THE AFRICAN ODYSSEY: THE AFRICAN HERITAGE IN WORLD HISTORY AND HUMAN BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY BY HAROLD L CARTER
“THUTMOSE III (1490 B.C. – 1436 B.C..) AND EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION:
“The outstanding representative of the aggressive state that Egypt now became was Thutmose III (1490 B.C. – 1436 B.C.). … THIS ‘NAPOLEON OF EGYPT’ LED HIS PROFESSIONAL STANDING ARMY ON 17 CAMPAIGNS INTO SYRIA, WHERE HE SET UP HIS BOUNDARY MARKERS ON THE BANKS OF THE EUPHRATES. … T
“THE NATIVE PRINCES OF PALESTINE, PHOENICIA, AND SYRIA WERE LEFT ON THEIR THRONES, BUT THEIR SONS WERE TAKEN TO EGYPT AS HOSTAGES. Here they were brought up and, thoroughly Egyptianized, eventually sent home to rule as loyal vassals.
Thutmose III erected obelisks – tall, pointed shafts of stone – to commemorate his reign and to record his wish that ‘his name might endure throughout the future forever and ever.’ FOUR OF HIS OBELISKS NOW ADORN THE CITIES OF ISTANBUL, ROME, LONDON, AND NEW YORK.
Michael Grant in The History of Ancient Israel (1993) stated
Egypt and the Name of Thutmose III
“ENDURING THROUGHOUT THE FUTURE FOREVER AND EVER AND THE FAILURE OF JEWISH WRITERS OF THE HEBREW OLD TESTAMENT TO ACKNOWLEDGE HIS AND THE PRESENCE OF AFRICANS IN IN THE LEVANT – IN CANAAN OR WHAT IS NOW THE MODERN STATE OF ISRAEL
Cheikh Anta Diop:
“IT IS IMPORTANT TO FIRST SHOW THAT IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY B.C.., THE EIGHTEENTH EGYPTIAN DYNASTY, UNDER THUTMOSE III (1504 B.C. – 1450 B.C.) IN PARTICULAR, HAD EFFECTIVELY CONQUERED THE WHOLE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (CRETE, CYPRUS, THE CYCLADES, ETC.) AND ALL OF WESTERN ASIA (HATTI,OR THE HITTITE COUNTRY (ANATOLIA), MITANNI, AMOURROU, KADESH, SYRIA, THE COUNTRY OF AKKAD, AND BABYLONIA).
In total, according to Thutmose III’s Hymn Of Triumph, written in verse and engraved on the poetic stela at Karnak, facing Thebes in Upper Egypt, 110 foreign states were conquered and integrated to different degrees into the Egyptian empire.
DURING THE FIFTEENTH THROUGH THE THIRTEENTH CENTURIES B.C. SYRO-PALESTINIAN KINGS WERE TRIBUTE-PAYING VASSALS OF EGYPT, AND THE PHARAOHS OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH DYNASTIES UNDERTOOK FREQUENT MILITARY CAMPAIGNS TO PUNISH CITIES WHOSE RULERS REBELLED.
Egyptian governors watched over the area, and some cities contained small garrisons of Egyptian troops. [Footnote: Drower 1973: 467-483; Albright 1975a: 102-107;
Redford 1985: 192-194;
Margaret Drower, Assyria c. 1500-1400 B.C.,in Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd edition, Volume II, Part I, edited by I.E.S. Edwards, et al. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge), 1973;
William Foxwell Albright, “The Amarna Letters From Palestine,” in The Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd edition, Volume II, Part 2, Chapter XX, edited by I. E. S. Edwards, et al. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge), 1975.”
DONALD B. REDFORD, AKHENATON: THE HERETIC KING (PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS: PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY), 1984]
“SO COMPLETE WAS EGYPTIAN CONTROL that when a Babylonian baggage train was attacked by bandits in Canaan during the Amarna period, the Babylonian king complained to the Egyptian pharaoh, holding him responsible and demanding that he pay compensation! [footnote: Knudtzon 1915: no. 8, lines 16-29: j. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, 2 volumes (Hinrichs: Leipzig), 1915]
“Yet the books of Joshua and Judges do not mention Egyptian activities in Canaan or conflicts between Israel and Egyptian troops after the crossing of the Yam Suph. HOW COULD THE ISRAELITES HAVE DESTROYED CITIES AND TAKEN CONTROL OF MUCH OF THE LAND OF CANAAN IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY B.C. WITHOUT A MAJOR MILITARY CONFRONTATION WITH THE ARMIES OF EGYPT? Why do accounts of the Judges correctly preserve descriptions of the various peoples of Syria-Palestine (Amorites, Canaanites, Hurrians, Ammonites, and the Philistines, for example) YET TOTALLY IGNORE THE EGYPTIANS, WHO CONTROLLED THE MAJOR CITIES AND ROADS THROUGHOUT THAT AREA?
“ … IN RECENT YEARS MOST SCHOLARS HAVE REJECTED A FIFTEENTH CENTURY B.C. DATE FOR THE EXODUS. Clearly, the picture of Palestine in the books of Joshua and Judges agrees much better with the chaotic situation at the end of the Bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age (c. 1200 B.C. -1050 B.C.) – when ‘everyone did what was right in his own sight ‘ (judges 17:1) – than it does with the earlier era of Egyptian control over Canaan.”