<"Judaism – “Satan”:
The original Hebrew term, SATAN, is A NOUN FROM A VERB MEANING PRIMARILY TO, “OBSTRUCT, OPPOSE,” as it is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.
HA-SATAN is traditionally translated as “THE ACCUSER,” OR “THE ADVERSARY.” THE DEFINITE ARTICLE “HA-,” English “the," is used to show that this is A TITLE BESTOWED ON A BEING, VERSUS THE NAME OF A BEING.
THUS THIS BEING WOULD BE REFERRED TO AS “THE SATAN.”
HA-SATAN WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE occurs 13 times IN THE MASORETIC TEXT, IN TWO BOOKS OF THE HEBREW BIBLE:
1. JOB ch.1–2 (10x),
2. ZECHARIAH 3:1–2 (3x).
SATAN WITHOUT THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IS USED IN 10 INSTANCES, of which TWO ARE TRANSLATED
1. DIABOLOS IN THE SEPTUAGINT and
2. "SATAN" IN THE KING JAMES VERSION:
1. 1 Chronicles 21:1, "SATAN stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up AN ADVERSARY against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)
2A Psalm 109:6b "and let SATAN stand at his right hand" (KJV) or
2B "let AN ACCUSER stand at his right hand." (ESV, etc.)
The other eight instances of
SATAN WITHOUT THE DEFINITE ARTICLE are traditionally translated (IN GREEK, LATIN AND ENGLISH) AS "AN ADVERSARY," etc.,
and taken to be (1) HUMANS or OBEDIENT ANGELS:
1. Numbers 22:22,32 "and THE ANGEL OF THE LORD stood in the way for AN ADVERSARY against him." NUMBERS 32 "behold, I (GOD) went out to withstand thee,"
2. 1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest HE [DAVID] be AN ADVERSARY against us"
3. 2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you SONS OF ZERUAIAH] should this day be ADVERSARIES (plural) unto me?"
4. 1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither ADVERSARY nor EVIL OCCURRENT."
5. 1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up AN ADVERSARY unto Solomon, HADAD THE EDOMITE"
6. 1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up AN ADVERSARY, Rezon THE SON OF ELIADAH"
7. 1 KINGS 25 "And he [REZON] was AN ADVERSARY to Israel all the days of Solomon"
8. Book of Job
The examination of Job,
SATAN pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake.
In the Book of Job, HA-SATAN is a member of THE DIVINE COUNCIL, "THE SONS OF GOD" who are SUBSERVIENT TO GOD.
HA-SATAN, in this capacity, is many times translated as "THE PROSECUTOR", and is CHARGED BY GOD TO TEMPT HUMANS and TO REPORT BACK TO GOD ALL WHO GO AGAINST HIS DECREES.
At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "WHO FEARED GOD AND TURNED AWAY FROM EVIL" (Job 1:1), and has therefore been REWARDED BY GOD. When THE DIVINE COUNCIL meets, GOD INFORMS HA-SATAN about Job's BLAMELESS, MORALLY UPRIGHT CHARACTER. Between Job 1:9–10 and 2:4–5, HA-SATAN merely POINTS OUT THAT GOD HAS GIVEN JOB EVERYTHING THAT A MAN COULD WANT, SO OF COURSE JOB WOULD BE LOYAL TO GOD; IF ALL JOB HAS BEEN GIVEN, EVEN HIS HEALTH, WERE TO BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM, HOWEVER, HIS FAITH WOULD COLLAPSE. GOD THEREFORE GRANTS HA-SATAN THE CHANCE TO TEST JOB. Due to this, IT HAS BEEN INTERPRETED THAT HA-SATAN IS UNDER GOD'S CONTROL AND CANNOT ACT WITHOUT GOD'S PERMISSION.
This is further shown in the epilogue of Job in which GOD IS SPEAKING TO JOB, HA-SATAN IS ABSENT FROM THESE DIALOGUES.
"For JOB, for [JOB'S] FRIENDS, and for THE NARRATOR, IT IS ULTIMATELY YAHWEH HIMSELF WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR JOB'S SUFFERING; as YAHWEH says to the 'SATAN', 'YOU HAVE INCITED ME AGAINST HIM, TO DESTROY HIM FOR NO REASON.'" (Job 2:3)"
[SATAN’S POWER TO INFLUENCE GOD TO DESTROY JOB ! … HERE GOD IS NOT OMNIPOTENT, ALL POWERFUL, SUBJECT TO NO ONE’S OR NO OTHER INFLUENCES ! ]]
THE EGYPTIAN SETH:
His siblings are
Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys.
His wife is Nephthys and in some accounts
he had relationships with other goddesses:
Hathor, Neith and the foreign goddesses Anat, and Astarte.
