Leon Abrams, Jr., Inquiry into Anthropology,patricia Thompson, General Editor (Globe Book Company: New York, Canada), 1976:
Chapter 8: “Humankind: One Race or Many?”
“Why Do Humans Have Different Skin Colors and Physical Features? “Why Does Human Skin Have Color?” “The Role of Melanin”:
“Anthropologist Reject Unscientific Explanations for Skin Colors. But like the Cherokee They Want to Know Why White Men Are White, Black Men, Black, and Red Men Red. They Have Found the Explanation in a Color-making Chemical, Called Melanin. The Skin, Hair, Eyes and Other Parts of the Body Contain this Chemical. Melanin Is Present in the Skin of Most Human Beings. It Turns the Skin Dark. The More Melanin, the Darker the Skin.
“Those Few Who Lack Melanin Are Called Albinos. Albinos Exist Throughout the Animal Kingdom. They Also Occur in All Human Groups. It Might Be Said That Albinos Are the Only Truly White People in the World.” (!) Their Hair, like Their Skin, Is White. Their Eyes, Lacking Melanin Also, Appear Pinkish Due to the Circulation of Blood Through Them. They Have No Natural Protection from the Sun and must Avoid Too Much Exposure. All Other Humans Possess Various Amounts of Malanin in Their Skin.
“You May Wonder Why People Have Melanin in Their Skin. What Purpose Does it Serve? Sunshine and Vitamin D Provide the Explanation. When the
MELANOCYTES – POIRIER – SOUTH AFRICAN CAVE ART
In Frank E. Poirier, William A. Stini, Kathy B. Wreden, In Search Of Ourselves: An Introduction To Physical Anthropology , 5th edition (prentice hall: englewood cliffs, new jersey), 1994,
Chaper 25: “Human Skin: The First Line of Defense: Melanocytes, Eye And Hair Pigmentation,” it was indicated:
“Melanocytes … These are the cells that produce melanin, the dark pigment that gives the skin a tan, brown, or black color (t. B. Fitzpatrick, athe melanocyte system@ in dermatology@ in general medicine, t. B. Fitzpatrick, editor (mcgraw-hill: new york), 197
1.2 A … The colors of the eyes and the hair are also affected by he amount of melanin produced.
1.3 A . The colors of the eyes and the hair are also affected by the amount of melanin produced. As a rule, but certainly not always, darkly pigmented skin is accompanied by dark hair and more lightly pigmented skin by blond hair.@
MOLNAR – MELANIN – HUMAN VARIATION
In stephen molnar, human variation, races, types, and ethnic groups (prentice-hall, inc.: englewood cliffs, new jersey), 1975, 1983, chapter 2: athe biological basis for human variation,@ athe gene,@and agene combinations and interactions,@ and adefinitions of race,@ it was indicated:
1.4 Ain 1909, the particles of inheritance described by Mendel Jjohann gGregor Mendel, 1822-1884) became known as genes, a term derived from the greek root gen (to become or to grow out of).
1.6 A … The term allele is used today to describe the variety of gene forms of a trait. … The paired combination of alleles, one carried at a locus on each of the chromosomes of the pair, is called the genotype. … The trait that is the result of the genotype combination is the phenotype (visible type or trait). [note: visible aracial characteristics, i.e. Hair type and color, skin color, cranial-facial, body features)
1.7 A … Many human traits are of complex inheritance, and several genes may determine the phenotype through their combined action. Such traits are called polygenic. Human skin color is one example, because normal human skin pigmentation is under the control of several genes … Three or four genes are responsible for the inheritance of skin color.
1.2 T. Dobzhansky, in ” Species and Races of Living and Fossil Man,” American Journal Of Physical Anthropology, 2:251-265, defined races as follows:
“Races are defined as populations differing in the incidence of certain genes, but actually exchanging or potentially able to exchange genes across whatever boundaries (usually geographic) separate them.”
2.1 M. F. A. Montagu, in adiscussion and criticism on the race concept,@ current anthropology., 5:317 indicated: a
( ) An ethnic group represents one of a number of populations, comprising the single species homo sapiens, which individually maintain their differences (physical and cultural) by means of isolating mechanisms such as geographic and social barriers. These differences will vary as the power of the geographic and social barriers acting upon the original genetic differences varies.@
2.2 Aa. M. Brues, people and races (macmillan: new york), 1977: 102, indicated:
( ) Aa race is
(1)1 A division of a species which differs from other divisions by the frequency with which certain hereditary traits appear among its members. Among these traits are features of external appearance that make it possible to recognize members of different populations by visual inspection with greater or less accuracy.
(1)2 A… Races are usually associated with particular geographic areas.”