THE HEBREW BIBLE – GENESIS I – THE CREATION AND FLOOD STORY AND HOW THE DIVISION OF HUMANKIND INTO RACES OCCURRED AND RELATING THE HEBREW BIBLE GENESIS I CREATION AND THE FLOOD STORY TO THE SUMERIANS – THE FIRST HUMAN POPULATION INHABITING THE MIDDLE EAST OR THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEY – OR THE LEVANT – OR ANCIENT ISRAEL:
William H. Stiebing, Jr. in Ucovering the Past: A History of Archaeology (Prometheus Books: Buffalo, New York), 1993, pp. 109-111, Chapter 3: “The Rediscovery of Near Eastern Civilizations,”
“The Discovery of the Sumerians, the Flood and the Hittites,
Akkadian and the discovery of the existence of a Sumerian language by Jules Oppert in 1869
“Akkadian, the language used by the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, had begun to yield it secrets by 1855. But among the cuneiform tablets from the libraries of Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal were many not written in Akkadian. These texts were in a strange non-Semitic tongue. In addition, there were bilingual word lists or “dictionaries” giving the Akkadian equivalents for hundreds of words in the unknown language.
“The identity of the people who spoke this mysterious language was revealed in 1869 by Jules Oppert. In a lecture before the French Society of Numismatics and Archaeology he pointed out that inscriptions showed that early rulers in Mesopotamia had claimed the title “King of Sumer and Akkad.”
‘Since the Semitic population of Babylonia and Assyria referred to themselves and their language as as Akkadian, the speakers of the non-Semitic language of some of the texts must have been Sumerian.
Discovery of the “Chaldean/Mesopotamian Account of the Deluge (Flood):
“However, another find among the tablets from Kuyunjik aroused far more public interest than did the discovery of the Sumerians. In 1872 George Smith found a broken tablet rccording what seemed to be part of a legend or myth and began glancing over its contents. He relates: ‘On looking down the third column, my eye caught the statement that the ship rested on the mountain of Nizir followed by the account of the sending forth of the dove and its finding no resting place and returning. I saw at once that I had here discovered a portion at least of the Chaldean/Mesopotamian account of the Deluge (Flood)’ “
The Hebrew Bible Genesis Flood Story Borrowed from the Sumerians:
… The Mesopotamian account of the Flood was remarkably similar to the Hebrew story in Genesis. … believers in biblical inerrancy argued that the Mesopotamian story proved that the Flood had really occurred. On the other hand, many scholars became convinced that the Israelites had borrowed the story from Mesopotamia (Sumeria).”
In a discussion on a LinkinIn website, “A Response to the ‘Race does not Exist’ argument, NOVA online post, just this past week, re: “Cave man grunting” (language 100,000/50,000 years ago) — I had discussed and made references to the Bible and Genesis nd the Tower of Babel and the “confusion of tongues (or languages)” as being interpreted for having been “the origin of the world’s languages and the origin of the races of humankind.”
SUMER – AKKADIAN LANGUAGE
Origin of Tigris and Euphrates Languages:
The Origin of the Languages and Races of Humankind and
Relating the Hebrew Bible Genesis Creation and the Flood Story to the Sumerians:
William H. Stiebing, Jr. in Ucovering the Past: A History of Archaeology (Prometheus Books: Buffalo, New York), 1993, pp. 109-111,
in Chapter 3: “The Rediscovery of Near Eastern Civilizations,” Section: The Discovery of the Sumerians, the Flood and the Hittites,
Akkadian and Sumerian Languages – Babylonian and Assyrians
spoke “ the ”Akkadian” language
– – the discovery of the existence of a” Sumerian” language by Jules Oppert occurred in 1869
“Akkadian, the language used by the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, had begun to yield it secrets by 1855. BUT AMONG THE CUNEIFORM TABLETS FROM THE LIBRARIES OF SENNACHERIB AND ASHURBANIPAL WERE MANY NOT WRITTEN IN AKKADIAN.
THESE TEXTS WERE IN A STRANGE NON-SEMITIC TONGUE. IN ADDITION, THERE WERE BILINGUAL WORD LISTS OR “DICTIONARIES” GIVING THE AKKADIAN EQUIVALENTS FOR HUNDREDS OF WORDS IN THE UNKNOWN LANGUAGE.
THE “SUMERIAN” LANGUAGE is not “non-Semitic” – the “Sumerian” language was “non-Akkadian” – the “Akkadian” language was the language spoken by Babylonians and Assyrians – not a “Semitic” language – THE “SEMITIC” LANGUAGE was invented or so-labelled in the 19th century by a Jewish writer.
A “SEMITIC” PEOPLE WAS INVENTED OR SO-LABELLED BY THE HEBREW RABBINICAL WRITERS IN THE 7TH CENTURY B.C. WHO ALSO REFERRED TO THE EXISTENCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS SUCH AS “AKKAD” (“ASSYRIA”) AND “BABYLON”!
“THE IDENTITY OF THE PEOPLE WHO SPOKE THIS MYSTERIOUS LANGUAGE WAS REVEALED IN 1869 BY JULES OPPERT. IN A LECTURE BEFORE THE FRENCH SOCIETY OF NUMISMATICS AND ARCHAEOLOGY HE POINTED OUT THAT INSCRIPTIONS SHOWED THAT EARLY RULERS IN MESOPOTAMIA HAD CLAIMED THE TITLE “KING OF SUMER AND AKKAD.”