His homosexual episodes with Horus result in them fathering
the moon god Thoth.
The meaning of the name Seth is unknown, thought to have been originally pronounced *Sūtaḫ based on the occurrence of his name in Egyptian hieroglyphs (swtḫ),
and his later mention in the Coptic documents with the name Sēt.
Main article: Set animal
In art, Set is mostly depicted as A FABULOUS CREATURE, referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal or Typhonic beast. The animal has a curved snout, LONG, RECTANGULAR EARS, A FORKED TAIL, and CANINE BODY;
sometimes, Set is depicted as A HUMAN WITH ONLY THE HEAD OF THE SET ANIMAL. It does not resemble any known creature,
although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal, or a fennec fox. Some early Egyptologists have proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, DUE TO THE LARGE FLAT-TOPPED 'HORNS' WHICH CORRESPOND TO A GIRAFFE'S OSSICONES. However, the Egyptians make a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal.
In the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or with the head of a donkey.
THE EARLIEST REPRESENTATIONS OF WHAT MAY BE THE SET ANIMAL COMES FROM
A TOMB DATING TO THE NAQADA I PHASE OF THE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD (3790 BC–3500 BC), though this identification is uncertain. If these are ruled out,
THEN THE EARLIEST SET-ANIMAL APPEARS ON A MACE HEAD OF THE KING SCORPION, A PROTODYNASTIC RULER.
THE HEAD AND THE FORKED TAIL OF THE SET ANIMAL are clearly present.
CONFLICT BETWEEN HORUS AND SET:
IN THE MYTHOLOGY OF HELIOPOLIS, SET WAS BORN OF THE SKY GODDESS NUT AND THE EARTH GOD GEB.
SET'S SISTER AND WIFE WAS NEPHTHYS.
NUT AND GEB
ALSO PRODUCED ANOTHER TWO CHILDREN WHO BECAME HUSBAND AND WIFE:
THE DIVINE OSIRIS AND ISIS,
whose son was Horus.
THE OSIRIS MYTH:
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From right: Isis, her husband Osiris, and their son Horus, the protagonists of the Osiris myth
The Osiris myth is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology. It concerns the murder of the god Osiris, a primeval king of Egypt, and its consequences. Osiris' murderer, his brother Set, usurps his throne. Meanwhile, Osiris' wife Isis restores her husband's body, allowing him to posthumously conceive a son with her. The remainder of the story focuses on Horus, the product of Isis and Osiris' union, who is first a vulnerable child protected by his mother and then becomes Set's rival for the throne. Their often violent conflict ends with Horus' triumph, which restores order to Egypt after Set's unrighteous reign and completes the process of Osiris' resurrection. The myth, with its complex symbolism, is integral to the Egyptian conceptions of kingship and succession, conflict between order and disorder and, especially, death and the afterlife. It also expresses the essential character of each of the four deities at its center, and many elements of their worship in ancient Egyptian religion were derived from the myth.
The Osiris myth reached its basic form in or before the 24th century BC. Many of its elements originated in religious ideas, but the conflict between Horus and Set may have been partly inspired by a regional struggle in Egypt's early history or prehistory. Scholars have tried to discern the exact nature of the events that gave rise to the story, but they have reached no definitive conclusions.
Parts of the myth appear in a wide variety of Egyptian texts, from funerary texts and magical spells to short stories. The story is, therefore, more detailed and more cohesive than any other ancient Egyptian myth. Yet no Egyptian source gives a full account of the myth, and the sources vary widely in their versions of events. Greek and Roman writings, particularly De Iside et Osiride by Plutarch, provide more information but may not always accurately reflect Egyptian beliefs. Through these writings, the Osiris myth persisted after knowledge of most ancient Egyptian beliefs was lost, and it is still well known today.
" … The myth of Osiris was very important in ancient Egyptian religion and was popular among ordinary people. One reason for this popularity is the myth's primary religious meaning, which implies that any dead person can reach a pleasant afterlife. Another reason is that the characters and their emotions are more reminiscent of the lives of real people than those in most Egyptian myths, making the story more appealing to the general populace. In particular, the myth conveys a "strong sense of family loyalty and devotion", as the Egyptologist J. Gwyn Griffiths put it, in the relationships between Osiris, Isis, and Horus. With this widespread appeal, the myth appears in more ancient texts than any other myth and in an exceptionally broad range of Egyptian literary styles. These sources also provide an unusual amount of detail.
