TO BEGIN WITH A RECENT ARTICLE INSTEAD OF BEING ENTITLED: “EUROPEAN AND ASIAN LANGUAGES TRACED BACK TO SINGLE MOTHER TONGUE” … SHOULD HAVE BEEN ENTITLED: “EUROPEAN AND ASIAN LANGUAGES TRACED BACK TO A SINGLE “AFRICAN” MOTHER TONGUE” !
(1) 40,000 YEARS AGO EUROPE (“EURASIA”) WAS INHABITED BY ONLY ONE POPULATION … THE AFRICAN MODERN (ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS) HUMANS – HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS. [PERIOD ! ]
(2) THE TERM “INDO-EUROPEAN” IS THE LABEL FOR A “LANGUAGE-SPEAKING FAMILY OR “PHYLUM” [NOTE THE LATER POSTED DEFINITION OF “PHYLU7M” AS A “MORPHOLOGICAL” DESCRIPTION
“PHYLUM: ” Informally, phyla can be thought of as grouping organisms based on general specialization of body plan. At the most basic level, a phylum can be defined in two ways: as a group of organisms with a certain degree of MORPHOLOGICAL or developmental SIMILARITY (the phenetic definition), or a group of organisms with a certain degree of evolutionary relatedness (the phylogenetic definition). Attempting to define a level of the Linnean hierarchy without referring to (evolutionary) relatedness is an unsatisfactory approach, but the phenetic definition is more useful when addressing questions of a morphological nature—such as how successful different body plans were.” ]
NOT A “RACIAL GROUP” OR “POPULATION” OR “WHITE” OR “EUROPEAN” OR “CAUCASIAN” RACIAL POPULATION — BUT RATHER … A “MIXED RACIALPOPULATION” BY 15,000 OR 5,000 YEARS AGO.
(3) THE “INDO-EUROPEAN-SPEAKING”.. LANGUAGE FAMILY OR LANGUAGE PHYLUM DID NOT OCCUR IN WORLD HISTORY OR HUMAN BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY UNTIL AFTER THE MIGRATION OFTHE BLACK AFRICAN RACIAL “POPULATION”
[“POPULATION” IS THE TERM PREFERRED BY S.O.Y. Keita – OUTSTANDING AFRICAN GENETICIST — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._O._Y._Keita — May 1 2011 – S.O.Y. Keita Ancient Egyptian biological Relationships
WHATEVER THE NAME OF THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN IT WOULD HAVE BEEN THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN JUST BEFORE THE 40,000 YEARS AGO MIGRATION OF AFRICANS TO EURASIA. YOU CAN QUIBBLE OR ARGUE THE TECHNICALITIES OF THAT AD INFINITUM !
“INDO-EUROPEAN” IS A “LANGUAGE “FAMILY” OR LANGUAGE “PHYLUM” … DESCENDANTS OF “BLACK AFRICANS” BORN IN AMERICA AND SPEAKING “ENGLISH” ARE NOT CLASSIFIED AS “WHITE” OR “CAUCASIAN.” …
AN “EURASIAN POPULATION” SPEAKING “INDO-EUROPEAN” ARE NOT FOR THAT REASON A “WHITE” OR “CAUCASIAN” RACIAL POPULATION FOR THE SAME REASON.
“INDO-EUROPEAN-SPEAKING PEOPLE” WERE A MIXED RACIAL POPULATION CONSISTING OF (1) DESCENDANTS OF THE ORIGINAL “AFRICAN HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS MIGRANTS
(CALLED “CRO-MAGNONS BECAUSE AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY IN 1868 OF A “BLACK AFRICAN SKELETON IN A CAVE CALLED “CRO-MAGNON” LOCATED IN FRANCE) …
AND (2) THOSE “BLACK AFRICAN MIGRANTS” WHO UNDERWENT AN EVOLUTIONARY NATURAL SELECTION “MUTATION” OR “BRIGHTENING” OF THE SKIN COLOR INVOLVING LESS MELANIN IN THEIR BODIES OVER A PERIOD OF TIME IN ORDER TO SURVIVE AFTER LIVING IN THE COLDER, DIMLY SUNLIT EURASIAN REGION DURING THE WURM III ICE AGE AND BECOMING “LIGHT BROWN” COMPLEXIONED DUE TO THE LESSER MELANIN IN THEIR BODIES [REFERRED TO ASS “LIGHT-BROWN COMPLEXIONED MEDITERRANEANS”
BY L LUIGI CAVALL ET AL, IN Cavalli-sforza et al.
