WHO WERE THE “SUMERIANS” ? … WHO WERE THE “MESOPOTAMIANS” ? WHO WERE THE ELAMITES ?
Runoko Rashidi — http://www.cbpm.org/gap.html
PROFESSOR RUNOKO RASHIDI , THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN ASIA, INDICATED:
“The powerful rulers of the third dynasty had initially been able to hold these nomadic and half savage tribes at a distance, but by the end of the third millennium B.C., the dam was ready to burst. The northern food producing regions first attracted the attention and then the violent assaults of the interlopers, who through the domestication of the horse, afflicted the Sumerians with wave after wave of lightning swift attacks, creating both panic and famine in the populous southern city-states.
AThe Sumerians called these roving tribes: … the Mar-tu who know no grain. … the Mar-tu who know no house or town, the boors of the mountain. … the Mart-tu who does not bend (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after his death. [Footnote: E. Chiera, Sumerian Epics and Myths (Chicago), 1934, Nos. 58 & 112]@
Professor Rashidi stated: Invasion of Sumeria by Elamites and of Akkad by Amorite tribes –
Mesopotamian empires then ruled by Semite: Is this how the now mighty Semites and Indo-Europeans entered history? If so, as seems apparent, it is quite ironic. … Any of these factors might have caused the declineof Sumer. Combined they spelled their doom.
The seemingly stable empire rapidly fell apart and Sumer’ former vassals turned on her with a vengeance. [Footnote: The death blow came at the hands of the Elamites from the eastern hills, who overran Sumer and carried off the last king of the third dynasty, with the temples plundered of their treasures.
At the same time, Amorite tribes led by the ruler of Mari occupied the land of Akkad. This disaster marks the end of Sumerian political leadership in Mesopotamia.
The territories of the third dynasty broke apart into city-states, such as Isin and Larsa; and the empires to follow in Mesopotamia, down to the Persian, were run by [Semites]. [Footnote: William H. Mc Neill, The Origins of Civilization (Oxford University Press: London), 1968, pp. 67-68]Who were the ASemites@:
(one must remember that there were different racial and cultural elements in Susa/Elam).
By the beginning of the second millennium B.C., non-africoid types became predominant in Iran=s mountainous regions).
By 1700 B.C., the Sumerian black-heads, who for a thousand years had dominated the Mesopotamian center stage and laid the foundation for every near eastern civilization that was to come after it, had, in essence, vanished from history.
Over the black-headed people the winds swept.
[Footnote: >Over the black-headed people the winds swept. The people groan … Covered Ur like a garment, enveloped it like linen. … The raging storm has attacked unceasingly. The people groan. … In its boulevards where the feasts were celebrated they were viciously attacked. In all its streets where they were wont to promenade, dead bodies were lying about; in its places where the festivities of the land took place the people were ruthlessly laid low. Mothers and fathers who did not leave (their) houses were overcome by fire. The young lying on their mother=s bosoms like fish were carried off by the waters. The nursing mother – pried open were their breasts. The black-headed people wherever they laid their heads were carried off.
“Lamentations over the Destruction of Ur,” N. Kramer, ed. Assyriological Studies, no. 12, Oriental Institute (University Of Chicago Press: Chicago), 1940.]
Elam was the first high culture of Iran. It had many affinities with Sumer and shared her eastern border. The country was divided into two parts: Anshan and the mountainous north, and Susiana with its capital of Susa in the south. The early Elamites seem to have titled their land Anzan-Sousounka, with the term Elam perhaps introduced by the early Hebrew writers.
Who were the Elamites?
As is to be expected, a number of scholars, e.g. Elliot smith, demonstrate numerous similarities between the material cultures of early Elam and the Nile Valley, including arrow-heads, polished stone implements, pressure-flaking, mace heads, scripts, pottery forms, stone vases, female figurines, art motifs, and metal mirrors.
[footnote: g. Elliot Smith, Human History (Norton & Co: New York), 1929, pp. 365-368.
Sumarian and Babylonian Myths
Runoko Rashidi – The invasion of Sumeria by SAVAGE BARBARIANS
“FROM THE EAST”:
“Invasion by HALF-SAVAGE INDO-EUROPEAN AND SEMITIC PEOPLE
[NOTE: NON-AFRICAN “EURASIAN” PEOPLE –
“INDO-EUROPEAN-SPEAKING” POPULATIONS, ACCORDING TO PALEONTOLOGICAL AND LINGUIST SOURCES DID NOT APPEAR UNTIL ABOUT 5,000 B.C. –
“SHEMITIC” – “SEMITIC” PEOPLE WERE NOT SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED BY THE HEBREW RABBINICAL WRITERS UNTIL
AFTER THE BIRTH OF ABRAHAM AFTER 2000 B.C. AND,
ACCORDING TO THE CHAPTER I GENESIS, NOT UNTIL
AFTER “THE FLOOD” AND “NOAH’S ARK” ] : …
The continuing spread of [Indo-European and Semitic peoples]
AFTER THE MID-THIRD MILLENIUM B.C.
had begun to isolate Sumer and seriously challenge, not only her dominance of Lower Mesopotamia, but her existence itself.”
The earliest record of the Sumerian creation myth and flood myth –
the “Eridu Genesis” – (1600 B.C.-1500 B.C.:
“The earliest record of the Sumerian “creation myth” and “flood myth” is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and datable by its script to the 17th century B.C. (1600-1500 B.C.) during the first Babylonian dynasty, where the language of writing and administration was stll Sumerian.
The Sumerian gods:
An (sky god),
Utu (sun god),
Enlil(chief of the gods who gives eternal life),
Enki or Ea (god of the waters),
AND THE FIRST CITIES FOUNDED: ERIDU,
Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak
When Ziudsura (Sumerian Noah) was the king, Ea, or Enki, the god of the waters warns the hero Atrahasis and gives him (Atrahasis) instructions for the building of an ark
Seven days and seven nights
Utu the Sun god
after the flood is over Ziudsura (Sumerian Noah) sacrifices oxen and sheep and prostrates himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods) who give him eternal life and take him to dwell in Dilmun
Ziusuda and Xisuthros – berossus
Xisuthros is included in Berossus’ king list: this text diverges from all other extant king lists by listing the city of Shurruppak and as a king, including Ziusudra as (as king of the city ofShurruppak), Ashuruppak’s successor
Babylonian and Akkadian Flood Stories – Akkadian Epic of Atrahasis – Babylonian Flood story is copied from the Akkadian Epic of Atrahasis
The 17th century B.C. Akkadian Epic of Atrhasis Flood Story:
In a comparison between the Babylonian hero Atrahasis and the Sumerian hero Gilgamesh, the editor of the Babylonian Atrahasis utilized the flood story from the Akkadian Epic of Atrahasis [the nameof the Akkadian “hero”] –Utnapishtim is the Sumerian hero tells his story to Gilgamesh ]
In the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim the hero of the Flood myth, tells his story to Gilgamesh that is related to the Akkadian Epic of Atrahasis
Alan Millard while working at the British Museum 1961-1964 rediscovered the Epic of Atrahasis which had lain unrecognized in a drawer for some time