LECTURE 101: PREHISTORIC TIMS TO THE 21ST CENTURY: PALEOANTHROPOLOGY/BIOLOGY/GENETICS:
THE RACES OF HUMANKIND – WHY WHITE PEOPLE ARE WHITE AND BLACK PEOPLE ARE BLACK
REFERENCE: “The Origin of Humans and The Races of Humankind,” Harold L Carter, The African Odyssey: The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological an Cultural History: From Prehistoric Times and the Earliest Civilizations to the 21st Century (2014)
PRIOR TO THE MIGRATION OF THE AFRICAN HOMO ERECTUS TO EUROPE AND ASIA, THE ONLY REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL THE EXISTING HUMAN SPECIES LIVED IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA “SOUTH OF THE SAHARA” IN AFRICA, WITHIN THE PROXIMITY OF THE EQUATOR, AND ACCORDING TO CHEIKH ANTA DIOP:
“ALL WERE SUBJECT TO GLOGER’S LAW [DIOP 1991: 11] AND WERE, ACCORDING TO 18TH AND 19TH CENTURY RACIAL CLASSIFICATIONS, WHAT ARE GENOTYPICALLY AND PHENOTYPICALLY REFERRED TO AS HAVING BEEN IN THE “NEGROID,,” “AFRICOID,” “BLACK,” OR “AFRICAN” RACE.”
Cheikh Anata Diop, Civilization or Barbarism,” An Authetic Anthropology (Lawrence Hill Books: Brooklyn, New York), 1991
KEVIN SHILLINGTON, IN HISTORY OF AFRICA (ST. MARTIN=S PRESS: NEW YORK), 1989, 1994, pp. 5-6, INDICATED:
“SINCE THE EARLIEST HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS CAME FROM TROPICAL AFRICA, THEY WERE PROBABLY BROWN-SKINNED AND SIMILAR IN APPEARANCE TO ONE OR MORE OF THE THE MANY VARIATIONS OF AFRICAN PEOPLE TODAY.
“AS THEY SPREAD THROUGHOUT AFRICA AND COLONIZED THE OTHER CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD, THEY ADAPTED TO VARIATIONS IN CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT.
“THOSE IN THE HEART OF TROPICAL AFRICA DEVELOPED THE DARKEST SKIN TO PROTECT THEM FROM THE HARMFUL RAYS OF THE DIRECT TROPICAL SUN. THOSE MOVING TO COOLER CLIMATES DEVELOPED PALER SKINS IN ORDER TO ABSORB MORE OF THE BENEFICIAL RAYS OF THE LESS DIRECT SUNLIGHT.
“THE SO-CALLED “RACIAL DIFFERENCES” BETWEEN THE VARIOUS PEOPLES OF THE WORLD ARE THUS LITERALLY ONLY “SKIN-DEEP,”DUE TO THE EVOLUTIONARY MUTATION THAT OCCURRED THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO WITH LOCAL ADAPTATIONS BY NATURAL SELECTION TO CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT.
“CONSEQUENTLY, ALL HUMAN BEINGS BELONG TO THE SAME HUMAN SPECIES AND THE ORIGINS OF THAT SPECIES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN AFRICA.
Puleeze! .. Please ! … Not just “DESCENDANTS OF KINGS AND QUEENS” ! … The formation of the Holy Roman Empire and “the “Christianization” of the non-Black African- northeastern Eurasian (“northeastern Europe”) Germanic and Celtic tribal populations historically occurred following the rise and fall of the “racially-Black African-Ancient Egyptian civilization and culture which civilization had included the world’s first sophisticated writing system, the foundation of the world’s three major religions; the world’s first political government, and the world’s first conceptualizations of what became modern science and technology, all of which occurred ,prior to the existence of the Hebrew two united kingdoms of: Israel in the north, and Judah in the south, of the geographical territory traditionally referred to as Canaan.and the Bible land.
