HUMANKIND: ONE RACE OR MANY? WHY DO HUMANS HAVE DIFFERENT SKIN COLORS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES? WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR? WHY ARE WHITE MEN WHITE, BLACK MEN, BLACK, AND RED MEN RED? UPDATED AUGUST 7 2015

RACIAL IDENTITY AND ORIGIN OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE PHYLUM AND INDO-EUROPEAN “CAUCASIAN” RACE

LEON ABRAMS, JR., INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY,PATRICIA THOMPSON, GENERAL EDITOR (GLOBE BOOK COMPANY: NEW YORK, CANADA), 1976:

CHAPTER 8: HUMANKIND: ONE RACE OR MANY? WHY DO HUMANS HAVE DIFFERENT SKIN COLORS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES?  WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR?  THE ROLE OF MELANIN:

Anthropologist reject unscientific explanations for skin colors.  BUT … THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY WHITE MEN ARE WHITE, BLACK MEN, BLACK, AND RED MEN RED.  THEY HAVE FOUND THE EXPLANATION IN A COLOR-MAKING CHEMICAL, CALLED MELANIN.  The skin, hair, eyes and other parts of the body contain this chemical.  MELANIN IS PRESENT IN THE SKIN OF MOST HUMAN BEINGS.  IT TURNS THE SKIN DARK.  THE MORE MELANIN, THE DARKER THE SKIN

Those few who lack melanin are called albinosAlbinos exist throughout the animal kingdomThey also occur in all human groupsIt might be said that albinos are the only truly white people in the world.  (!)   Their hair, like their skin, is whiteTheir eyes, lacking melanin also, appear pinkish due to the circulation of blood through themThey have no natural protection from the sun and must avoid too much exposureAll other humans possess various amounts of malanin in their skinYou may wonder why people have melanin in their skin.  What purpose does it serve?  Sunshine and vitamin D provide the explanation.”

===========

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History And Geography Of Human Genes (Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey), 1994

Luca Sforza Cavallli et al had stated the following with regard to the origin of the Indo-European language-speaking phylum or family and the concept and use of skin color – white skin color:

The time of the origin of the Indo-European language or speaking phylum or family, was during the last 5000 years.  [Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994: 103]:.  The time of origin of the Indo-European family is usually given as 5000 years B.P. [N (Gimbutas 1966 ; Mallory 1989).

Correlations with climate:

L Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al stated:

“White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from lig ht brown’ color characteristic of caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa.  A diet especially poor in vitamin D mayhave been characteristic of the farmers who came to Europe from the Middle East and slowly made their way to northern Europe, where they arrived about 5000 years ago.  If this is true, then the >white skin color= of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.”  Cavalli

a light –brown skin color

L Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al stated:

White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a light brown’color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North AfricaA DIET ESPECIALLY POOR IN VITAMIN D MAYHAVE BEEN CHARACTERISTIC OF THE FARMERS WHO CAME TO EUROPE FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND SLOWLY MADE THEIR WAY TO NORTHERN EUROPE, WHERE THEY ARRIVED ABOUT 5000 YEARS AGO.  If this is true, then the white skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.”  Cavalli et al  1994

Stephen Molnar, in Human Variation, Races, Types, And Ethnic Groups (Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1975, 1983, Chapter 2: The Biological Basis for Human Variation, the Gene,and Gene Combinations and Interactions, and Definitions of Race, stating:

In 1909, the particles of inheritance described by Johann Gregor Mendel, (1822-1884) became known as genes, a term derived from the Greek root “gen” (“to become or to grow out of”)The term allele is used today to describe the variety of gene forms of a trait. … The paired combination of alleles, one carried at a locus on each of the chromosomes of the pair, is called the genotype. … The trait that is the result of the genotype combination is the phenotype (“visible type or trait”). [Note: visible racial characteristics, i.e. “hair type” and “color”,(“skin color”) extended to “cranial-facial features,” “body form or shape”]

Human traits:  skin color is a “polygenic trait”:  three or four genes are responsible for the inheritance of skin color:

“… Many human traits are of complex inheritance, and several genes may determine the phenotype through their combined actionSuch traits are called polygenicHuman “skin color” is one example, because normal human skin pigmentation is under the control of several genesThree or four genes are responsible for the inheritance of skin color.

