[Note: Between 2000 B.C. and 1300 B.C. – Pharaoh Sesostris I – 2212 B.C. Abraham born about 2000 B.C. – 1950 B.C.]
In Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Part Three: “The Middle Kingdom”:; “Didactic Literature:
“The Eloquent Peasant” (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London), 1973, it was indicated:
“The text is both a serious disquisition on the need for justice, and a parable on the utility of fine speech. … The peasant who has been robbed and has laid his complaint before the magistrate in a stirring plea, the latter is so delighted with this unlearned man’s eloquence that he reports it to the king; and on the king’s orders the magistrate goads the peasant to continue pleading until the poor man is completely exhausgted. Only then does he receive justice and ample rewards. .. The intertwining of a plea for justice with a demonstration of the value of rhetoric, is the very essence of the work.”
“First Petition”:
“ … For you are father to the orphan,
Husband to the widow,
Brother to the rejected woman, [169, 172]
A son to the motherless.”
In Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Part Three: “The Middle Kingdom”: “Prose Tales”: “The Story of Sinuhe” (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London), 1973, it was indicated:
“Notes: Sinuhe was specifically in the service of Princess Nefru, the wife of Sesostris I, the latter being co-regent at the time of his father’s death. Khenemsut and Kanefru are the names of the pyramids of Sesostris I and Amenemhet I.”
“The numerous, if fragmentary, copies of this work testify to its great popularity, and it is justly considered the most accomplished piece of Middle Kingdom prose literature. The two principal manuscripts are: (1) P. Berlin 3022 (abbr. B) which dates from the Twelfth Dynasty. … (2) P. Berlin 10499 (abbr. R) which contains 203 lines and includes the beginning. It dates to the end of the Middle Kingdom. A third major copy is in a large ostracon in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
“I give bread to my neighbor,
“… You deliver the poor from harm” [222-223, 228, 232-233]
In Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Part Three: “The Middle Kingdom” “Prose Tales”: “The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor” (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London), 1973, it was indicated:
“Prose Tales: …. Like all Egyptian writings, the tales come from the sphere of the educated scribes and from the ambience of the court. … The Tale ofthe Shipwrecked Sailor, and the Tales from Papyrus Westcar share the quality of fairy tales. They are tales of wonder, of miraculous events in which human beings encounter the supernatural. The Story of Sinuhe, on the other hand, is the story of a life as it could have been lived. … Whether or not it relates the actual experience of an individual, the story reflects a true historical situation–the death of Amenemhet I and the reign of Sesostris I. But to the Egyptians it was above all a tale magnificiently told, which, using all the modes of a rich and refined literary art, created a character whose actions, sorrows, and joys enthralled the listeners. It became a classic, endlessly recopied, and it can still fascinate today.
“ .. The papyrus, called Leningrad 1115, is now in Moscow. The work, and the papyrus copy, date from the Middle Kingdom. The tale is set In a narrative frame. A high official is returning from an expedition that apparently failed in its objective, for he is despondent and fearful of the reception awaiting him at court”
“Then I heard a thundering noise and thought, ‘It is a wave of the sea. Trees splintered, the fround trembled. Uncovering my face, I found it was a snake that was coming … He said to me: ‘Who brought you, who brought you, fellow, who brought you to this island of the sea, whose two sides are in water. … Then he said to me: ‘Don’t be afraid, don’t be afraid, felllow; don’t be pale-faced, now that you have come to me. It is god who has let you live and brought you to this island of the ka.” [Lichtheim 1973: 211, 213]
1925 B.C. Abraham – 1900 B.C. B 1720 B.C. –
Isaac – 1800 B.C. B 1700 B.C. B Jacob
1750 B.C. B 1640 B.C. – Joseph
Sesostris II – Sesostris III – 1570 B.C. – 1546 B.C.
Pharaoh Ahmose
1551 B.C. B 1524 B.C. B Pharaoh Amenhotep I
1524 B.C. – 1518 B.C. B Pharaoh Thutmose I –
1504 – 1450 B.C. – Pharaoh Thuthmose III
Kathleen M Kenyon, Revised Edition by P.R.S. Moorey, The Bible and Recent Archaeology (John Knox Press: Atlanta), 1978, 1987 indicated:
“Archaeological Evidence indicating the conquest and placing in vassalage the inhabitants of the Levant, Canaan, or Ancient Israel by African-Egyptian Pharaoh Thuthmose III is provided by an eminent and respected Jewish archaeologist, Kathleen M Kenyon who stated:

“It is now largely agreed that the first organization of Canaan into a political and commercial empire under Egypt’s domination falls a century or so later, under Thutmose III (1479 B.C. – 1425 B.C.), whose campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean are among the best documented in Egyptian History. Following them, towns in western Canan controlling the coastal route and in the north guarding Egypt’s route into Syria, began to flourish as the principal suppliers of food and other needs for the military enterprises and local administration undertaken by Egyptians in the following two centuries.
“… The Amarna letters were letters to Pharaoh Akhenaten from client rulers of city-states in Canaan composed in a form of the Akkadian language included actual Canaanite words, and written on clay tablets in the cuneiform script. In the Thirteenth and Earlier Twelfth centuries B.C. both textual and archaeological evidence may now increasingly be seen to indicate that Egypt sharply tightened her military control with increased numbers of Egyptian army and administrative personnel established in Canaan.

1453 – 1419 B.C. – Pharaoh Amenhotep II – 1387 – 1350 – Pharaoh Amenhotep III
Moses: 14th century B.C. (1400 B.C. – 1300 B.C.)
Charles van doren, in A History of Knowledge: Past, Present, and Future: the Pivotal Events, People, and Chievements of World History (Ballantine Books: New York), 1991
Van Doren stated:
“The authorship of Genesis has been one of the most discussed issues in biblical studies. .. Traditionally, Moses (Note: 1400 B.C. – 1300 B.C.) was regarded as the main author of Genesis and the following four books. However, it was accepted that certain remarks (e.g. Genesis 12:6; 36:31) showed that some parts of the book had been added later.
The text of Genesis does not claim Moses as its author, in any case. From the 19th century A.D. onwards mainline critical scholarship minimized the role of Moses in the compositionof the Pentateuch.
Indeed, the most widely-accepted view came to be that Genesis was composed from three major sources:”J” (10th century B.C..) “E” (9th century B.C..) and “P” (6th century B.C.). Genesis, it was held, went through a series of modifications with new material being added with each new edition. … So far, no theory has emerged to replace the old source – critical consensus, so it is stilll assumed in many textbooks and commentaries. … “
New Bible Commentary 21st Edition, Consulting Editors: D. A. Carson, Research Professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois, U.s.a.; R. T. France, Principal, Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, Uk; J. A. Motyer, Formerly Principal, Trinity College, Bristol, Uk; G. J. Wenham, Senior Lecturer in Religious Studies, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Cheltenham, Uk (Inter-varsity Press: Leicdster, England; Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, Usa), 1994 indicates:
Using the Bible as history would involve discussing the history or folk history of the Hebrews as an identifiable ethnic, racial, or population group in existence during human history prior to the historical exile of the Jews in 586 B.C. extending back to the time of Abraham historically indicated to have been close to the beginning of the Second Millennium B.C. (2000 B.C. – 1000 B.C.)
The period of the time of Moses (1350 – 1230 B.C.)
the settlement of Canaan about 1300 B.C. – 1220 B.C.,
The period of time of Joshua, 1300, the Exodus, 1280 or 1260 B.C., and the crossing of the Jordan, 1240 – 1220
and the period of the two united Kingdoms of Israel and Judah from about 900 B.C. to 600 B.C.


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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