Also discussed in The African Heritage is the biological history and origin of humans according to the Judeao-Christian/Muslim religious belief and the Hebrew Bible and the Koran
It is significance that as shown by paleontological discoveries that “African pre-history” began during the archean eon (4000 – 2400 million years ago) during the proterozoic era 3.7 billion – .6 billion years ago and included the evolution of homo sapiens sapiens in Africa (200,000 120,000,000 years ago. The beginning of the evolution of organic molecules and the first living cells, the oldest known fossil cells 3.5 billion years old marked the beginning of the African heritage in human biological and cultural history as shown by archaeological evidence discovered in Africa:
The oldest Homo sapiens sapiens: 195,000 years old: Omo I and Omo II – 195,000 years old instead of 130,000 years old
February 16, 2005: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/02/0216_050216_omo.html
A February 16, 2005 National Geographic News article, “Oldest Human Fossils Identified,” indicated:
“Human fossils found 38 years ago in Africa are 65,000 years older than previously thought, a new study says”pushing the dawn of modern humans” back 35,000 years. New dating techniques indicate that the fossils are 195,000 years old. THE TWO SKULLS AND SOME BONES WERE FIRST UNCOVERED ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF ETHIOPI’S OMO RIVER IN 1967 BY A TEAM LED BY RICHARD LEAKEY. THE FOSSILS DUBBED OMO I AND OMO II, WERE DATED AT THE TIME AS BEING ABOUT 130,000 YEARS OLD. BUT EVEN THEN THE RESEARCHERS THEMSELVES QUESTINED THE ACCURACY OF THE DATING TECHNIQUES. THE NEW FINDINGS PUBLISHED IN THE FEBRUARY 17, 2005 ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL NATURE, ESTABLISH OMO I AND II AS THE OLDEST KNOWN FOSSILSOF MODERN HUMANS.
“HERTO FOSSIL” – 160,000 years ago
“THE PRIOR RECORD HOLDERS WERE FOSSILS FROM HERTO, ETHIOPIA, WHICH DATED THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN HUMANS IN AFRICA TO ABOUT 160,000 YEARS AGO. ‘THE NEW DATING CONFIRMS THE PLACE OF THE OMO FOSSILS AS LANDMARK FINDS IN UNRAVELING OUR ORIGINS,’ SAID CHRIS STRINGER, DIRECTOR OF THE HUMAN ORIGINS GROUP AT THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM IN LONDON.
“The 195,000 year-old date coincides with findings from genetic studies on modern human populations. Such studies can be extrrapolated to determine when the earliest modern humans lived. THE FINDINGS ALSO ADD CREDIBILITY TO THE WIDELY ACCEPTED “OUT OF AFRICA” THEORY OF HUMAN ORIGINS WHICH HOLDS THAT MODERN HUMANS (LATER VERSIONS OF HOMO SAPIENS) FIRST APPEARED IN AFRICA AND THEN SPREAD OUT TO COLONIZE THE REST OF THE WORLD.
“THE NEW DATE ALSO WIDENS THE GAP BETWEEN WHEN ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS EMERGED AND WHEN “CULTURAL= TRAITS”SUCH AS THE CREATION OF ART AND MUSIC, RELIGIOUS PRACTICES, AND SOPHISTICATED TOOL-MAKING TECHNIQUES SEEM TO HAVE APPEARED.
Richard A. Goldsby, An African American Professor of Biology at Yale University and the author of “Cells and Energy” (Macmillan 1967) in “Race and Races” (The Macmillan Company: New York), 1971, pp. 4, 75, 90-94, made the following statement:
“IT IS TRUE THAT ALL MEN ARE RELATED BY THEIR COMMON HUMANITY AND BY THE COMMON CAPACITIES THAT HUMAN POTENTIAL CONFERS ON THEM, BUT WHEN A SIX FOOT SWEDE AND A FIVE-FOOT PGYMY SHAKE HANDS, THEY ARE NOT MISTAKEN FOR BROTHERS, NO MATTER HOW AMICABLE AND WARM THEIR MEETING. … I DO NOT BELIEVE IT IS USEFUL OR EVEN DESIRABLE TO TRY TO PROMOTE HARMONY BETWEEN RACES BY DENYING THAT THERE ARE BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM.” [“BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES” MEANING DIFFERENCES IN SKIN COLOR DUE TO ALLELES AND MELANOCYTES DIFFERENCES BUT WHICH ARE PRESENT IN ALL HUMANS]
IN ANOTHER PART OF THE BOOK REFERRING TO LATITUDE AND SWEDES AND GOLDSBY ALSO CLARIFIED THE ABOVE STATEMENT BY INDICATING:
“MAN AROSE IN THE WARM, SUNNY EVEN CLIMATES OF AFRICA. HE LATER SPREAD INTO THE NORTHERN LATITUDES OF ASIA AND THROUGHOUT EUROPE AND REFERRED TO EXAMPLES OF “GENETIC DRIFT” AND THE “FOUNDER PRINCIPLE” THAT RESULT IN POPULATIONS DIFFERING SHARPLY FROM PARENT POPULATIONS WITH RESPECT TO FREQUENCY OF GENES.
