WHY ALL THE FUSS OR ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE SUMERIANS AND THE ANCIENT AFRICAN EGYPTIANS – DID YOU KNBOW THERE WERE THREE DIFFERENT CREATION AND FLOOD STORIES ?

WHY ALL THE FUSS OR ATTENTION GIVEN TO:THE “SUMERIANS” AND THE ANCIENT AFRICAN EGYPTIANS ?

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[NOTE:  “MESOPOTAMIA” USED TO DESIGNATE THE ENTIRE NORTHERN (AKKADAN AND BABYLONIAN) AND SOUTHERN (SUMARIA) REGION OF THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEY REGION]

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 DID YOU KNOW THAT “THE FIRST “CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” WAS WRITTEN BY THE AFRICAN MIGRANT “SUMERIANS” ?

 DID YOU ALSO KNOW THAT AN “AKKADIAN” … “CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” FOLLOWED THE “SUMERIAN CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” ? 

AND THAT A “BABYLONIAN CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” FOLLOWED THE “AKKADIAN CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH”

 AND THAT FOLLOWING THE “BABYLONIAN CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” THERE WAS THE “HEBREW CREATION AND FLOOD MYTH” RECORDED IN “GENESIS I – CHAPTER I OF THE HEBREW BIBLE – THE KING JAMES BIBLE ?

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 NOTE THE FOLLOWING:

 THE EARLIEST RECORD OF THE SUMERIAN CREATION MYTH AND FLOOD MYTH

 IS FOUND ON A SINGLE FRAGMENTARY TABLET EXCAVATED IN NIPPUR, 

SOMETIMES CALLED

 THE ERIDU GENESIS – (1700 B.C. – 1600 B.C.)

 IT IS WRITTEN IN THE SUMERIAN LANGUAGE and datable by its script to the 17th century B.C.  (1600-1700 B.C.) during the first abylonian dynasty, where the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian.

  … the Sumerican gods   An, Enlil, Enki and Ninhursanga and the first cities founded:   

 Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak 

WHEN ZIUDSURA WAS THE (SUMERIAN) KING, 

EA,

or ENKI,

 THE (SUMERIAN) GOD OF THE WATERS  

 WARNS

 THE HERO ATRAHASIS –  [THE “SUMERIAN” NOAH]

 AND GIVES HIM INSTRUCTIONS FOR

 THE BUILDING OF AN ARK

 Seven days and seven nights

 Utu the Sun god

  … AFTER THE FLOOD IS OVER –

 ZIUDSURA (SUMERIAN NOAH)

 SACRIFICES OXEN AND SHEEP [“BURNT OFFERINGS”]

 AND PROSTRATES HIMSELF BEFORE

 AN (SUMERIAN SKY-GOD)

 AND ENLIL

 (CHIEF OF THE SUMERIAN GODS)

 WHO GIVE HIM ETERNAL LIFE

 AND TAKE HIM TO DWELL IN DILMUN [HEAVEN – PARADISE]

 ZIUSUDA (SUMERIAN NOAH) AND XISUTHROS (BABYLONIAN KING)

 WORLD HISTORY –

 HISTORICALLY:

 XISUTHROS is included in BEROSSUS’ (BABYLONIAN HISTORAN) KING LIST: 

 this text diverges from all other extant king lists by listing the city of Shurruppak

 and as a king,  INCLUDING ZIUSUDRA as “Shuruppak’s” successor

 ATRAHASIS (AKKADIAN NOAH)

 THE AKKADIAN CREATION AND FLOOD STORY – FOLLOWS IN TIME THE SUMERIAN CREATION AND FLOOD STORY

 the 18th century B.C. AKKADIAN EPIC OF ATRHASIS

 COMPARISON BETWEEN AKKADIAN ATRAHASIS AND BABYLONIAN GILGAMESH –

 BABYLONIAN “CREATION AND FLOOD STORY”::

 EDITOR OF

 BABYLONIAN GILGAMESH

 UTILIZED THE FLOOD STORY FROM

 THE AKKADIAN EPIC OF ATRAHASIS

 IN THE BABYLONIAN “EPIC OF GILGAMESH”

 UTNAPISHTIM –

 THE BABYLONIAN “NOAH”

 THE HERO OF THE FLOOD MYTH,

 tells his story of Gilgamesh – related to the Akkadian  Epic of Atrahasis

 Alan Millard while working at the British Museum

  1961-1964 REDISCOVERED

 THE EPIC OF ATRAHASIS

 WHICH HAD LAIN UNRECOGNIZED IN A DRAWER FOR SOME TIME

 WHICH WAS WRITTEN BEFORE THE HEBREW BIBLE AND  ABRAHAM

 ===============  

 : THE UNITY OF GENESIS 1-11 (1985) is a book written by Univ of California at Berkeley faculty members Isaac M Kikawada and Arthur Quinn.  The book present historical and rhetorical analysis THAT AFFIRMS A SINGLE AUTHOR OF THE FIRST ELEMENT CHAPTERS OF GENESIS, CHALLENGING THE DOCUMENTARHY HYPOTHESIS VIEW OF MULTIPLE SOURCES AND AUTHORS. 

