EDITED, REVISED, AND UPDATED: [THIS WAS THE TEXTBOOK:
African American History by Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Consultants: Pat Browne, Director, Black History/Multicultural Education, Indianapolis Public Schools and Asa G. Hilliard III, Ed. D,.Professor of Urban Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, and Mary McFarland, Ph.D., Instructional Coordinator of Social Studies, Parkway School District, Chesterfield, Missouri (Scholastic Inc: New York), 1990
THAT WAS PUBLISHED WHILE I WAS STILL TEACHING AND WHICH I USEDIN MY CLASSROOM ALONG WITH WITH OTHER MORE RECENT BOOKS AND THE PBS VIDEOTAPE SERIES: “EYES ON THE PRIZE: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT – 1950s AND 1960s – ACTUALLY DOCUMENTARY FILM COVERAGE OF WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED IN THE 1950s AND 1960s SUCH AS THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT, THE BIRMINGHAM JAILINGS AND DEMONSTRATIONS INCLUDING THE FIRE HOSING BY POLICE, THE GREYHOUND BUS BEATINGS, THE SELMA MARCH, SIT-INS, AND OTHER COLLEGE PROTESTS – FILMED AS IT WAS HAPPENING. … UNFORUNATELY SIMILAR TO TODAY’S KING FAMILY’S LEGAL EFFORTS TO RESTRICT USE OF REV DR MARTIN LUTHER KING’S SPEECHES, ETC. – LEGAL DISPUAND RACIST INTERVENTIONS CAUSED “EYES ON THE PRIZE” TO NO LONGER BE AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. — :”AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY” BY LANGSTON HUGHES AND MILTON MELTZER AND DR ASA G HILLIARD ET AL –WITH ITS EASY READING LEVEL DESIGNED FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS AND BELOW – WITH ITS “BASIC” AFRICAN AND AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY – SHOULD BE IN EVERYT PUBLIC SCHOOL CLASSROOM – AND PARTICULARLY IN EVERY MAJOR CITY’S URBAN, INNERCITY NEIGHBORHOOD CLASSROOM !
African American History by Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer, Consultants: Pat Browne, Director, Black History/Multicultural Education, Indianapolis Public Schools and Asa G. Hilliard III, Ed. D,.Professor of Urban Education, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, and Mary McFarland, Ph.D., Instructional Coordinator of Social Studies, Parkway School District, Chesterfield, Missouri (Scholastic Inc: New York), 1990, indicated:
“What is Africa to me;;; Copper sun or scarlet sea,
Jungle star or jungle track, Strong bronzed men, or regl black Women from whose loins I sprang
When the birds of Eden sang?
One three centuries removed from the scenes his fathers faced,
Spicy grove, cinnamon tree, What is Africa to me?
n Countee Cullen, “Heritage” (1925)
“Countee Cullen was imagining that vast continent from which his ancestors had come when he wrote this poem. Though many of us know of ancestors and fellow Americans who also came from Africa, we may not be certain where it is, what it actually looks like, or who lives there now. If you were to travel east across the Atlantic Ocean from Charleston, South Carolina, you would reach northern Africa. Travel east from Buenos Aires, Argentina, and eventually you would sight the shores of southern Africa. Africa covers 11,700,000 square miles or one-fifth of the entire land area of the world. Only Asia is larger. The United States would fit into Africa more than three times. Most of Africa is surrounded by water – the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The Equator cuts Africa in half. This places four-fifths o the continent between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and gives that area a tropical climate. Only about eight percent of Africa – all near the Equator – is covered by tropical rain forests. There the temperature averages 80 degree. … Grasslands called savanna cover half of Africa. … Desert covers another 40 percent of Africa. Some of it is barren with no vegetation. But mostof Africa’s desert has dry scrub and grass where livestock sometimes graze.
“Once Africa’s most forbidding desert, the Sahara, was a green and fertile home to ancient Africans. But about 18,000 years ago it began to dry up. By about 5,000 years ago it looked much the way it does today.
Africans: Ancient and Modern:
“Archaeologists have found evidence of human-like beings living in Africa about 4.5 million years ago. They believe Africa is the original home of humanity. Other scientists claimed to have traced the actual person who was the mother of all modern races to Africa. The oldest remains of modern humans are thought to be of Africans who lived 110,000 to 250,000 years ago. Early Africans spread over the globe by walking across the Sinai Peninsula into the Middle East, and from there into Europe and Asia. Today Africa has about 600 million people. Some areas, however, may have no people at all. Others – like the Nile River Valley and parts of Nigeria – are densely populated. Although more and more Africans are moving into cities to find work and food, about 70 percent remain in villages. Most of these villages have 40 or 50 people, although some number into the thousands. People who live in traditional villages spend most of their time working, telling stories and teaching their children various tasks essential for survival. Births, marriages and healing ceremonies are usually attended by all the people of a village, and these provide occasion for recreation.
“Much of the culture, the folklore and the music of Africa has been passed along orally.