[NOTE: Also see Cavalli et al. on the frequency of genes]
Cavalli et al. –
FREQUENCY OF GENES – “SKIN COLOR”:
“AT LATITUDES AS FAR NORTH AS LONDON THE SUNLIGHT IS PALE AND MUCH LESS INTENSE THAN AT LOCATIONS IN THE TROPICS. THE PALE, THIN, FAIR SKINOF THE SWEDE IS MAGNIFICENTLY ADAPTED TO FILTER OUT AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE OF THE WEAK SUNLIGHT THAT IS CHARACTERISTIC OF THE NORTHERN LATITUDES. … PRIMARILY, IT IS WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT VITAMIN D AND THE ROLE OF SUNLIGHT IN ITS PRODUCTION THAT LEADS US TO EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF SKIN COLOR.
Until very recently , man depended on his own body chemistry and the sun to produce just the amount of vitamin D he needed. VITAMIN D IS SYNTHESIZED IN A LAYER OF CELLS JUST UNDER THE SKIN WHEN THEY ARE ILLUMINATED WITH ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FROM THE SUN. … in a state of nature where there are no bottles of fish liver oils or cartons ofvitamin D-enriched milk, you must make it for yourself. ONE’S ABILITY TO MAKE IT IN THE PROPER AMOUNTS DEPENDS ON THE ABILITY OF THE ACTIVATING LIGHT OF THE SUN TO PENETRATE THE OUTER LAYER OF SKIN AND REACH THE UNDERLAYER OF CELLS THAT IS CAPABLE OF USING THIS LIGHT TO PRODUCE VITAMIN D.
“IF THE SUNLIGHT IS DIM AND THE SKIN IS DARK LITTLE OF THIS ENERGY SOURCE NECESSARY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THIS INDISPENABLE VITAMINCAN PENETRATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL WILL NOT MAKE ENOUGH TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF HIS SYSTEM. On the other hand, if the sunlight is intense and the skin is very fair, then, too much ultraviolet light wil reach the vitamin D-synthesis ayer and an overproduction will result.
“SO IN THE STATE OF NATURE, NATURAL SELECTION WILL FAVOR THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHOSE COLORATION (SKIN COLOR) BEST ENABLES THEM TO USE THE AVAILABLE SUNLIGHT TO PRODUCE ENOUGH, BUT NOT TOO MUCH, VITAMIN D. …
“The heavily pigmented skin of the Black is so impermeable to sunlight that even if a larger area of his body were exposed to the pale northern rays, he could not synthesize the minimum daily requirement of vitamin D. IN THE TROPICS CONDITIONS ARE REVERSED. WITHOUT THE BENEFIT OF CULTURAL DEVICES SUCH AS PROPER CLOTHING AND APPROPRIATELY DESIGNED DWELLINGS, THE PALE-SKINNED NORTHERNER WOULD BE ILL-SUITED FOR SURVIVAL UNDER THE BRILLIANT EQUATORIAL SUN OF THE TROPICS. HIS TRANSPARENT SKIN PASSES TOO MUCH ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION. CONSEQUENTLY HE PRODUCES TOO MUCH VITAMIN D AND SUFFERS THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF THIS OVERABUNDANCE. … THE SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN D WAS MOST PROBABLY A CRUCIAL FACTOR IN RACIAL DIFFERENTIATION.
“MAN AROSE IN THE WARM, SUNNY EVEN CLIMATES OF AFRICA … HE LATER SPREAD INTO THE NORTHERN LATITUDES OF ASIA AND THROUGHOUT EUROPE. He thus came to occupy a number of environments where the sun was less intense than in the cradling homelands. These (migraton) movements and consequently the adjustments to the new env ironments took place in a relatively precultural period of man’s history.
“One of the most powerful environmental stresses men have faced is cold. Body architecture is an adaptation of crucial importance. A thin, gangling body with a high surface-to-mass ratio is ill-adapted to conserve heat.
NEANDERTHALS, NORTHEAST ASIA AND ARCTIC NORTHERN HEMISPHERE HUMANS:
“A HEAVY BODYWITH SHORT ARMS AND LEGS (NOTE: HOMO ERECTUS AND NEANDERTHALS) ARE MUCH BETTER ADAPTED: IT EXPOSES FAR LESS SURFACE AND CONSEQUENTLY LOSES LESS HEART TO THE SURROUNDINGS.
“ … A FLAT FACE WITH LOW NASAL SILHOUETTE, NARROW EYE SLITS, AND A PADDING OF INSULATING FAT WOULD SERVE IS BEARER WELL IN THE COLD.
