is that of a male,
but even that is not 100% clear.
“They’ve called it a male individual, based on the strong brow
ridge, but it’s equally possible it’s a female,” said
Professor Stringer.
Future finds may make the whole picture of human
evolution clearer.
“We’ve got to be ready for shocks and surprises to
come,” he said.
The Sahelanthropus has been nicknamed Toumai, a name often
given to children born in the dry season in Chad.
Full details of the discovery appear in the journal Nature.

^_^:
“Paul Crowley” <sdkhkjshg~slkjsldfsjf.com wrote in message
news:rX_W8.1105$zX3.1096~news.indigo.ie…
A human-like skull which is being described as the most
important find of its type in living memory.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2118000/21-
18055.stm

It’s the most important find in living
memory Henry Gee — Nature
ALSO
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/2-
120129.stm
Scientists delight in ancient skull find
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/2-
120810.stm
Michel Brunet, of the University of Poitiers, France, explains
the significance of the hominid he has dubbed Toumai.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/2-
120523.stm
BBC News Online asks what implications the discovery of a
seven-million-year-old skull in Central Africa may have for
our understanding of human evolution.

^_^:
“Paul Crowley” <sdkhkjshg~slkjsldfsjf.com wrote in message
news:rX_W8.1105$zX3.1096~news.indigo.ie…
A human-like skull which is being described as the most
important find of its type in living memory.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2118000/21-
18055.stm

It’s the most important find in living
memory Henry Gee — Nature

Wow!
Thanks Paul, this is very interesting.
I think I was talking to Val recently along the lines that if
the change in climate (drier, more seasonal) that caused
hominid evolution began to shift 10 or even 12 mya then we
should expect to find evidence of hominids going back this
far. Who knows, maybe we will find a 10 my old specimen.
Another interesting fact is that this fossil was found well
outside of the rift zone in east Africa.
Jim

^_^:
Paul Crowley <sdkhkjshg~slkjsldfsjf.com wrote:
A human-like skull which is being described as the most
important find of its type in living memory….

