Thank you Ellie Rose Elliott for the very comprehensive details and very interesting references to the Garamantes past and writers comments on the Garamantes!.
I observed the reference to Italian bias and denial of African ethnicity also the indication of Garamante ethnicity as being debated and also unknown. I have come across posts of those looking like American African Americans phenotypically (cranial/racial features including skin color) who emphatically denied any African or black racial identity, and claimed to be of Berber or Caucasian origin.
The research findings and conclusions that I have come across, however, go back further in time than 500 B.C. and also include prehistoric paleoontological archaeological and genetic biological evidence presented by Spencer Wells and a few other geneticists. I referred to some of the sources but I did not quote or specificaally refer to them yet. I’ll check but I think I recall Herodotus as being of what became known as Anatolian and/or Ionian origin. I had not assumed that the Berbers and/or Garamentes were of Egyptian origin. Multiracial, multiethnic modern day Egyptians vehemently and emotionally deny any African or black origin and that includes a former Egyptian government official. Although the former modern day Egyptian President who met with President Carter with regard to peace negotiations stated and recognized his descent from black African as opposed to Caucasian descent.
======= Mauro Dossena/Ellie Rose Elliott –
with regard to Robin Walker’s question “How do they know it was in Khufu’s 27th year?” Mauro indicated that according to the Egyptian Ministry of State for Antiquities Affairs 40 papyries were found “most of them dating bacck to the 27th year of the reign of King Khufu” not specifically this one (Ellie’s pdf document., and that maybe the year of reign is reported in one or more fragments. Ellie referred to a diary in which the official Merrer reports of his travels to the quarry to bring stone blocks to the pyramid of Khufu that this might contain date information, or monthly reports on numbersof workers might provide a date in the x year of the reign of. The German Archaeological Institute in Cairo in its investigation of the discoveries by Carlo Bergmann while he was searching for a reported “stone temple” of a conical hill described by him as resembling the Nabataean rock palace and tombs at Petra which contained an arrangement of hieroglyphic texts of cartouches of Khufu and of his son Djedefre of short notes from stone masons, of two figures of a pharaoh smitting the enemies and of enigmatic signs of water mountain symbols evidently placed on the rock-face in wilful order. All of these engravings were depicted in the midst of representations of animals and human figures from Prehistoric and Old Kingdom times. Bergmann named the site after the pharaoh’s engraved name “Djedefre Water Mountain.” Hieroglyphic texts indicated that Pharaoh Khufu (fourth dynasty and builder of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh) had ordered two overseers of recruits to take an expedition of about 400 men into this desert region to obtain a substance called “mefat” interpreted to possibly mean red ochre.a chemical used to make red paint.
The date of this expedition was said to have taken place “in the year of the thirteenth count of cattle” which Egyptologists calculated to be the 26th year of the reign of Khufu, as reported in Robert Bauval & Thomas Brophy, “Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origins of Ancient Egypt” (2011). The inscription read: “the year after the 13th occasion of the census of all large and small cattle of the North and the South of the Horus Medjedu (Khufu) givenn life eternally, the overseers of the recruits of the escort, Imeri and Bebi, they came with two regiments of recruits under their command to make “Mefat” from the pigments of the desert district.”