OBSERVABLE “BIOLOGICAL” DIFFERENCES:
“ … THE NEGRO BODY TYPE WITH ITS RELATIVELY SHORT BODY AND LONG LIMBS REPRESENTS A BODY BUILD ADAPTED TO LOSE HEAT. In addition to this body type found with high frequency in Black populations, some studies have suggested other physiological differences in heat tolerance. Blacks appear to show a greater tolerance for humid heat than other groups. The parallel observation that American Black soldiers suffered more cold-related injuries in the Korean War than Whites would argue by contrast for heat adaptation in the Black.
… GOLDSBY THEN OFFERED EXAMPLES OF “GENETIC DRIFT” AND THE FOUNDER PRINCIPLE RESULTING IN POPULATIONS DIFFERING SHARPLY FROM PARENT POPULATIONS WITH RESPECT TO FREQUENCY OF GENES, NOTING THE PHENOMENON OF INTERRACIAL HYBIDIZATION IN THE AMERICAS FOLLOWING THE VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS AND THE SPANISH INVASION AND COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICAS.
FREQUENCY OF GENES – SKIN COLOR – MUTATION
L. Lyca Cavalli-Storza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piaza, Th Hisstory and Geography of Human Gens (Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey), 1994
A1.12.d. “The location of the root: this finding (four alleles … only one is found in nonhuman primates … and it is the same as one of the three alleles found in Africa. This form is probably the ancestral form of the gene.
A… Another allele is found only in human populations living outside Africa). … THIS FINDING MAY SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE MOST DIRECT DESCENDANTS OF MODERN HUMANS ARE AFRICANS AND THAT OTHER HUMAN ALLELES FOUND ONLY OUTSIDE AFRICA PROBABLY ORIGINATED IN ASIA AFTER THE PASSAGE OF MODERN HUMANS FROM AFRICA TO ASIA.
Origin of Allele D is Africa – Origin of Allele C is Asia
TABLE 1.12.2: Frequency of four alleles at the locus erv3, enzyme mspl, in primates and several human populations, indicating that the origin of allele D is late African, whereas that of C is Asian
(Pacciarini et al. unpublished – m. l. Pacciarini, a. m Bowcock, K. K. Kidd, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (unpubl.) Variation And Evolution Of An Endogenous Retrovirus (Erv3) In Humans And Primates, 1-10). C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, and B. Vandermeersch, “The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe,” in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, ed. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 80-81:
LECTURE: PALEOANTHROPOLOGY/BIOLOGY/GENETICS 101:
THE RACES OF HUMANKIND – WHY WHITE PEOPLE ARE WHITE AND BLACK PEOPLE ARE BLACK:
IN H. LEON ABRAMS, JR., PATRICIA THOMPSON, GENERAL EDITOR, INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY (GLOBE BOOKS COMPANY, INC.: NEW YORK, N.Y.), 1976, FROM MELVILLE J. JERSKOVITZ, MAN AND HIS WORKS (ALFRED A. KNOPF, 1947), IT WAS INDICATED:
“EPILOGUE: THE ORIGIN OF THE RACES: INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY: PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
“HUMANKIND – ONE RACE OR MANY – WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR?”
“Anthropologists reject unscientific explanations for skin colors. But like the Cherokee, they want to know why white men are white, black men are black, and red men red. THEY HAVE FOUND THE EXPLANATION IN A COLOR-MAKING CHEMICAL, CALLED “MELANIN.” THE SKIN, HAIR, EYES, AND OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY CONTAIN THIS CHEMICAL
Melanin is present in the skin of most human beings. It turns the skin dark. The more melanin, the darker the skin. Those few who lack melanin are called albinos. Albinos exist throughout the animal kingdom. They also occur in all human groups. It might be said that albinos are the only truly white people in the world. Their hair, like their skin is white. Their eyes, lacking melanin also, appear pinkish due to the circulation of blood through them. They have no natural protection from the sun and must avoid too much exposure. All other humans possess various amounts of melanin in their skin.
“You may wonder why people have melanin in their skin. What purpose does it serve.
“Sunshine and vitamin D provide the explanation. When the ultraviolent rays of the sun strike the skin it brings about a chemical reaction within the human body. It produces an important vitamin – vitamin D. People need this “sunshine vitamin” to build strong bones. Melanin in the skin determines just how much ultraviolent rays the body will receive. Very dark skin with much melanin, may allow as little as three percent of the sun’s rays to reach the body.
On the other hand, light skin may permit anywhere from 53 to 73 percent to pass. If vitamin D is good for human growth, wouldn’t you think that light skin would always be better. This is not necessarily the case.