[Note:  On the other hand, note the following reference by Cavalli as to the origin of modern humans and the presence of modern humans in Eurasia and the root origin skin color]

“Alleles”:

L Luca Cavalli_Sforza et al stated:

“1.12.d.  The location of the root: this finding (four alleles … only one is found in nonhuman primates … and it is the same as one of the three alleles found in AfricaThis form is probably the ancestral form of the gene.

“… Another allele is found only in human populations living outside Africa). …

THIS FINDING MAY SUPPORT THE IDEA THAT THE MOST DIRECT DESCENDANTS OF MODERN HUMANS ARE AFRICANS AND THAT OTHER HUMAN ALLELES FOUND ONLY OUTSIDE AFRICA PROBABLY ORIGINATED IN ASIA AFTER THE PASSAGE OF MODERN HUMANS

FROM AFRICA TO ASIA.

Africa and Asia:  ORIGIN OF ALLELE D IS AFRICA – ORIGIN OF ALLELE C IS ASIA

TABLE 1.12.2: Frequency of four alleles at the locus erv3, enzyme mspl, in primates and several human populations, INDICATING THAT THE ORIGIN OF ALLELE D IS LATE AFRICAN, WHEREAS THAT OF C IS ASIAN (Pacciarini et al. unpublished – m. l. Pacciarini, a. m Bowcock, K. K. Kidd, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (unpubl.) Variation and Evolution of an Endogenous Retrovirus (Erv3) in Humans and Primates, 1-10).  C. B. Stringer, J. J. Hublin, and B. Vandermeersch, “The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe,” in Fred Smith and Frank Spencer, ed. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (Alan R. Liss: New York), 1984, p. 80-81:

=================

IT WAS INDICATED IN “EPILOGUE:  THE ORIGIN OF THE RACES,”

IN INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY:  (Physical Anthropology – Humanity – One Race Or Many

They have found the explanation in a color-making chemical, called “melanin”  the skin, hair, eyes, and other parts of the body contain this chemical.  15  In temperate climates, dark skin filtered out too much of the sun’s raysClearly under these conditions dark-skinned people found it hard to survive. [Note:  In the exceptionally extremely cold climate of the Upper Paleolithic in Eurasia between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago] …..16

FRANK E. POIRIER, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, William A. Stini, University of Arizona, Kathy B. Wreden, University of Arizona, IN IN SEARCH OF OURSELVES: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Fifth Edition (Prenticee Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1994, CHAPTER 10: “TRENDS IN HUMAN EVOLUTION:  EVOLUTION OF BIPEDALISM,” p. 309, included a discussion of the following issues::

p. 52 MELANIN

=================

CONCLUSION:

SKIN MUTATION FIRST MENTIONED BY DIOP IN 1974 AND 1981, 1985

AFRICAN HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS IN EUROPE AND THE EVELUTION OF THE CAUCASIAN RACE – NATURAL SELECTION AND MUTATION INCLUDED CHANGE OF SKIN-COLOR:

============= 

Cheikh Anta Diop:

[Note:  Though perhaps startling to you now in 2012 due to the faulty educational system – from elementary school through collegesand universities – Dr Cheikh Anta Diop made the following points during his lecture while in America in Atlanta at Morehouse College at the Martin Luther King Jr International Chapel:

It was reported in Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop, Editor Ivan Van Serrtima, Morehouse College Edition (1986, 1989) in Larry Williams, “Cheikh Anta Diop in America: An Overview” that Dr Diop was the official guest of Morehouse College, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Mayor’s Office, the Martin Luther King, Jr Center For Non-Violent Social Change, the Morehouse School of Medicine and Delta Airlines.  On April 3, 1985, Dr Diop flew to Washingto, D.C. and addressed the black college and university presidents at the annual meeting at the National Association of Equal Opportunity and Higher Education abd tgat “?Dr Diop held the audience spellbound” discussing the topic: “The New Renaissance: Black Colleges in the Re-Discovery of Africa’s Contribution to World Civilization.”  Ancient Egypt was the focal point.  Dr Diop spoke of the need for black colleges and universities to boldly take up the challenge of giving Egypt its proper place as an African civilization and indeed the mother of western civilization.  Larry Williams indicated:  “His message signaled the disintegration of age old myths that Europe was the center of world civilization.”

