AUTHENTIC WORLD HISTORY – MOVING ON UP ! – MOVING DEEPER … MORE DETAILED DISCUSSION OF HAROLD L CARTER’S RESEARCH FINDINGS !

World History beginning with prehistoric times according to the geological time scale of world history:  re:  the Achean Eon and Azoic Era:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale

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[Excerpts from Harold L Carter, The African Odyssey (How Paleontologists Continue to Debate “Recent African Origins” (“Out of Africa Model of the Origin of  “European” Modern Humans (Anatomically Modern Humans)” in World History):  The African Heritage in Human Biological and Cultural History:  From Prehistoric Times and the Earliest Civilizations to the 21st Century (2013) ]

==============

The Archean eon comprises 43%of our planet’s history.  The Earth and the rest of the solar system are 4.6 billion years old and the first photosynthetic organisms arose earlier than about 3 billion years ago.”  [Milner  1990:  23]

Origin of Life   3.6 Billion Years Ago:

The Archean continents were devoid of any life  which appears to have originated in the seas some 3.6 billion years ago.  For most of the Archean, evidence of life consists of  microfossils, geochemistry, and stromatolites (structures identical to those produced today by mattes of blue green algae.  Archeologists reckon the end of the archean at 2.5 billion years ago, when oxygen first came to dominate the chemistry of the atmosphere.  The bacterial life forms of the archean never became extinct, despite the rise of their oxygen breathing descendants.”

The age of the earth – geological time and the archean eon:

G. Ledyard Stebbins In Darwin To DNA Molecules to Humanity (W. H. Freeman And Company: San Francisco), 1982 indicated:

The Age of the Earth:

The Earth originated about 4.6 billion years ago, and by about 4 billion years ago its surface had become cool enough to make life possible.

Azoic era:

By 3.8 billion years ago, rivers were eroding mountains and carrying sediment to valleys and flood plains, forming the first sedimentary rocksThese strata were completely devoid of life.  [Stebbins 1982: 175]

19th Century And 20th Century Observations:

During the past century and a half, scientists have acquired many new facts about the age of the earth.  With this new knowledge, scientists have progressively increased their estimates of the length of time that has elapsed since life began. [Stebbins 1982: 10]

The Middle Of The 19th Century – 1868 – Thomas Huxley:

The heologian’s estimate of 5,000 to 6,000 years was first challenged by scientists during the middle of the last century.  In 1868, Thomas Huxley, one of Darwin’s most vigorous and articulate apostles, delivered to the working men of Norwich an address entitled “On A Piece Of Chalk,” now a classic of popular science.  In it he reviewed with painstaking care the recently discovered evidence indicating that the chalk cliffs bordering the English Channel, the white cliffs of Dover, could have been formed only by the accumulation of millions upon millions of tiny shells fashioned by microorganisms living in the ocean.  (their modern descendants can be dredged from the bottom of the atlantic at any point between Ireland and Newfoundland.)

He realized that these remains of dead microorganisms could accumulate only very slowly, and he suggested that the formation of the deposits that form the thousand foot-high cliffs along the south coast of England would have required at least 12,000 years to be formed, and probably much longerIf so, this suggestion would lead to calculations, which huxley was not willing to make, that might have indicated the earth’s age to be about 1 million years.  [Stebbins 1982: 10]

Professor Stebbins then indicated that with the technique of radiometric dating that emerged from a flood of new discoveries about radioactivity and the discovery of such elements as uranium and strontium, and mixtures of potassium and argon decaying at regular, measurable rates, that these discoveries had been standardized to such a degree that: geologists and physicists agree almost unanimously about the results obtained.

Radiometric dating tells us that the Earth is about 4 billion years old; that organisms having cellular nuclei, chromosomes, and possibly the ability to reproduce sexually evolved between 1.4 and 1 billion years ago; and that primitive jellyfishes, worms, seaweeds, and other many-celled organisms first appeared between 700 and 600 million years ago. ”  [Stebbins 1982: 11]

“The Archean eon comprises 43%of our planet’s history.  The Earth and the rest of the solar system are 4.6 billion years old and the first photosynthetic organisms arose earlier than about 3 billion years ago.”  [Milner  1990:  23]

Origin of Life   3.6 Billion Years Ago:

The Archean continents were devoid of any life  which appears to have originated in the seas some 3.6 billion years ago.  For most of the Archean, evidence of life consists of  microfossils, geochemistry, and stromatolites (structures identical to those produced today by mattes of blue green algae.  Archeologists reckon the end of the archean at 2.5 billion years ago, when oxygen first came to dominate the chemistry of the atmosphere.  The bacterial life forms of the archean never became extinct, despite the rise of their oxygen breathing descendants.”

