SCIENTIFIC VERSION – ORIGIN OF LIFE – ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF PREHISTORIC LIFE – THE AFRICAN HERITAGE: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOUND IN SWAZILAND AND SOUTH AFRICA !

PREHISTORICAL EVIDENCE OF THE AFRICAN HERITAGE FOUND IN SOUTH AFRICA SWAZILAND:

AFRICAN PRE-HISTORY BEGAN DURING THE ARCHEAN EON (4000 – 2400 MILLION YEARS AGO) DURING THE PROTEROZOIC ERA (3.7 BILLION – .6 BILLION YEARS AGO),

THE FIRST CONTINENTS APPEAR AND HOW EXTENSIVE THEY WERE.

THE AGE OF THE EARTH FROM EVIDENCE FOUND IN SWAZILAND AND SOUTH AFRICA:

ALFRED KRÖNER OF GUTENBURG UNIVERSITY IN MAINZ, APPLYING THE URANIUM-LEAD METHOD TO SINGLE CRYSTALS OF ZIRCON FROM LAVAS LOCATED IN SOUTH AFRICA AND SWAZILAND, IN A PART OF THE KAAPVAAL CRATON, A SECTION OF EXTREMELY OLD CONTINENTAL CRUST, SHOWED THEIR CRYSTALIZATION AT ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YEARS AGO IN BROAD AGREEMENT WITH EARLIER MEASUREMENTS MADE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. p. 94.
FIRST TRACES OF LIFE ON EARTH 3.5 BILLION YEARS AGO:

PROFESSOR GONZO VIDAL INDICATED THAT ACCORDING TO
THE MODERN INTERPRETATION OF THE FOSSIL RECORD:

“THE FIRST TRACES OF LIFE APPEARED ON THE EARTH ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YEARS AGO, WITHIN A BILLION YEARS OR SO OF THE PLANET’S FORMATION.

THE EARLIEST IDENTIFIABLE LIFE FORMS WERE PROKARYOTES: PRIMITIVE UNICELLULAR MICROORGANISMS THAT, LIKE PRESENT-DAY BACTERIA, LACKED A DISTINCT NUCLEUS.”

PROKARYOTES:

“The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a nucleus are called eukaryotes. Most prokaryotes are unicellular organisms, although a few such as myxobacteria have multicellular stages in their life cycles[1] or create large colonies like cyanobacteria. The wordprokaryote comes from the Greek πρό- (pro-) “before” and καρυόν (karyon) “nut or kernel”.[2][3] Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-boundorganelles. In other words, all their intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA and metabolites) are located together in the same volume enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments.
“The division to prokaryotes and eukaryotes reflects two distinct levels of cellular organization rather than biological classification of species. Prokaryotes include two major classification domains: the bacteria and the archaea. Archaea were recognized as a domain of life in 1990. These organisms were originally thought to live only in inhospitable conditions such as extremes of temperature, pH, and radiation but have since been found in all types of habitats.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryotes

2. THE FIRST MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS ON EARTH ACCORDING TO THE MODERN INTERPRETATION OF THE FOSSIL RECORD APPEARED IN IN NAMIBIA, IN AFRICA:
3.
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS: Because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other hard body parts, they are not well preserved in the fossil record.[9] One exception may be the demosponge, which may have left a chemical signature in ancient rocks.

GONZALO VIDAL, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, FEBRUARY 1984.

NAMIBIA, AFRICA:

PROFESSOR VIDAL ALSO INDICATED THAT THE ORIGINAL MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS COMPOSED ENTIRELY OF EUKARYOTIC, OR NUCLEATED CELLS, APPEARED ALMOST 3 BILLION YEARS LATER AND THAT THE ORIGINAL EUKARYOTES WERE PLANKTON, BUOYANT CREATURES THAT FLOATED FREELY IN THE SEA. HE REPORTED THAT THE FIRST CONVINCING EVIDENCE OF PRECAMBRIAN ANIMAL LIFE CAME IN 1930 WITH THE FINDING BY THE GERMAN PALEONTOLOGIST G. GURICH OF TRACES OF FOSSILIZED MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS IN LATE PROTEROZOIC ROCKS FOUNS IN NAMIBIA, IN AFRICA.