Africans also have written poetry, novels and studies about their people and land and have the oldest literary tradition in the world. (Note: Ancient African Egyptian Literature and
Wisdom writings). [See Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms, “”Didactic Literature: “The Instruction of King Amenemhet I for his Son,” and The Cambridge History of the Bible: From the Beginningst to Jerome,Edited by P. R. Evans,Chapter 2: “Books in the Ancient World”: “Other’
WritingsWisdom Literature,” (Proverbs and Psalms), p. 102-103i and Yosef ben-Jochannan, Africa: Mother of Western Civilization, comparison of Hebrew Old Testament, word for word, line by line, with Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh Amenhotep III]
. “… Africans also have the world’s oldest form of monotheism – belief in one god. (Note: from which Hebrew 9th and 6th Century B.C. copied or borrowed or according to Professor George G.M. James ‘Stolen Legacy” … stolen from the Ancient African Egyptians).
PREHISTORIC ORIGIN OF “RELIGION” AND ORIGIN OF CULTURAL ART IN AFRICA PRIOR TO EUROPEAN AFRICAN “CRO-MAGNON” AURIGNACIAN TOOLS AND CULTURAL ART – FALSELY PRESENTED AS “WHITE EUROPEAN” CRO-MAGNON “CULTURAL CAVE ART” (LAUSCAUX, FRANCE, ETC.’’
‘Cultural traits’ such as the creation of art and music, religious practices, and sophisticated tool-making techniques first occurred in Africa:
“The oldest modern art culture by anatomically modern humans had its origins in Africa not in Europe about 50,000 years ago, but thousands of years prior to the dated at Y..cave art paintings in Lascaux, France, Altamira, Spain, and about the same age as cave art discovered in a cave in 1985 on the south coast of France just southeast of Marseilles by Henri Cosquer and named after him the Grotte Cosquer . Radiocarbon dating indicated the charcoal from the torches the artists carried dated at least l8,000 years old with one piece dated to 27,000 years old.
World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present, Edited by Geoffrey Parrinder (Facts On File Publications: New York, New York, Bicester, England; The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, Newnes Books, 1983, a division of The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited; World Religions and updated edition first published in 1971 as Man and His Gods in the United Kingdom and as Religions of the World in the U.S., published in North America by Facts On File, New York, 1983, 9-10, 15-16, 22, 24:
If employed with proper caution such evidence (concrete survivals like graves, sacred places and their contents, sculptures, bas-reliefs, engravings and paintings) can afford useful and illuminating clues to the purpose and meaning of prehistoric religion. Y Throughout the ages the deepest emotions, wants, hopes and fears of a preliterate society have always arisen chiefly from the corporate life of the community, and centered on propagation, nutrition and survival while living and after death. As J. G. Frazer said in The Golden Bough: >To live and to cause to live, to eat food and to beget children, these were the primary wants of man in the past, and they will be the primary wants in the future so long as the world lasts= (Vol. IV pt I p5). Under the precarious conditions in which the human species emerged, food, children and an orderly corporate life were essential for survival.
cave art, sculptures, paintings and engravings of the Upper Palaeolithic Age from about 40,000 to 12,000 B.C.
Therefore, it was around these basic needs that prehistoric religion grew and developed, concentrating upon the mysterious life-giving forces. This is clear in the cave art, sculptures, paintings and engravings of the Upper Palaeolithic Age from about 40,000 to 12,000 B.C. especially in the decorated caves in France and Spain. In a section Forms of Burial, there was a reference to a woman thought to have negroid features in the cave named Grottes des Engants at Grimaldi on the Italian Riviera.
If the Fossil bones of Cro-Magnons discovered in France and labeled evidence of an entire Upper Paleolith race are associated with the prehistoric art found in the caves of Europe, France, Spain and sections of central and southern Europe dated at 30,000 to 12,000 years ago:then it should be carefully noted that, as indicated in Roger Lewin, The Origin of Modern Humans (Scientific American Library: A Division Of HPHLP: New York), 1993:
“A SOUTH AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGIST DAVID LEWIS-WILLIAMS WHILE INVESTIGATING THE PREHISTORIC ROCK ART OF SOUTHERN AFRICA AT APOLLO-11 CAVE IN NAMIBIA, IN SOUTH AFRICA, DISCOVERED ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF AFRICAN PREHISTORIC CAVE ART WHICH GOES BACK AS FAR AS 27,000 YEARS AGO, A FULL 10 MILLENNIA BEFORE LASCAUX FRANCE).
THE AFRICAN ART IS MUCH MORE SCHEMATIC AND CONTAINS MORE HUMAN FIGURES THAN THE EUROPEAN ICE AGE ART, BUT INCLUDES THE SAME KINDS OF GEOMETRIC SIGNS.
AFRICA AND THE ARABS:
“…There have been Arabs in Africa since about 700 B.C. and Arabic is widely spoken. Many Africans also speak European languages – English, French, Portuguese, Italian – because much of Africa was controlled by those coutries earlier in this century. … “