Skin Color: – Frequency of genes:- Tropical and Cold Environments or Climates:

“At latitudes as far north as London the sunlight is pale and much less intense than at locations in the tropics. The pale, thin, fair skinof the Swede is magnificently adapted to filter out as little as possible of the weak sunlight that is characteristic of the northern latitudes. …Primarily, it is what we know about vitamin D and the role of sunlight in its production that leads us to emphasize the importance of skin color.
” … Until very recently , man depended on his own body chemistry and the sun to produce just the amount of vitamin D he needed. Vitamin D issynthesized in a layer of cells just under the skin when they are illuminated with ultraviolet light from the sun. … in a state of nature where there are no bottles of fish liver oils or cartons ofvitamin D-enriched milk, you must make it for yourself. One’s ability to make it in the proper amounts depends on the ability of the activating light of the sun to penetrate the outer layer of skin and reach the underlayer of cells that is capable of using this light to produce vitamin D.
“If the sunlight is dim and the skin is dark little of this energy source necessary for the production of this indispenable vitamincan penetrate and the individual will not make enough to meet the requirements of his system. On the other hand, if the sunlight is intense and the skin is very fair, then, too much ultraviolet light wil reach the vitamin D-synthesis ayer and an overproduction will result. So in the state of nature, natural selection will favor those individuals whose coloration (skin color) best enables them to use the available sunlight to produce enough, but not too much, vitamin D. … The heavily pigmented skin of the Black is so impermeable to sunlight that even if a larger area of his body were exposed to the pale northern rays, he could not synthesize the minimum daily requirement of vitamin D. In the tropics conditions are reversed. Without the benefit of cultural devices such as proper clothing and appropriately designed dwellings, the pale-skinned northerner would be ill-suited for survival under the brilliant equatorial sun of the tropics. His transparent skin passes too much ultraviolet radiation. Consequently he produces too much vitamin D and suffers the toxic effects of this overabundance.
“… The synthesis of vitamin D was most probably a crucial factor in racial differentiation. Man arose in the warm, sunny even climates of Africa … He later spread into the northern latitudes of Asia and throughout Europe. He thus came to occupy a number of environments where the sun was less intense than in the cradling homelands. These (migraton) movements and consequently the adjustments to the new env ironments took place in a relatively precultural period of man’s history.
“One of the most powerful environmental stresses men have faced is cold. Body architecture is an adaptation of crucial importance. A thin, gangling body with a high surface-to-mass ratio is ill-adapted to conserve heat. A heavy body with short arms and legs [Note: Homo erectus and Neanderthals) is much better adapted: it exposes far less surface and consequently loses less heart to the surroundings].
” … A flat face with low nasal silhouette, narrow eye slits, and a padding of insulating fat would serve is bearer well in the cold.
Observable biological (physical) differences:
” … The Negro body type with its relatively short body and long limbs represents a body build adapted to lose heat. In addition to this body type found with high frequency in Black populations, some studies have suggested other physiological differences in heat tolerance. Blacks appear to show a greater tolerance for humid heat than other groups. The parallel observation that American Black soldiers suffered more cold-relatd injuries in the Korean War than Whites would argue by contrast for heat adaptation in the Black.
Genetic drift and frequency of genes:
[Note: … Goldsby the offered examples of “genetic drift” and the founder principle resulting in populations differing sharply from parent populations with respect to frequency of genes, noting the phenomenon of interracial hybidization in the Americas following the voyages of Columbus and the Spanish invasion and colonization of the Americas.
Cavalli et al.:
A1.12.d. The location of the root: this finding (four alleles … only one is found in nonhuman primates … and it is the same as one of the three alleles found in Africa. This form is probably the ancestral form of the gene.
A… Another allele is found only in human populations living outside Africa). … This finding may support the idea that the most direct descendants of modern humans are Africans and that other human alleles found only outside Africa probably originated in Asia after the passage of modern humans
from Africa to Asia.
Africa and Asia: Origin of Allele D is Africa – Origin of Allele C is Asia
TABLE 1.12.2: Frequency of four alleles at the locus erv3, enzyme mspl, in primates and several human populations, indicating that the origin of allele D is late African, whereas that of C is Asian (Pacciarini et al. unpublished – m. l. Pacciarini, a. m Bowcock, K. K. Kidd, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (unpubl.) variation and evolution of an endogenous retrovirus (erv3) in humans and primates, 1-10). C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, and B. Vandermeersch, “The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe,” in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, ed. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 80-81:
18th Century Classifications:

Cavalli et al.