" … The Pyramid Texts in the Pyramid of Teti
The earliest mentions of the Osiris myth are in the Pyramid Texts, the first Egyptian funerary texts, which appeared on the walls of burial chambers in pyramids at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, during the 24th century BC. These texts, made up of disparate spells or "utterances", contain ideas that are presumed to date from still earlier times. THE TEXTS ARE CONCERNED WITH THE AFTERLIFEOF THE KING BURIED IN THE PYRAMID, SO THEY FREQUENTLY REFER TOTHE OSIRIS MYTH, WHICH IS DEEPLY INVOLVED WITH KINGSHIP AND THE AFTERLIFE. Major elements of the story, such as THE DEATH AND RESTORATION [NOTE RESURECTION] OF OIRIS AND THE STRIFE BETWEEN HORUS AND SET, APPEAR IN THE UTTERANCES OF THE PYRAMID TEXTS.
The same elements from the myth that appear in the Pyramid Texts recur in funerary texts written in later times, such as the Coffin Texts from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650 BC) and the Book of the Dead from the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC). MOST OF THESE WRITINGS WERE MADE FOR THE GENERAL POPULACE, SO THEASSOCIATION MADE IN THESE TEXTS, BETWEEN OSIRIS AND THE DEAD,IS NO LONGER RESTRICTED TO ROYALTY.
” … THE OSIRIS MYTH:
“THE MYTH’S RELIGIOUS IMPORTANCE
EXTENDED BEYOND THE FUNERARY SPHERE. Mortuary offerings, in which
FAMILY MEMBERS OR HIRED PRIESTS
PRESENTED FOOD TO THE DECEASED,
WERE LOGICALLY LINKED WITH
THE EYE OF HORUS TO OSIRIS.
THIS EPISODE OF THE MYTH WAS EVENTUALLY EQUATED WITH
OTHER INTERACTIONS BETWEEN
A HUMAN AND A BEING IN THE DIVINE REALM.
IN TEMPLE OFFERING RITUALS, THE OFFICIATING PRIEST TOOK ON THE ROLE OF HORUS,
THE GIFTS TO THE DEITY became THE EYE OF HORUS,
and WHICHEVER DEITY RECEIVED THESE GIFTS was momentarily
EQUATED WITH OSIRIS.
[UPON THE BIRTH OF JESUS IN MARY’S WOMB BY THE VISITATION OF THE “HOLY SPIRIT,” JESUS WAS AT THAT TIME BY LATER BIBLICAL WRITERS EQUATED WITH GOD ]
THE “RENEWAL OF MAAT”:
The ideology surrounding the living king was also affected by the Osiris myth. THE EGYPTIANS ENVISIONED
THE EVENTS OF THE OSIRIS MYTH AS TAKING PLACE SOMETIME IN EGYPT’S DIM PREHISTORY,
AND OSIRIS, HORUS, AND THEIR DIVINE PREDECESSORS
WERE INCLUDED IN EGYPTIAN LISTS OF PAST KINGS
SUCH AS THE TURIN ROYAL CANON.
HORUS, as a primeval king and as the personification of kingship, WAS REGARDED AS THE PREDECESSOR AND EXEMPLAR FOR ALL EGYPTIAN RULERS.
His assumption of his father’s throne and
TO SUSTAIN HIS SPIRIT IN THE AFTERLIFE
were the model for all pharaonic successions to emulate.
EACH NEW KING WAS BELIEVED TO RENEW MAAT after the death of the preceding king,
just as Horus had done. In ROYAL CORONATIONS, RITUALS ALLUDED TO OSIRIS’ BURIAL, and hymns CELEBRATED
THE NEW KING’S ACCESSION AS
THE EQUIVALENT OF HORUS’ OWN.
The myth influenced popular religion as well. One example is the magical healing spells based on Horus’ childhood. Another is
THE USE OF THE EYE OF HORUS
AS A PROTECTIVE EMBLEM in personal apotropaic amulets. Its mythological restoration made it appropriate for this purpose, as A GENERAL SYMBOL OF WELL-BEING.
As the antagonist of the myth, Set did not enjoy increased popularity. Although other traditions credit him with positive traits, IN THE OSIRIS MYTH THE SINISTER ASPECTS OF HIS CHARACTER PREDOMINATE.
HE (OSIRIS) AND HORUS
WERE OFTEN JUXTAPOSED IN ART TO REPRESENT
OPPOSITE PRINCIPLES, SUCH AS GOOD AND EVIL,
intellect and instinct, and the different regions of the world that they rule in the myth.
EGYPTIAN WISDOM TEXTS
CONTRAST THE CHARACTER OF THE IDEAL PERSON WITH THE OPPOSITE TYPE—THE CALM AND SENSIBLE
“SILENT ONE” AND THE IMPULSIVE, DISRUPTIVE “HOTHEAD”
—AND ONE DESCRIPTION OF THESE TWO CHARACTERS CALLS THEM
THE HORUS-TYPE AND THE SET-TYPE.