The age of the earth – geological time and the archean eon:

G. Ledyard Stebbins In Darwin To DNA: Molecules To Humanity (W. H. Freeman And Company: San Francisco), 1982 indicated:

The Age of the Earth:

-“The Earth originated about 4.6 billion years ago, and by about 4 billion years ago its surface had become cool enough to make life possible.

Azoic era:

  1. By 3.8 billion years ago, rivers were eroding mountains and carrying sediment to valleys and flood plains, forming the first sedimentary rocksThese strata were completely devoid of life.  [Stebbins 1982: 175]

19th Century And 20th Century Observations:

During the past century and a half, scientists have acquired many new facts about the age of the earth.  With this new knowledge, scientists have progressively increased their estimates of the length of time that has elapsed since life began. [Stebbins 1982: 10]

The Middle of the 19th Century – 1868 – Thomas Huxley:

“The theologian’s estimate of 5,000 to 6,000 years was first challenged by scientists during the middle of the last century.  In 1868, Thomas Huxley, one of Darwin’s most vigorous and articulate apostles, delivered to the working men of Norwich an address entitled “On A Piece Of Chalk,” now a classic of popular science.  In it he reviewed with painstaking care the recently discovered evidence indicating that the chalk cliffs bordering the English Channel, the white cliffs of Dover, could have been formed only by the accumulation of millions upon millions of tiny shells fashioned by microorganisms living in the ocean.  (their modern descendants can be dredged from the bottom of the atlantic at any point between Ireland and Newfoundland.)

He realized that these remains of dead microorganisms could accumulate only very slowly, and he suggested that the formation of the deposits that form the thousand foot-high cliffs along the south coast of England would have required at least 12,000 years to be formed, and probably much longerIf so, this suggestion would lead to calculations, which huxley was not willing to make, that might have indicated the earth’s age to be about 1 million years.  [Stebbins 1982: 10]

Professor Stebbins then indicated that with the technique of radiometric dating that emerged from a flood of new discoveries about radioactivity and the discovery of such elements as uranium and strontium, and mixtures of potassium and argon decaying at regular, measurable rates, that these discoveries had been standardized to such a degree that: geologists and physicists agree almost unanimously about the results obtained.

“Radiometric dating  tells us that the Earth is about 4 billion years old; that organisms having cellular nuclei, chromosomes, and possibly the ability to reproduce sexually evolved between 1.4 and 1 billion years ago; and that primitive jellyfishes, worms, seaweeds, and other many-celled organisms first appeared between 700 and 600 million years ago. ”  [Stebbins 1982: 11]

=========

Section 1:  Prehistory:  Origin of the Universe 20 – 10 billion years ago

The origin of the universe and the beginning of prehistory began 20 billion to 10 billion years ago. … The Big Bang theory postulates an origin in time, some 20 to10  billion years ago, when the entire observable universe emerged from a singular state of extreme density.”  [Silk 1994:  ]

Joseph Silk, A Short History of the Universe (Scientific American Library:  A Division of HPHLP:  New York), 1994

Joseph Silk, professor of astronomy and physics at the University of California, Berkeley and also the author of The Big Bang (Freeman, 1989) and co-author of The Left Hand of Creation (Oxford University Press, 1993),

[Commentaries on Professor Silk’s Book A Short History Of The Universe:

A Short History of the Universe is a superb book that gives an entertaining and enlightening overview of modern cosmology.”

William J. Kaufmann, III, author of Universe and (with Larry L. Smarr), Supercomputing and the Transformation of Science

The book is an authoritative view of contemporary cosmology by a respected cosmologist and is a fine addition to the Scientific American Library.”

Jay M. Pasachoff, Field Memorial Professor of Astronomy, Williams College

“Joseph Silk is one of our generation’s most articulate scientists.  In A Short History of the Universe, he masterfully weaves the latest and most compelling features of our Big Bang world view into a grand tapestry.  The result is a wonderful synopsis of current cosmology.  The perspective is huge, the details rich and unassailable, the exposition clear and accessible.  I warmly recommend it to lay and professional Cosmologists alike.

Eric J. Chaisson, Director, Wright Center for Science Education and Professor of Physics, Tufts university

Professor Silk in the opening paragraph of the Prologue stated:

The universe began in a violent explosion that occurred about 15 billion years ago: this is the modern hypothesis that has replaced the myths of classical Greece and Rome, of ancient China and India.  We feel certain that our theories have more truth than the beliefs of our ancestors, yet are we so much smarter than they were?  Perhaps a thousand years in the future, the big bang theory will itself be regarded as a twentieth century myth. I am an optimist, however, who finds our current paradigm so compelling that I can only imagine it will eventually be subsumed into a greater theory, without losing it essential featuresThis conviction provides justification enough to describe the archaeology of the universe by probing fossil fluctuations in the distribution of matter on the one hand and fully formed galaxies on the other, the oldest stars and the largest structures, one can reconstruct almost the entire history of cosmic evolution.