“The first human beings lived in the tropics where sunlight is intense. Dark skin was necessary for their survival. LIGHT-SKINNED PEOPLE WOULD BE SUSCEPTIBLE TO CALCIUM DEPOSITS, KIDNEY DAMAGE AND SKIN CANCER.
“SCIENTISTS ESTIMATE THAT IF LIGHT-SKINNED PEOPLE WERE TO EXPOSE THEIR ENTIRE BODIES TO THE SUN FOR SIX HOURS AT THE EQUATOR, THEY WOULD ABSORB 800,000 UNITS OF VITAMIN D – FAR TOO MUCH FOR THEM TO WITHSTAND.
THEREFORE, LIGHT-SKINNED CHILDREN BORN IN TROPICAL REGIONS DID NOT SURVIVE. DARK-SKINNED PEOPLE SURVIVED AND PASSED THEIR SKIN COLOR ON TO THEIR CHILDREN THROUGH THEIR GENES.
“SINCE SKIN COLOR AFFORDS PROTECTION IN TROPICAL CLIMATES, WHAT HAPPENED WHEN PEOPLE BEGAN TO MOVE NORTHWARD? WHAT HAPPENED WHEN THEY MOVED, OVER A PERIOD OF THOUSANDS OF YEARS, TO PARTS OF THE WORLD WHERE THE SUN’S RAYS WERE LESS INTENSE?
HERE THEY FOUND A DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT. DAYS WERE SHORTER. THERE WERE SEASONS WHEN THERE WAS LITTLE SUNLIGHT. THE CLIMATE WAS COLD. IT WAS OFTEN FOGGY, CLOUDY AND RAINY. IN SUCH CLIMATES, DARK SKIN FILTERED OUT TOO MUCH OF THE SUN=S RAYS. CLEARLY UNDER THESE CONDITIONS DARK-SKINNED PEOPLE FOUND IT HARD TO SURVIVE.
“AT SOME POINT IN HISTORY A MUTATION OCCURRED. AS YOU MAY KNOW (CHAPTER 5), A MUTATION IS A CHANGE IN THE GENES OR INHERITED MATERIAL, PASSED ON FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER. INSTEAD OF DARK SKIN, LIGHT-SKINNED BABIES WERE BORN. SUCH LIGHT-SKINNED PEOPLE WERE BETTER ABLE TO ABSORB ENOUGH VITAMIN D TO MEET THEIR NEEDS. THOSE WITH LIGHT SKIN THRIVED. THEY GREW UP AND REPRODUCED. THOSE WITH DARK SKINS DID NOT.
IN THE MARCH 27, 2006 ISSUE OF JET, IN AN ARTICLE ENTITLED: ATWIN SISTERS – ONE BLACK, ONE WHITE – TURN HEADS IN ENGLAND, IT WAS INDICATED:
DESPITE BEING CONCEIVED TOGETHER IN THEIR MOTHER=S WOMB AND BEING BORN WITHIN A MINUTE OF EACH OTHER, KLAN HODGSON=S SKIN IS BLACK YET HER SISTER REMEE IS WHITE.
BOTH THE MOTHER, KYLEE HODGSON AND HER PARTNER REMI HORDER ARE OF MIXED RACE. THEIR MOTHERS ARE BOTH WHITE AND THEIR FATHERS ARE BOTH BLACK. BABY KIAN INHERITED THE BLACK GENES FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE FAMILY, WHILE HER SISTER REMEE INHERITED THE WHITE ONES.
… REMEE=S HAIR WAS A BLONDE COLOR, KIAN’S WAS BLACK AND SHE HAD DARKER SKIN. A … AS THE WEEKS PASSED, REMEE=S SKIN GREW LIGHTER, WHILE KIAN’S GOT DARKER. AND WHILE REMEE=S EYES STAYED BLUE, KIAN’S TURNED BROWN.
IN FRANK E. POIRIER, WILLIAM A. STINI, KATHY B. WREDEN, IN SEARCH OF OURSELVES: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY , 5TH EDITION (PRENTICE HALL: ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, NEW JERSEY), 1994, CHAPER 25: AHUMAN SKIN: THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE: MELANOCYTES, EYE AND HAIR PIGMENTATION,
IT WAS INDICATED:
“THESE ARE THE CELLS THAT PRODUCE MELANIN, THE DARK PIGMENT THAT GIVES THE SKIN A TAN, BROWN, OR BLACK COLOR
(T. B. Fitzpatrick, “The Melanocyte System In Dermatology” in General Medicine, T. B. Fitzpatrick, Editor (Mcgraw-Hill: New York), 1971)