The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilization: The African “Aurigncian” tool industry and the African Venus figurines:
The complex of caves at Grimaldi, east of Monaco on the Italian Riviera, have produced a number of burials. These are apparently associated both with Aurignacian and Upper Perigordian/Gravettian assemblages (Grotte De La Barma Grande and La Grotte Des Enfants (burials in the Grimaldi cave complex at Balzi Rossi (Baousse Rousse), mmw/mc region.
“… The Grimaldi caves also produced some more of the distinctive Venus figurines … Undated surface finds of what some regard as vVenus figurines have also been made in central Italy at Chiozza and Cavignano. Animal figurines, engraved plaques and other forms of art object which are known from EUP contexts in both the southern and northern provinces are noticeable by their absence thoughout the mediterranean province [Hahn 1981a].
46,000 – 30,000 Years Ago:
Christopher Stringer And Clive Gamble, In Search of The Neanderthals: Solving The Puzzle of Human Origins (Thames And Hudson Ltd: New York), 1993, indicated the following Eurasian archaeological fossil discoveries:
Bacho kiro, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cave of Mladec, Czechoslovakia,
Velika Peina, Dolni V_Stonice and Piedmosti in Czechoslovakia, (Appendix: selected absolute dates, pp. 221-222)
Bulgaria: Bacho Kiro – modern 41,000 years ago
Croatia: 34,000 years ago:
Velika peina: … a radiocarbon date from an overlying artifact level of more than 34,000 years (Stringer And Gamble: 179)
Czechoslovakia: Cave of Mladec, 33,000-30,000 years ago:
“…Dating from 33,000-30,000 years ago, these Mladec people were undoubtedly primitive compared with modern Europeans, but primitive does not necessarily mean especially like, or derived from Neanderthals. (Stringer and Gamble: 1993, 180)Dolni vestonice and piedmosti in Czechoslovakia:
Modern: 32.7 years ago
Early Upper Paleolithic 29.1 years ago
[Note: Dmanisi, Georgia, southern Russia is a part of the Balkan states region of the Eurasian continent:
The Balkan Region of the Eurasian Continent:
Balkan states region of the Eurasian continent:
The Balkan region consists of the Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Bosnia And Herzegovinia, Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Romania, Southern Poland, Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Albania, Macedonia, and Greece – with Italy near the Balkan states, Sicily, Sardenia, Corsica
the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tirrhenian Sea,
and includes southern Russia and Turkey, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria, in Eastern Europe, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and is near the northeastern coast of Africa and the Mediterranean Sea.
Source: Balkan States, Hammond World Atlas, Collectors Edition, Newsweek (Hammond Incorporated: Maplewood, New Jersey), 1995.
THE FIRST EUROPEANS: THE FIRST PROOF FOR THE PRESENCE OF HUMANS OUTSIDE OF AFRICA:
May 11, 2000: 1.9 Million Years Ago:- The first proof for the presence of humans outside of Africa. The line that these people gave rise to may have died out as recently as 50,000 years ago in the Far East. These fossils represent the most pr.imitive population of the species Homo erectus to date.
“Speaking at the British Science Festival in Guildford, where he gave the British Council lecture, Professor Lordkipanidze raised the prospect that Homo erectus may have evolved in Eurasia from the more primitive-looking Dmanisi population and then migrated back to Africa to eventually give rise to our own species, Homo sapiens B modern man. The scientists have discovered a total of five skulls and a solitary jawbone. It is clear that they had relatively small brains, almost a third of the size of modern humans. >They are quite small. Their lower limbs are very human and their upper limbs are still quite archaic and they had very primitive stone tools,= Professor Lordkipanidze said.
“The only human fossil to predate the Dmanisi speimens are of an archaic species Homo habilis, or >handy man,= found only in Africa, which used simple stone tools and lived between 2.5 million and 1.6 million years ago. ‘I’d have to say, if we=d found the Dmanisi fossils 40 years ago, they would have been classified as Homo habilis because of the small brain size.
“Their brow ridges are not as thick as classical Homo erectus, but their teeth are more H. erectus like,= Professor Lordkipanidze said. Georgia is the cradle of the first Europeans, I would say,’ he told the meeting. ‘While the Dmanisi people were almost modern in their body proportions, and were highly efficient walkers and runners, their arms moved in a different way, and their brains were tiny compared to ours.
“Nevertheless, they were sophisticated tool makers with high social and cognitive skills,’ he told the science festival, which is run by the British Science Association.”
THE FIRST EUROPEANS:
BBC news, sci/tech, AFossils may be the first Europeans,@ May 11, 2000 reported the discovery of remains of what may be the earliest human ancestors to migrate from Africa into Europe that were found in the Republic of Georgia and reported in the journal Science.
This is the first proof for the presence of humans outside of Africa at this time,= David Lordkipanidze, at the Republic of Georgia State Museum in Tbilisi, told the BBC, >This is most significant.=@
The Georgian, German, French And American scientists involved in the latest discovery believe this tool evidence – stone tools found with the dmanisi fossils are of the less sophisticated >oldowan= or pebble-chopper= type that preceded acheulean technology– more than 1,000 such artefacts were recovered – that this tool evidence overturns the idea that a more sophisticated rechnology was required to survive the rigours of migration.
Commenting on the paper, Dr. Chris Stringer, of the Natural History Museum in london, An expert on the AOut of Africa@ theory of modern human origins, said it is doubtful that the Dmanisi hominids were our direct ancestors. The line that these people gave rise to may have died out as recently as 50,000 years ago in the Far East,= he told the BBC. … >We=re descended from similar people who stayed in Africa, Africa in a sense kept pumping out migrations and dispersals of people and this included people like the Neanderthals who, equally, it doesn=t seem were our ancestors. The ancestors of modern humans may have left Africa only in the last 100,000 years.”