Yet the two gods were often treated as part of a harmonious whole. In some local cults they were worshipped together; in art they were often shown tying together the emblems of Upper and Lower Egypt to symbolize the unity of the nation; and in funerary texts they appear as a single deity with the heads of Horus and Set, apparently representing the mysterious, all-encompassing nature of the Duat.
Overall Set was viewed with ambivalence, until during the first millennium BC he came to be seen as a totally malevolent deity. This transformation was prompted more by his association with foreign lands than by the Osiris myth. Nevertheless, in these late times, the widespread temple rituals involving the ceremonial annihilation of Set were often connected with the myth.
Both ISIS AND NEPHTHYS were seen as PROTECTORS OF THE DEAD IN THE AFTERLIFE BECAUSE OF THEIR PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF OSIRIS’ BODY.
ISIS, AS HORUS’ MOTHER, WAS ALSO THE MOTHER OF EVERY KING ACCORDING TO ROYAL IDEOLOGY,
AND KINGS WERE SAID TO HAVE NURSED AT HER BREAST AS A SYMBOL OF THEIR DIVINE LEGITIMACY.
HER APPEAL TO THE GENERAL POPULACE WAS BASED IN HER PROTECTIVE CHARACTER, AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE MAGICAL HEALING SPELLS.
In the Late Period, SHE WAS CREDITED WITH EVER GREATER MAGICAL POWER, AND HER MATERNAL DEVOTION WAS BELIEVED TO EXTEND TO EVERYONE.
BY ROMAN TIMES SHE WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT GODDESS IN EGYPT.
THE IMAGE OF THE GODDESS HOLDING HER CHILD WAS USED PROMINENTLY IN HER WORSHIP—for example,
IN PANEL PAINTINGS THAT WERE
USED IN HOUSEHOLD SHRINES DEDICATED TO HER.
Isis’ iconography in these paintings
CLOSELY RESEMBLES AND PROBABLY INFLUENCED
THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN ICONS OF MARY HOLDING JESUS.
IN THE LATE CENTURIES BC,
THE WORSHIP OF ISIS SPREAD FROM EGYPT ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD,
AND SHE BECAME ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR DEITIES IN THE REGION.
Although this new, multicultural form of Isis ABSORBED CHARACTERISTICS FROM MANY OTHER DEITIES, HER ORIGINAL MYTHOLOGICAL NATURE AS A WIFE AND MOTHER WAS KEY TO HER APPEAL.
HORUS AND OSIRIS, being CENTRAL FIGURES IN HER STORY, SPREAD ALONG WITH HER.
It was to A GREEK PRIESTESS OF ISIS that PLUTARCH wrote his account of THE MYTH OF OSIRIS.
HER IMPORTANCE CONTINUED INTO THE FOURTH CENTURY AD, WHEN CHRISTIANITY ECLIPSED IT.
BUT CHRISTIANITY ABSORBED MANY OF THE TRADITIONS SURROUNDING ISIS AND INCORPORATED THEM INTO THE VENERATION OF MARY, SUCH AS
ISIS’ TITLE “MOTHER OF THE GOD”
(REFERRING TO HORUS),
WHICH INFLUENCED MARY’S TITLE “MOTHER OF GOD”.
THROUGH THE WORK OF
CLASSICAL WRITERS SUCH AS PLUTARCH,
KNOWLEDGE OF THE OSIRIS MYTH WAS PRESERVED EVEN AFTER
THE MIDDLE OF THE FIRST MILLENNIUM AD, [CONSTANTINE AND NICENE CREED … INFLUENCES ]
WHEN EGYPTIAN RELIGION CEASED TO EXIST
AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE WRITING SYSTEMS THAT WERE ORIGINALLY USED TO RECORD THE MYTH WERE LOST.
THE MYTH REMAINED A MAJOR PART OF WESTERN IMPRESSIONS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. IN MODERN TIMES,
WHEN UNDERSTANDING OF EGYPTIAN BELIEFS IS INFORMED BY THE ORIGINAL EGYPTIAN SOURCES, THE STORY CONTINUES TO INFLUENCE AND INSPIRE NEW IDEAS,
FROM WORKS OF FICTION
TO SCHOLARLY SPECULATION
AND NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece/oAncient Greece" and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome/oAncient Rome" Roman writings, particularly De Iside et Osiride"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutarch/oPlutarch" Plutarch, provide more information but may not always accurately reflect Egyptian beliefs. Through these writings, the Osiris myth persisted after knowledge of most ancient Egyptian beliefs was lost, and it is still well known today.