…Full details of the discovery appear in the journal
Nature.
Together with the recent paper about the new Dmanisi Skulls
that’s the second striking paleonews of the year. It could
touch a certain megaposter hard that in both articles
Zollikofer is metioned as the last author ;-
However, the list of contributors contains some 38!! names
among them
e.g. are Pilbeam, Coppens and Bocherens NATURE 2002
(418), 145-151
some more stuff from the paper:
Abstract: The search for the earliest fossil evidence of the
human lineage has been concentrated in East Africa. Here we
report the discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad,
central Africa, 2,500 km from the East African Rift Valley.
The fossils include a nearly complete cranium and fragmentary
lower jaws. The associated fauna suggest the fossils are
between 6 and 7 million years old. The fossils display a
unique mosaic of primitive and derived characters, and
constitute a new genus and species of hominid. The distance
from the Rift Valley, and the great antiquity of the fossils,
suggest that the earliest members of the hominid clade were
more widely distributed than has been thought, and that the
divergence between the human and chimpanzee lineages was
earlier than indicated by most molecular studies.
Discussion: Sahelanthropus has several derived hominid
features, including small, apically worn canines – which
indicate a probable non-honing C-P3 complex – and intermediate
postcanine enamel thickness. Several aspects of the
basicranium (length, horizontal orientation, anterior position
of the foramen magnum) and face (markedly reduced subnasal
prognathism with no canine diastema, large continuous
supraorbital torus) are similar to later hominids including
Kenyanthropus and Homo. All these anatomical features indicate
that Sahelanthropus belongs to the hominid clade. In many
other respects, however, Sahelanthropus exhibits a suite of
primitive features including small brain size, a truncated
triangular basioccipital bone, and the petrous portion of the
temporal bone oriented 608 to the bicarotid chord. The
observed mosaic of primitive and derived characters evident in
Sahelanthropus indicates its phylogenetic position as a
hominid close to the last common ancestor of humans and
chimpanzees. Given the biochronological age of Sahelanthropus,
the divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages must have
occurred before 6Myr, which is earlier than suggested by some
authors23,24. It is not yet possible to discern phylogenetic
relationships between Sahelanthropus and Upper Miocene
hominoids outside the hominid clade. Ouranopithecus15 (about
2Myr older) is substantially larger, with quadrate orbits, a
very prognathic and wide lower face, large male canines with a
long buccolingual axis, and cheek teeth with very thick
enamel. Samburupithecus14 (about 2.5Myr older) has a low,
posteriorly positioned (aboveM2) zygomatic process of the
maxilla, cheek teeth with high cusps (similar to Gorilla),
lingual cingula, large premolars and a large M3.
Sahelanthropus is the oldest and most primitive known member
of the hominid clade, close to the divergence of hominids and
chimpanzees. Further analysis will be necessary to make
reliable inferences about the phylogenetic position of
Sahelanthropus relative to known hominids. One possibility is
that Sahelanthropus is a sister group of more recent hominids,
including Ardipithecus. For the moment, productive comparisons
of Sahelanthropus with Orrorin are difficult because described
craniodental material of the latter is fragmentary and no
Sahelanthropus postcrania are available. However, we note that
in Orrorin, the upper canine resembles that of a female
chimpanzee. The discoveries of Sahelanthropus along with
Ardipithecus6,7 and Orrorin8 indicate that early hominids in
the late Miocene were geographically more widespread than
previously thought. Finally, we note that S. tchadensis, the
most primitive hominid, is from Chad, 2,500 km west of the
East African Rift Valley. This suggests that an exclusively
East African origin of the hominid clade is unlikely to be
correct (contrary to ref. 8). It will never be possible to
know precisely where or when the first hominid species
originated, but we do know that hominids had dispersed
throughout the Sahel and East Africa10 by 6Myr. The recent
acquisitions of Late Miocene hominid remains from three
localities, as well as functional, phylogenetic and
palaeoenvironmental studies now underway, promise to
illuminate the earliest chapter in human evolutionary history.
Sahelanthropus will be central in this endeavour, but more
surprises can be expected.
Furthermore, the issue contains a contribution about the
Paleoenvironment of Sahelanthropus with some results M.V. and
his squad might appreciate =:-D
19 authors…Michel Brunet NATURE 2002 (418), 152-155
Abstract: All six known specimens of the early hominid
Sahelanthropus tchadensis come from Toros-Menalla site 266 (TM
266), a single locality in the Djurab Desert, northern Chad,
central Africa. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the
palaeontological and palaeoecological context of these finds.
The rich fauna from TM 266 includes a significant aquatic
component such as fish, crocodiles and amphibious mammals,
alongside animals associated with gallery forest and savannah,
such as primates, rodents, elephants, equids and bovids. The
fauna suggests a biochronological age between 6 and 7 million
years. Taken together with the sedimentological evidence, the
fauna suggests that S. tchadensis lived close to a lake, but
not far from a sandy desert, perhaps the oldest record of
desert conditions in the Neogene of northern central Africa.
Michael

^_^:
In article <rX_W8.1105$zX3.1096~news.indigo.ie, Paul Crowley
<sdkhkjshg~slkjsldfsjf.com wrote:
Analysis of the ancient find is not yet complete, but
already it is clear that it has an apparently puzzling
combination of modern and ancient features.
Now where have I heard that before? 😉
Charles Dawson?

John Cartmell

^_^:
Paul Crowley wrote:

“Paul Crowley” <sdkhkjshg~slkjsldfsjf.com wrote in message
news:rX_W8.1105$zX3.1096~news.indigo.ie…
A human-like skull which is being described as the most
important find of its type in living memory.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2118000/-
2118055.stm

It’s the most important find in living
memory Henry Gee — Nature

ALSO

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/21-
20129.stm

Scientists delight in ancient skull find

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/21-
20810.stm

Michel Brunet, of the University of Poitiers, France,
explains the significance of the hominid he has dubbed
Toumai.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_2120000/21-
20523.stm

BBC News Online asks what implications the discovery of a
seven-million-year-old skull in Central Africa may have for
our understanding of human evolution.
go to http://news.google.com and enter in “skull” for the
news search and you’ll get bunch more (like USA Today,
CNN, CBS, etc)
CNN link
http://europe.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/07/10/ancient.skull-
/index.html

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
This entry was posted in PREHISTORIC TIMES - THE NEOGENE WORLD -HISTORIC GEOLOGY - PHYSICAL GEOLOGY, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

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