The African Odyssey:  The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History:  From Prehistoric Times and the Earliest Civilizations to the 21st Century – Harold L Carter (2013)


This comprehensive world history and human history textbook will trace the African heritage of all human beings on all three of the major continents, i.e. the three super landmasses: Africa, Asia, and Europe (or, more accurately, the two super land masses: Africa and Eurasia), locate geographically and historically the earliest and most ancient of the world’s civilizations and what led to their development 5,000 to 3000 years ago:  (1) in Africa, in the Nile River Valley and(2)  in Eurasia, in the Tigris and Euphrates river valley. and the factors leading to the development of those civilizations.
As a  comprehensive world history and human history textbook involving the biological and cultural history of humans this book includes the “African heritage” in world and human history  as part of ” the “history of civilizations”

It begins with the pre-historic period of time and the earliest or most ancient civilizations and continue on up to contemporary times, the 21st century.  This universal world history and human history textbook encompasses the African heritage in the history of civilizations by including the  biological and cultural history of all human beings from the origin of the universe and of the earth,  the physical geography o of the Eurasian subcontinent and the African continent prior to the evolution of hum










































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































and the archaeological evidence which indicate  the geographicaL location of the earliest traces of life on earth in Africa.  This book The African Heritage in Human Biological and Cultural History will present a new historical paradigm that is different from all other  now widely accepted and used world history and introductory anthropology textbooks by beginning with a discussion of the prehistorical origin of the universe, the earth, humans, and the races of humankind and will discuss the archean eon, the azoic era, the scientific version of the history of humankind, the origin of the universe and the planet earth, and the story of civilization according to the archaeological and historical record and the research and findings of scientists:

It should be carefully noted that findings from genetic studies on modern human populations in 2011 indicate not only when the earliest “modern humans” (later versions of Homo sapiens sapiens) first appeared in Africa and then spread out to colonize the rest of the world, but also where evidence showing “modern human behavior,” together with modern human anatomy first emerged — in Africa – thus providing archaeological evidence supporting the fact that the origin of  “cultural traits” such as the creation of art and music, religious practices, and sophisticated tool-making techniques, or cave art and sculptured figurines first occurred in Africa prior to the African migration to Eurasia.  Those “cultural traits” had been transported from Africa to “western Eurasia, i.e. “the Near East” – “the Mediterranean” – “northwestern Eurasia” – and was the cave art found in the caves of France and Spain along with fossil discoveries and other artefacts that were found in Italy and central and northeastern Eurasia.  Prehistory and History:Prehistory began – not 5,000 or 4,000 or 3,500 years ago –

but during the Archean Eon: 3.4 billion years ago during the earliest period of earth’s history.

Prehistory is that period of time before written records had begun to be made by people living in the Nile River valley in the world’s earliest civilizations

(1)  in Africa and

(2)  in the Tigris and Euphrates river valley.located on the subcontinent of Eurasia.

The Tigris and Euphrates river valley civilization has been traditionally referred to as

(1) the “Sumerian” civilization” and

(2) the “Mesopotamian” civilization.  

The Mesopotamian civilization is said to include both Babylonia and Sumeria,

even lthough Sumeria is geographically located in the southern part of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley near the Persian Gulf

and Babylonia is located in the northern part of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley along with Akkad, which later became Assyria.  

Both Babylonia and Sumeria are said to be located in the “Near East” and in  a “Fertile Crescent” said to encompass “northern Africa, Egypt and extend northward to the Tigris and Euphrates river valley,” and together referred to as the “Middle East” or the the geographical area that is now Iraq and Iran.  

It should be noted that the southern region of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley is geographically located nearer to the Persian Gulf and Africa which some consider the migratory path used by the African migrants who moved north to the Tigris and Euphrates river valley.

The homeland or place of origin of the Tigris and Euphrates “Semitic“-speaking peoples  (used to designate “non-African” … “non-Black” people) people may possibly have been northeastern Eurasia where the Germanic tribes were settled.

[Runoko Rashidi referred to the “UR TU’ – the “roaming, tribal ASIATIC tribes … the invading northeastern Eurasia – descendants Babylonians and Assyrians:  “nomadic, invading (labelled “SEMITIC”) … GERMANIC/CELTIC TRIBES.



About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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