“1.5. Classical attempts to distinguish human ‘races’: … J. F. Blumenbach (1775) stated that the human species is one, with five varieties:
(1) caucasian (he might have been the first to use this term),

(1) Mongolian,

(3) Ethiopian (including all africans),

(4) American, and

(5)Malay (including the islands of southeast Asia and the part of Oceania then known).
[Note: Current description of Malaysian people:

At that time skin color, the most conspicuous of all traits, had the dominant role it still has in the layman’ mind. He defined caucasians as we define caucasoid today, including Europeans, North Africans, and people from the Near East And India. He did not, however, include Lapps and Finns, whom he assigned to Mongols. He stated that he chose the name of this variety from the Mount Caucasus, on the basis of what one might call a poetical motivation, because of the widespread belief that this region harbors the most beautiful people, like the Georgians who live in the southern part of the Caucasus.

He also considered this area the likely origin of modern humans and followed Buffon in regarding white as the original color of the human species.@

Professor Stephen Gould indicated:

“Blumenbach, one of the greatest and most honored scientists of the enlightenment, spent his entire career as a professor at the University of Göttingen in Germany. He first presented De Generis Humani Varietate Native as a doctoral dissertation to the medical faculty of Göttingen in 1775) as the minutemen of Lexington and Concord began the American Revolution. He then republished the text for general distribution in 1776, as a fateful meeting in Philadelphia proclaimed our independence.

“The coincidence of three great documents in 1776. Jefferson’s Declaration Of Independence (On The Politics of Liberty), Adam Smith’s Wealth Of Nations (On the Economics of Individualism), and Blumenbach’s Treatise On Racial Classification (On the Science of Human Diversity) -records the social ferment of these decades and sets the wider context that makes Blumenbach’s taxonomy, and his subsequent decision to call the European race Caucasian, so important for our history and current concerns.”


With regard to the possiblity of humans inhabiting Europe (Eurasia) and the existence of “glaciers” prior to the Upper Palaeolithic and the Riss Wurm, it should be noted that glaciation did occur in the time period of 46,000 – 20,000 years ago. Germany, Scandanavia, France, Spain, and Britain were covered with ice during the earliest prehistorical ice age and early formation of the planet Earth and in Europe glaciers spread out from Scandinavia to cover Russia west of Moscow, the greater part of Germany, Northern France, and the British Isles.”
“ … At its maximum, the great ice sheet covering northern Europe and most of the British Isles was two miles thick. It extended over all of Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea, and far into Germany (below Berlin) and Russia (beyond Moscow). Separate, less extensive glaciers covered the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Cevennes, and other high mountain areas.
The Tribe that Populated the World: May 11, 2009:
May 11, 2009, Archaeology Daily Mail, article, Out of Africa: the Tribe that Populated the World, posted on indicated:
“The incredible human journey draws on archaeological and genetic studies from around the world to trace the expansion of the human race. It tells how the DNA of today’s populations of Europe, Asia, Australia, North America and South America can all be traced back to a single tribe of Africans. Modern humans are thought to have evolved about 195,000 years ago in East Africa and within 50,000 years had spread to other parts of the continent. It is thought that 70,000 years ago a dry period caused Red Sea levels to fall and the gap across its mouth to shrink from 18 miles to eight miles. A tribe of as few as 200 people took advantage of this and crossed the Arabian Peninsula.”
GPS enables Y.
Migration to the Middle East – Canaan – Ancient Israel – modern day Israel – 92,000 years ago (thermoluminescence method
thermoluminescence method
2005 skhul – 92,000 years ago
The Skhul/Qafzeh hominids or Qafzeh-Skhul early modern humans from Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel tentatively dated at about 120,000 years old — Skhul Cave is on the slopes of Mount Carmel, while Qafzeh Cave is a rockshelter in Lower Galilee. The Skkhul remains were discovered between 1929 and 1935 at a cave located at Es Skhul in Mount Carmel, Israel. The Skhul remains of seven adults and three children were found Skhul Layer B has been dated to an average of 81,000 B 101,000 years ago with the electron spin resonance method and to an average of 119,000 years ago with the thermoluminescence method.
“Skhul 9 appears to have a modern West African-looking skull. [Footnote 17: “The Morphometric Affinitiesof the Qafzeh and Skhul Moninans” by Conrad, . Quintyn [1]
March 2009
“The lower layers of the Qafzeh Cave were dated to 92,000 years ago. [Footnote 19: Shells and ochre in Middle Paleolithic Qafzeh Cave, Israel, indicate modern behavior, Daniella E. Bar-Yosef Mayer, Bernard Vandermeersch and Ofer Bar-Yosef, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 3, March 2009, pp. 307-314
Migration to Australia and Asia – 60,000 years ago:
Migration to Europe – 46,000 B 35,000 years ago


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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