Anthony Browder on “Egyptian religion,” “Jesus the Christ,” the Christian cross, the doctrine of everlasting life, the immaculate conception of Horus, “the good shepherd,” and “rebirth” and “spiritual salvation”:

Anthony Browder, “Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization,” Introduction by Dr John Henrik Clarke (1992):

Egyptian Religion, “Jesus the Christ,” the Christian cross, the doctrine of everlasting life, the immaculate conception of Horus, “the good shepherd,” and “rebirth” and “spiritual salvation”:

“The cross is a symbol common to Christianity.  During the Middle Ages, the cross was a symbol of the Christian belief in the resurrection of Jesus the Christ.  Much later, Christians began to emphasize the deathand suffering of Jesus and portrayed his image on crucifixes. A crucifix is a cross with an image of the dying Jesus.”  [Browner  1992: 67]

  1. “” .. In both the Nile Valley account and the Christian account God is self-created,creates heaven and earth, divides the water, creates the light and separates it from darkness and creates man.  The parallels between these two religious systems are numerous and striking, but because much of the early research on Kemet (Egypt) was conducted by Christians, historical information was doctored to suit their particular religious beliefs.
  2. John Jackson gives us an example.  The late Professor James Henry Breasted (1865-1935) considered the civilization of Egypt the oldest in the world, and dates the First Dynasty of that country as beginning about 3400 B.C.  Sir Flinders Petrie (1853-1942), an equally eminent Egyptologist, dates the beginning of Dynasty I in the year  4777 B.C.  There is a discrepancy of nearly two thousand years.  How do we account for this?  Breasted studied for a doctorate in Egyptology under Professor Eduard Meyer (1855-1930) at the University of Berlin.  Meyer being a Christian assumed that the world began about 4004 B.C., according to the biblical chronology.  Breasted adopted Meyer’s chronology and criticized Petrie and other authorities for adopting an earlier date.  The building of the Great Pyramid was begun during the Third Dynasty.  According to Petrie, Dynasty III lasted from 4212 to 3998 B.C.  If these dates are correct the Great Pyramidwas erected before the creation of the world according to the Christian chronologhy.  Breasted’s dates for the Third Dynasty are 2980-3900 B.C.  This fits into the biblical tradition.

“The people of the Nile Valley were the first humans to express a profound belief in a doctrine of everlasting life.  They preserved the bodies of their dead by a yet undiscovered process of embalming, and entombed these bodies in  in elaborately inscribed funerary monuments.  Prayers and litanies played a major role in preparing the soul of the recently departed for its journey through the underworld nd guaranteed its safe passage to God in the next world.  … According to Wallace Budge celebrated translator of the Book of the Dead:  ‘these texts were … known to have existed in revised editions and to have been used among the Egyptians from about 4500 B.C. to the early centuries of the Christian era.’  Budge admits that the correct name for the “Book of the Dead” is derived from the words pert em hru, whichhas been translated as ‘coming forth by day,’ a reference to the rebirth or resurrection of the soul of the deceased, a concept that first  existed in the Nile Valley.  One of the most celebrated Netcherw in all of Kemet was Ausar, who is commonly known by his Greek name Osiris.  It has been written that at the time of his birth, a voice was heard to proclaim that the lord of creation was born.  (emphasis added)   … He (Osiris) ruled Kemet along with his wife Aset, who is better known by her Greek name Isis.

“According to legend, Ausar was slain by his cunning (and evil brother Set, who cut his body into 14 pieces and scattered them throughout Kemet.  After a long search, Aset found all of the parts of her husband’s body except the phallus, which, as legend has it, was consumed by a catfish when it was discarded into the Nile.  Aset recreated the missing member of Auset in the form of a tekhen (obelist), which later became a symbol representing the resurrection of Ausar.  Aset was without child before the murder of Ausar, but by means of certain powerful words given to her by the Netcher Dihuiti (Thoth) who represents divine articulation of speech, Aset resurrected her slain husband.  Shortly thereafter, Aset conceived a child upon being immaculately impregnated by the spirit of her husband and gave birth to a son, Heru (Horus), who avenged the death of his father by slaying his uncle Set.  After Heru reached adulthood, he ruled as ‘king on earth’ and Ausar journeyed to the underworld where where he reigned as king.  Some of the titles conferred upon Ausar were Lord of Eternity, Ruler of the Dead and Lord of the Underworld.

“Images of Ausar in his new position of rulership portray him as a mummified, bearded king who carries the shepherd’s crook and the flail, and sits on the throne of judgment, which was ornamented with a checkerboard pattern that represented the good and evil who were to come before him.  Ausar also becomes the representation of the deceased king, as well as all deceased individuals.  He was commonly referred to as the ‘good shepherd’ and is the personification of the cycles of death and rebirth, and of spiritual salvation.”  [Browder 1992: 86-89]


About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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