PROFESSOR VIDAL ALSO INDICATED THAT THE ORIGINAL MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS COMPOSED ENTIRELY OF EUKARYOTIC, OR NUCLEATED CELLS, APPEARED ALMOST 3 BILLION YEARS LATER AND THAT THE ORIGINAL EUKARYOTES WERE PLANKTON, BUOYANT CREATURES THAT FLOATED FREELY IN THE SEA.

HE REPORTED THAT THE FIRST CONVINCING EVIDENCE OF PRECAMBRIAN ANIMAL LIFE CAME IN 1930 WITH THE FINDING BY THE GERMAN PALEONTOLOGIST G. GURICH OF TRACES OF FOSSILIZED MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS IN LATE PROTEROZOIC ROCKS FROM NAMIBIA, IN AFRICA.

[ALSO, SEE H. Clemmet, “WORLD’S OLDEST ANIMAL TRACES,” Nature, Volume 261, June 17, 1976, p. 576, CITING GLAESSNER, M. F., IN BULLETIN GEOL. SOC. AM., 82, 509-514 (1971), p. 577.

MICROFOSSILS: ARCHEAN ERA: SOUTH AFRICA:

J. WILLIAM SCHOPF:

PALEOBIOLOGIST J. WILLIAM SCHOPF, DIRECTOR OF UCLA’
CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF
LIFE

THE 3.4 BILLION YEAR OLD MICROBE LIVING IN SOUTH AFRICA:

REPORTED THE FINDING OF A 3.4 BILLION YEAR OLD MICROBE THAT LIVED DURING THE OLDEST PART OF THE PRECAMBRIAN, THE ARCHEAN ERA IN SOUTH AFRICA.

A PRECAMBRIAN PALEOBIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP INITIATED BY HIM PRODUCED A 632-PAGE BOOK CALLED EARTH’S EARLIEST BIOSPHERE, WHICH EXAMINES WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE ARCHEAN ENVIRONMENT, FROM THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARLY ATMOSPHERE TO THE ORIGIN OF OXYGEN-USERS TO THE EARLIEST FOSSIL EVIDENCE AND THE GEOCHEMICAL SIGNS OF PRIMITIVE LIFE.

J. WILLIAM SCHOPF, “IN THE BEGINNING,” DISCOVER, OCTOBER, 1990, P. 102.

“EARTH’S EARTH’S OLDEST REMAINS IN THE TRANSVAAL OF SOUTH AFRICA

SINGLE CELLED ORGANISMS – SOUTH AFRICA:

IT WAS INDICATED THAT THERE ARE SEVERAL PLACES IN THE WORLD WHERE SINGLE-CELLED ORGANISMS ARE FOUND IN PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS AND THAT THE OLDEST OF THESE TO BE ACCEPTED WITHOUT DOUBT AS ORGANIC COMES FROM A SERIES OF CHERTS, SHALES, AND SANDSTONES EXPOSED IN THE TRANSVAAL OF SOUTH AFRICA, AND DATED TO ABOUT 3.2 MILLION YEARS OLD. THE MINUTE FOSSILS OR CELLS WERE PROCARYOTES (WITH NO DISTINCT NUCLEUS).

[ALSO SEE CARROLL LANE FENTON AND MILDRED ADAMS FENTON, REVISED AND EXPANDED BY PATRICIA VICKERS RICH, THOMAS HEWITT RICH, AND MILDRED ADAMS FENTON, “EARTH’S OLDEST REMAINS,” THE FOSSIL BOOK: A RECORD OF PREHISTORIC LIFE (DOUBLEDAY: NEW YORK, 1989), p. 91.

 

 

 

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
This entry was posted in AFRICAN HERITAGE: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EARLIEST LIFE FOUND IN AFRICA, THE AFRICAN HERITAGE IN WORLD HISTORY AND HUMAN BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

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