“ … One of the perennial fascinatinations of the science of cosmology is that people, both lay cosmologist as well as the professionals, view it as having the potential to answer the ‘ultimate questions’ about our place in the universe, the creation and existence of the universe, and indeed the existence of God.  It is by no means coincidental that the big bang epic has excited the attention of theologians and philosophers as well as astronomers, mathematicians, and physicists.

“Some of these thinkers have viewed the theory as providing confirmation of religious views of creation.  The science historian and mathematical physicist E. T. Whitaker declared in 1942 that ‘when by purely scientific methods we trace the development of the material universe backwards in time, we arrive ultimately at a critical state of affairs beyond which the laws of nature, as we know them, cannot have operated:  a Creation in fact.  Physics and astronomy can lead us through the paths to the beginning of things, and show that there must have been a Creation.’  In 1951, Pope Pius XII, under the influence of Whitaker, went the additional step.  He averred in an address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences that ‘thus with concreteness which is characteristic of physical proofs, it (science) has confirmed … the well-founded deduction as to the epoch some five billion years ago when the cosmos came forth from the hands of the Creator.  Hence, creation took place in time.  Therefore, there is a Creator.  Therefore, God exists!’  1-2

“On hearing these words, one can well imagine that the President of the Pontifical Academy, eminent cosmologist and cofounder of the big bang theory Abbe Georges Lemaitre, must have stirred uneasily.  To compare the primeval explosion from which the universe emerged to the miracle of creation must have seemed to leave him, a proponent of the Primeval Atom phase that preceded the big bang, on somewhat uncertain and heretical ground.  Lemaitre insisted that physics would suffice to describe the beginning of the universe:

Cosmogony is atomic physics on a large scale.’  The big bang was not an easy pill to swallow, for scientists and theologians alike.  Eminent astrophysicist and science popularizer Arthur Eddington was ‘unwilling to accept the implied discontinuity in the divine nature.’  Others went further.  The pioneering cosmologist E. A. Milner concluded in his magnum opus Relativity, Gratitation and World Structure published in 1935, that ‘the system to which we have likened the universe is an intelligible system.  It contains no irrationalities save the one supreme irrationality of creation—an irrationality indeed to physics, but not necessarily to metaphysis. …

“Theoretical cosmology is but the starting point for deeper philosophical enquiries.’  Some scientists conceded the battle for understanding how the universe began to the theologians, who after all had been wrestling with it for centuries.  Astronomer Robert Jastrow described the cosmologists’ dilemma thus, in a quote beloved by theologians.

‘It seems as though science will never be able to raise the curtain on the mystery of creation.  For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream.  He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries..’

… “In contrast, some eminent scientists have no recourse to any deity in constructing a suitable cosmologyOne convenient way out is the assertion that time itself was created at the moment of the Big Bang.  This is not a very radical idea, for St. Augustine wrote in the fifth century,

‘The world and time had both one beginning.  The world was made, not in time, but simultaneously with time.’ 

This was a remarkably prescient notion: to physicist Steven Weinberg:  ‘It is at least logically possible that there was a beginning, and that time itself has no meaning before that moment.’

However, as the mathematical physicist Stephen Hawking points out, a proper formulation of this concept of the beginning of time, as well as that of space, must await a quantum theory of gravity, should it be forthcoming.  In this case, ‘there would be no boundary to space-time and so there would be no need to specify the behavior at the boundary.  There would be no singularity at which the laws of science broke down and no edge of space-time at which one would have to appeal to God or some new law to set the boundary conditions for space-time.  One could say: ‘The boundary condition of the universe is that it has no boundary.’  The universe would be completely self-contained and not affected by anything outside itself.  It would neither be created or destroyed.  It would just be.”

In other words, the universe is the way it is because the universe was the way it was.  Eloquent expression of this cosmic agnosticism was prophetically penned in 1920 by , again, Arthur Eddington:

We have found that where science has progressed the furthest, the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind has to put into nature.  We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown.  We have devised profound theories, one after another to account for its origin.  At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprintAnd Lo! It is our own.’ 