Since the “Semitic” population of Babylonia and Assyria referred to themselves and their language as as Akkadian, THE SPEAKERS OF THE NON-SEMITIC LANGUAGE OF SOME OF THE TEXTS must have been Sumerian.
However, another find among the tablets from Kuyunjik aroused far more public interest than did the discovery of the Sumerians. In 1872 George Smith found a broken tablet rccording what seemed to be part of a legend or myth and began glancing over its contents. He relates: ‘On looking down the third column, my eye caught the statement THAT THE SHIP RESTED ON THE MOUNTAIN OF NIZIR FOLLOWED BY THE ACCOUNT OF THE SENDING FORTH OF THE DOVE AND ITS FINDING NO RESTING PLACE AND RETURNING. I saw at once that I had here discovered a portion at least of THE CHALDEAN /MESOPOTAMIAN ACCOUNT OF THE DELUGE (FLOOD)’
THE HEBREW BIBLE GENESIS FLOOD STORY BORROWED FROM THE SUMERIANS:
… The Mesopotamian account of the Flood was REMARKABLY SIMILAR TO THE HEBREW STORY IN GENESIS. … and believers in biblical inerrancy argued that the Mesopotamian story proved that the Flood had really occurred. ON THE OTHER HAND, MANY SCHOLARS BECAME CONVINCED THAT THE ISRAELITES HAD BORROWED THE STORY FROM MESOPOTAMIA (SUMERIA).”
In a discussion on a LinkinIn website, “A Response to the ‘Race does not Exist’ argument, NOVA online post, just this past week, re: “Cave man grunting” (language 100,000/50,000 years ago) — I had discussed and made references to THE BIBLE AND GENESIS ND THE TOWER OF BABEL AND THE “CONFUSION OF TONGUES (OR LANGUAGES)” AS BEING INTERPRETED FOR HAVING BEEN “THE ORIGIN OF THE WORLD’S LANGUAGES AND THE ORIGIN OF THE RACES OF HUMANKIND.”
BIBLICAL ORIGIN OF THE RACES OF HUMANKIND – AND THE BEGINNING OFNIMROD’S KINGDOM WAS BABEL IN THE LAND OF SHINAR (SUMERIA)-
… “ Therefore is the same of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth.”:
Erech (Uruk),BABEL, Accad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar:
Genesis: 11:9: THEREFORE IS THE SAME OF IT CALLED BABEL; BECAUSE THE LORD DID THERE CONFOUND THE LANGUAGE OF ALL THE EARTH.
Genesis 10:8: And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.
Genesis 10:10: AND THE BEGINNING OF HIS KINGDOM WAS BABEL, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, IN THE LAND OF SHINAR (NOTE: SUMERIA).
Genesis 10:11: Out of that land went forth ASSUR . (NOTE: “ASSUR” – ASSYRIANS), AND BUILDED NINEVEH …
[Note: ASSUR is far better known by THE GREEK VERSION OF ITS NAME ASSYRIA
ERECH corresponds to the city known as Uruk in the ancient inscriptions of the region. The city was first excavatd in the 1850s and DATES BACK TO 3600 B.C.
ACCAD, or Akkad, is in the ancient inscriptions, Agade. … THE AKKADIANS WERE AT FIRST UNDER SUMERIAN DOMINATION.
… ABOUT 2280 B.C. SARGON OF AGADE founded an Akkadian Empire.
The TOWN OF BABEL was located on the Euphrates river about 40 miles downstream from AGADE.
According to rabbincal sources ABRAHAM, WAS AN AMORITE
THE AMORITES SEIZED CONTROL OF BABEL ABOUT 1900 B.C. and made it the capital of an expanding empire.
UNDER THE SIXTH KING OF THE AMORITE DYNASTY, HAMMURABI, who reigned about 1700 B.C.,
BABEL BECAME A WORLD METROPOLIS AND REMAINED SO FOR TWO THOUSAND YEARS.
It was the glamor city of the east throughout Old Testament times and is best known to us by THE GREEK VERSION OF ITS NAME BABYLON.
THE ENTIRE TIGRIS EUPHRATES REGION IS COMMONLY KNOWN AS BABYLONIA AFTER THIS CITY.
[Source: Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide to the Bible: Two Volumes in One: The Old and New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981
Genesis 11:7: Let us go down, and there confound their language.
Genesis 11:9: Therefore is the name of it called BABEL; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth.
[Note: Asimov Indicated: … In The Babylonian Language, The Name Of The City Is “Bab Ilu” Meaning “Gate Of God.” FROM THIS IS DERIVED THE HEBREW “BABEL”AND HE GREEK “BABYLON.’
Genesis 9:18, 19: And the sons of Noah that went forth of the ark was Shem, Ham, and Japeth. THESE ARE THE THREE SONS OF NOAH AND OF THEM WAS THE WHOLE EARTH OVERSPREAD.’ [Note: A Judaic proclamation of THE COMMON ORIGIN OF MAN AND OF THE “RACES OF HUMANKIND,” taken from the Hebrew Old Testament – which does not include the 5th and 2nd Century Jewish Babylonian Talmud commentary on Noah’s Curse – the Hamitic Curse – the Curse whereby it was established in Eurocentric “World History” … “the “black skin of Negroes” … and the beginnings of the ”Social Construction of the Negro Race” !]