“The time of the origin of the Indo-European language or speaking phylum or family, was during the last 5000 years. [Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994: 103]:
The time of origin of the Indo-European family is usually given as 5000 years B.P. (Gimbutas 1966 ; Mallory 1989).
Correlations with climate:
“White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a “light brown” color characteristic of caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa. a diet especially poor in vitamin d mayhave been characteristic of the farmers who came to Europe from the Middle East and slowly made their way to northern Europe, where they arrived about 5000 years ago.
If this is true, then the “white skin color” of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a “light-brown” color characteristic of caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.”
[MORE RECENT RESEARCH INDICATES:
” ..www.sciencemag.org science vol 333 23 september 2011: “Aboriginal Genome Show Two-Wave Settlement of Asia”
“. all of their [Aboriginals] ancestors left Africa in the same group, but that the forebears of Aboriginals and Melanesians first broke away to Asia, while others headed to Europe and the Middle East. … They estimated the second migration, WHEN EUROPEANS AND MAINLAND ASIANS DIVERGED [SEPARATED] to be much later—perhaps ABOUT 25,000 TO 40,000 YEARS AGO.
‘Having a full genome sequence allows the authors to date the separation from other Asian and European samples’ says geneticist Richard Durbin of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute near Cambridge, U.K. ‘This supports their claim of an earlier out-of-Africa wave.’
“The dates fit roughly with archaeological evidence putting modern humans or their tools in Australia by about 50,000 years ago, says archaeologist Paul Mellars of the University of Cambridge, who was one of the first to propose a southern route out of Africa to Asia. He says, ‘The idea of people moving like lightning along the southern coastlines of Asia makes perfect sense.’ Those people would first have had to cross India, where stone tools now date to about 75,000 years ago at nine sites (Science, 5 March 2010, p. 1187). But Mellars finds the date of the second wave too recent, because modern humans were already in Europe and western Asia by 45,000 years ago. Regardless of the dates, the two-wave scenario fits with other recent work on the genomes of ancient Asians. Last year, researchers sequenced the genome of an archaic girl who lived at least 30,000 years ago in Denisova Cave IN SIBERIA (Science, 26 August, p. 1084); she was not a modern human but A DESCENDANT OF [AFRICAN] HOMO ERECTUS AN ANCESTRAL SPECIES THAT LEFT AFRICA ALMOST 2 MILLION YEARS AGO. (emphasis added)
“Her people had interbred with the ancestors of living Melanesians, who inherited about 5% of their nuclear DNA from Denisovans. But no Denisovan DNA has been found in the Han Chinese, suggesting that they arrived in Asia in a migration that did not mixed with Denisovans.”
The American Journal of Human Genetics paper:
“ … By examining about 350,000 SNPs in individuals of each group, they found that New Guineans and Australian Aboriginines had inherited the same frequency of Denisovan DNA—a finding that fits with Willersley’s genomic work—confirming that the two groups descended from the same group and that both mixed with the Denisovans.”
Just prior to the beginni The Indo-European laguages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 439 languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate, about half (221) belonging to the Indo-Aryan subbranch. It includes most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the Indian Subcontinent, and was also predominant in ancient Anatolia. With written attestations appearing since the Bronze Age in the form of the Anatolian languages and Mycenaean Greek, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afro-Asiatic family.