Discoveries and breakthroughs in cosmology proceed at a breathtaking pace.  It is increasingly difficult for the theologians to keep upAt the same time, cosmologists have not been deterred from dabbling in occasional theological metaphors.  The shower of images reached a crescendo in 1992 with the epochal discovery of ripples in the cosmic microwave background.  Newspapers around the world, less discriminating perhaps than the scientists anticipated, jumped on the cosmic connection.  The most notorious examples, 40 years after Pius XII’s endorsement of the new cosmology, compared the long-sought fluctuations to various attributes of God. 

“These vary from ‘His face,’

‘His handwriting,’ and

‘His mind’

to mere relics such as the ‘Holy Grail.

“To properly appreciate the significance of such statements, it would be helpful to have laid out for one the workings of modern cosmology at an accessible level.  This book is devoted to such a goal.  I hope that the following chapters will be sufficently transparent to the many lay cosmologists among us that such connections can be more fully appreciated, although, I hasten to add, not necessarily justified.” [Silk 1994: 2- 3]

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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One Response to AUTHENTIC WORLD HISTORY – MOVING ON UP ! – MOVING DEEPER … MORE DETAILED DISCUSSION OF HAROLD L CARTER’S RESEARCH FINDINGS !

  1. RELIGION DURING THE 20TH CENTURY – THE JONESVILLE MASSACRE – JIM JONES – MINISTER EXTRAORDINAIRE – ROSES AND THORNS – SOME UNKNOWN FACTS ABOUT HIS LIFE – ODD CIRCUMSTANCES: A COMPLICATED LIFE!

    Jim Jones was born in a rural area of Randolph County, Indiana, near its border with Ohio,[5] to James Thurman Jones (May 31, 1887 – May 29, 1951), a World War I veteran, and Lynetta Putnam (April 16, 1902 – December 11, 1977), who believed she had given birth to a messiah.[6][7] He was of Irish and Welsh descent.[8] Jones later claimed partial Cherokee ancestry through his mother, though according to his maternal second cousin Barbara Shaffer, this is likely untrue.[8][note 1] Economic difficulties during the Great Depression necessitated that Jones’ family move to nearby Lynn, Indiana, in 1934 where, he grew up in a shack without plumbing.[3][9] Jim Jones and a childhood friend both claimed that Jones’ father was associated with the Ku Klux Klan.[9]

    In interviews for the 2006 documentary Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple, childhood acquaintances recalled Jones as being a “really weird kid” who was “obsessed with religion … obsessed with death”. They alleged that as a child, Jones frequently held funerals for small animals and had reportedly stabbed a cat to death.[10]

    Jones was a voracious reader as a child and studied Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler carefully,[11] noting each of their strengths and weaknesses.[11] After Jones’ parents separated, he moved with his mother to Richmond, Indiana.[12] He graduated from Richmond High School early and with honors in December 1948.[13]

    Jones married nurse Marceline Baldwin in 1949, and moved to Bloomington, Indiana.[14] He attended Indiana University at Bloomington, where a speech by Eleanor Roosevelt about the plight of African Americans impressed him.[14] Jones’ sympathetic statements about communism offended Marceline’s grandmother.[14] In 1951, Jones moved to Indianapolis, where he attended night school at Butler University, earning a degree in secondary education in 1961.[15]

    Building the Temple

    Indiana beginnings

    Further information: Peoples Temple

    Jones’s first church in Indianapolis, Indiana
    In 1951, Jones began attending Communist Party meetings and rallies in Indianapolis.[16] He became flustered with harassment he received during the McCarthy Hearings,[16] particularly regarding an event he attended with his mother focusing on Paul Robeson, after which she was harassed by the FBI in front of her co-workers for attending.[17] He also became frustrated with ostracism of open communists in the United States, especially during the trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.[18] This frustration, among other things, provoked a seminal moment for Jones in which he asked himself “how can I demonstrate my Marxism? The thought was, infiltrate the church.”[16][17]

    Jones’ interest in religion began during his childhood, primarily because he found making friends difficult, though initially he vacillated on his church of choice.[8] Jones was surprised when a Methodist superintendent helped him to get a start in the church even though he knew Jones to be a communist and Jones did not meet him through the Communist Party.[18] In 1952, Jones became a student pastor in Sommerset Southside Methodist Church, but claims he left that church because its leaders barred him from integrating blacks into his congregation.[16] Around this time, Jones witnessed a faith-healing service at the Seventh Day Baptist Church.[16] He observed that it attracted people and their money and concluded that, with financial resources from such healings, he could help accomplish his social goals.[16]

    Biographical Information – Jim Jones:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Jones

    The Jonesville Massacre

    http://history1900s.about.com/od/1970s/p/jonestown.htm

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