 

“IT COMPARES THESE FIRST CHAPTERS OF GENESIS WITH THE AKKADIAN ATRAHASIS EPIC (and analyzes these chapters usage of chiasmus.  (similar comparison in Kenneth Kitchen’s The Bible in its World)  … the book acknowledges the work of Umberto Cassuto  … IT COMPARES THESE FIRST CHAPTERS OF GENESIS WITH THE AKKADIAN ATRAHASIS EPIC –

 

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ENCYCLOPEDA WIKIPEDIA:

 

“Genesis creation narrative”:

 

“ … According to Old Testament scholar Gordon Wenham, this creation account bears he marks of a carefully contrived literary creation, written with a distinct theological agenda: THE ELEVATION OF YAHWEH, THE GOD OF ISRAEL, OVER ALL OTHER GODS, AND NOTABLY OVER MARDUK, THE GOD OF BABYLON.  [footnote: Gordon Wenham, “Exploring the Old Testament, Volume 1, The Pentateuch, SPCK (2003), PP. 15-18

 

“THE OPENING PASSAGES OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS CONSECUTIVELY CONTAIN TWO CREATION STORIES.  

 

“THE FIRST STORY – CREATES THE WORLD IN 6  DAYS BY DIVINE INCANTATION 1ST DAY: LET THERE BE LIGHT , 2ND DAY: CREATES AN EXPANSE (FIRMAMENT) TO SEPARATE THE WATERS ABOVE THE SKY FROM THOSE BELWO (THE OCEAN/ABYSSOS) – 3RD DAY: WATERS RECEDE AND DRY LAND APPEARS AND FILLS THE EARTH WITH VEGETATION, PUTS LIGHTS IN THE SKY TO SEPARATE DAY FROM NIGHT TO MARK THE SEASONS -5TH DAY: CREATES CREATES SEA CREATURES AND BIRDS OF EVERY KIND AND COMMANDS THEM TO PROCREATE – 6TH DAY: CREATES LAND CREATURES OF EVERY KIND – MAN AND WOMAN ARE CREATED LAST, AFTER THE ENTIRE WORLD IS PREPARED FOR THEM AND 7TH FINAL DAY OF CREATION IS SABBATH.

 

“THE SECOND STORY -:  CREATION OF MAN FOLLOWS THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENS AND EARTH, BUT OCCURS BEFORE THE CREATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS (GEN 2:4-2-25 – GOD TAKES DIRT (ADAMAH, OCHRE) FROM THE GROUND TO FORM A MAN AND BREATHES LIFE INTO HIM.  PREPARES GARDEN IN THE EAST OF EDEN AND PUTS THE MAN THERE, THEN FILLS IT WITH TREES BEARING FRUIT FOR HIM TO EAT.  MAN INVITED TO EAT THE FRUIT OF ANY TREE BUT ONE: THE TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL – GOD COMMANDS THE MAN NOT EAT OF THAT ONE TREE “FOR WHEN YOU EAT OF IT YOU WILLO SURELY DIE. (GEN 2:17) – BIRD AND ANIMALS ARE THEN CREATED AS MAN’S COMPANIONS AND HELPERS AND GOD PRESENTS THEM TO THE MAN.  THE FIRST MAN GIVES NAMES TO EACH ONE, BUT FINDS NONE OF THEM TO BE ‘LIKE HIM.’ 

 

“GOD PUTS THE FIRST MAN INTO A DEEP SLEEP AND REMOVES SOMETHING FROM MAN’S SIDE, AND USES IT TO MAKE THE FIRST WOMAN. 

 

“FOR THIS REASON,” THE TEXT READS,

 

A MAN WILL LEAVE HIS FATHER AND MOTHER FOR HIS WIFE, AND THEY SHALL BE JOINED AS ONE FLESH.” 

 

MODERN SCHOLARSHIP persuaded by (1) the use of two different names for God, (2) two different emphases (physical vs. moral issues), and (3) a different order of creation (plants before humans vs plants after humans), ADVANCES THAT THESE ARE TWO DISTINCT SCRIPTURES WRITTEN MANY YEARS APART BY TWO DIFFERENT SOURCES.  [footnote: The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Oxford University Press, 1991 (ISBN 0195283562.   Annotation to Genesis 2:4b.

 

“TRADITIONALLY ATTRIBUTEDTO MOSES, TODAY MOST SCHOLARS ACCEPT THAT THE PENTATEUCH IS ‘A COMPOSITE WORK, THE PRODUCT OF MANY HANDS AND PERIODS.[39 

 

“GENESIS 1 AND 2 ARE SEEN AS THE PRODUCTS OF TWO SEPARATE AUTHORS, OR SCHOOLS. 

 

“GENESIS 1 IS BY AN AUTHOR OR SCHOOL OF AUTHORS CALLED THE P (FOR PRIESTLY)

 

“WHILE GENESIS 2 IS BY A DIFFERENT AUTHOR OR GROUP OF AUTHORS CALLED “J” (FOR JAHWIST – “SOMETIMES CALLED NON-P).

 

“THERE ARE SEVERAL COMPETING THEORIES AS TO WHEN AND HOW THESE TWO ORIGINALLYCOMPLETE BUT SEPARATE NARRATIVES SPANNING THE ENTIRE BIBLICAL STORY FROM CRATION TO THE DEATH OF MOSES,

 

WHILE OTHERS BELIEVE THAT J IS NOT A COMPLETE NARRATIVE BUT RATHER

 

A SERIES OF EDITS OF THE “J” MATERIAL, WHICH ITSELF WAS NOT A SINGLE DOCUMENT SO MUCH AS A COLLECTION OF MATERIAL. 

 

“IN EITHER CASE, IT IS GENERALLY AGREED THAT THE “J” ACCOUNT (GENESIS 2) IS OLDER THAN P (GENESIS 1), THAT BOTH WERE WRITTEN DURING THE 1ST MILLENNIUM B.C.  

 

AND THAT THEY REACHED THE COMBINED FORM IN WHICH WE KNOW THEM TODAY ABOUT 450 B.C.” 

 

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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