Earlier this year, I posted the following in response to one of the posts by a member:

“Interesting discussion! I refreshed my memory as to the definition of “voodoo” and “animism” and “paganism” with regard to the general definitions.
The conclusion seems to be that “animism” was practiced in Africa prior to Christianity and that this evolved or developed into an African tribal/clan system
with a spiritual leader or “shaman” who served as a intermediary between the African people and the “spirits” or “spirituall” world, providing “rituals,” and making “sacrifices” to appease the “spiritual power(s)” that they believed controled the world and their daily lives.

Romans around the time of Jesus had adopted the “pagan” religious practice of “Mithrism” brought back by Roman soldiers from their military actions in the Middle East or Near East or Iran and Iraq or the Tigris and Euphrates river valley region.

The early christian church fathers labeled this and other Roman and Greek practices “paganism.” Some atheists and non-atheists believe that Roman Christianity was derived from “Mithricism,” and in the 19th century Kersey Graves (1813-1883), an American spiritualist, wrote about

“The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors: Christianity Before Christ” including
Khrisma of India,
Thammuz of Syria,
Esus ofthe Celtic Druids,
Mithra of Persia,
and Quexalcoatl of Mexico,

indicating that all wre crucified gods, and all met their fates hundreds of years before Jesus appeared on the scene –

a booki that was described as essential reading for students of comparative mythology and modern freethinkers.

Kersey begins Chapter I with the following:

“It is claimed by the disciples of Jesus Christ, that he was of supernaturual and divine origin;
that he had a human being for a mother, and a God for his father;

that, although he was woman conceived, he was Deity-begotten, and molded in in the human form,

but comprehending in essence a full measure of the infinite Godhead; thus making him half-human and half divine in his sublunary origin.

It is claimed that he was full and perfect God, and perfect man;

and while he was God,he was also the son of God, and, as such was sent down by his father to save a fallen and guilty world;

and that thus his mission pertained to the whole human race;

and his inspired seers are made to declare that ultimately every nation, tongue, kindred, and people under heaven will acknowledge allegiance to his government and concede his right to reign and rule the world;

that ‘every knee must bow, and every togue confess that Jesus is Lord, to the glroy of God the Father.” which in Kersey’s book, followed an “Address to the Clergy” which stated:

“Friends and brethren—teachers of the Christian faith: Will you believe us when we tell you the divine claims of your religion are gone—all swept away by the ‘logic of history’ and nullified by the demonstrations of science?”
and in the Introduction referred to:

Sir Godfrey Higgins:

“the light of modern explorations of Sir Godfrey Higgins which have disclosed the history of nearly a score of crucified Gods and sin-atoning Saviors, who, we have equal proof, died for the sins of mankind”

“ignorance of science and ignorance of history are the two great bulwarks of religious error”! … Jews called those who did not believe in the Jewish God “gentiles.”

As for the definitions of “voodoo”:in the Encyclopedia Wikipedia under “Voodoo” was listed:

“Haitian Voodoo,” “Louisiana Voodoo,” “Vudu” of Puerto Rico and the Domiican Republic,

Condomble Jeje in Brazil (which uses the term Volum),

“Santeria” in Cuba,

and“Vodun” in West Africa. .The West African “Vodun was said to consist of the following:

… And “Animism” — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animism http://lc5827.multiply.com/journal/item/529/Animism-Voodoo-Vudu-of-Puerto-Rice-and-the-Dominican-Republic-Condomble-Jeje-in-Brazil-Santeria-in-Cuba-Haitian-Voodoo-Louisiana-Voodoo-and-West-African-Vodun http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_African_Vodun


REINHOLD NIEBUHR — “Niebuhr’s long-term impact on political philosophy and political theology involve his utilizing the resources of the Christian faith to argue for political realism and his contributions to modern just war thinking. His work has also significantly influenced international relations theory, leading many scholars to move away from idealism and embrace realism.[8] Many leading political scientists, such as George F. Kennan, Hans Morgenthau, Kenneth Waltz, and political historians, such as Richard Hofstadter, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., and Christopher Lasch, have noted his influence on their thinking.[9][10] Andrew Bacevich labelled Niebuhr’s book The Irony of American History “the most important book ever written on U.S. foreign policy.”[11] — Encyclopedia Wikipedia


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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