On April 4, 1985 in the Martin Luther King Jr International Chaoek before over two thousand students, the President Hugh M Gloster conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters and in his honorary degree citation stated:  “Cheikh Ana Diop … man of many talents, you are not limited to one profession.  You have climbed to the heights in physics, history,anthropology, sociology, linguistics and politics.  In this period of specialization you are a Renaissance man with an outstanding record of achievement in many fields.

Other guests in the program were Mrs. Coretta Scott King, Mayor Andrew Young, Dr Joseph Lowery, Mrs. Ellen Steward, Professor Ivan Van Serima, Dr Alton Hornsby, Dr Charles S Finch, Dean Lawrence E Carter and the Morehouse Glee Club.  That evening Dr Joseph Lowery presented Dr Diop the first African Heritage Award of S.C.L.C. for his discoveries as an Egyptologist and an authority on Ancient Africa.  A photograph showing Dr Diop receiving the “Drum Major” Award from Southern Christian Leadership Conference included Comedian Dick Gregory and Dr Joseph Lowery of S.C.L.C.  Dick Gregory presided at the Annual Drum Major Banquet sponsored by the S.C.L.C.  where Dr Diop was the recipient of their first African Heritage Award.

It was indicated that Dr Diop’s first visit to the United States was remarkable for the ten illustrated lectures and addresses he gave, using a series of black and white and and color slides.  Some of his topics were:  “The Origin of trhe Ancient Egyptians,” “The Challenge of the Future From the Past,” “The Black African As Father of the Human Race,” “The Egyptian Race According to the Classical Authorsof Antiquity,” “The African Human Sciences\,” and The Egyptians As They Saw Themselves.”  … It was indicated:  “Dr Diop’s visit was a pilgrimage that he felt he had  to make.  It is now time for the African American community to heed his message  We must boldly challenge those who would place Ancient Egypt into a white mist overshadowing its role as a great African civilization.”

In another one of his publications Dr Diop had stated:

It should be carefully noted that the same mutation or skin change in modern humans (anatomically modern humans) during the Upper Paleolithic (50,000 – 20,000 years ago) in Europe and China (northern China or Siberia) was reported by Cheik Anta Diop (1985): “Africa: Cradle of Humanity,” Nile Valley Civilizations in(1985):

The man born in Africa was necessarily dark-skinned due tothe considerable force of ultraviolet radiation in the equatorial belt.  As he moved toward the more temperate climates, this man gradually lost his pigmentation by process of selection and adaptationIt is from this perspective that the appearance of Cro-Magnon Man in Europe must be seen”

In 1981, published in 1991, Cheikh Anta Diop, in Civilization or Barbarism, Chapter 1: “Prehistory: Race and History–Origin of Humanity and Racial Differentiation, ” Runoko Rashidi in The African Presence in Asia reported:

“Dr. Diop in Asia: “Highlights and Insights,” in the Section: “The Origin and Evolution of Mongoloid Ethnic Groups;” in Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop (1986, 1989) in The Beginnings of Man and Civilization,”

in a lecture by Dr Diop at the Martin Luther King Jr. Internatinal Chapel at Morehouse College  in the U.S.,” p. 322-351, p. 324-325, Dr Diop had stated:

He (Homo sapiens sapiens) was only in Africa for a very long time,and not on any other continentHe lived in Africa at least until 40,000 [Note:  updated more recently to 46,000) years ago ]-before he left Africa.  During this time no other part of the world was populated by (modern) man like us.” (!)

[Note:  Again, though perhaps startling to younow in 2012 due to the faulty educational system – from elementary school through collegesand universities – Dr Cheikh Anta Diop made the following points during his lecture while in America in Atlanta at Morehouse College at the Martin Luther King Jr International Chapel:

AND IF THIS MAN HAD STAYED IN AFRICA AND NOT GONE TO OTHER CONTINENTS, THE REST OF THE WORLD WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN PEOPLED.  … MANKIND WOULD NOT BE OF MANY RACES, MAN WOULD SIMPLY BE BLACK AND HOMOGENEOUS–ONE COLOR ONLYSO YOU SEE THAT RACE IS SIMPLY A MATTER OF CLIMATETHIS MAN LEFT AFRICA (HOMO ERECTUS) (SLIDE .1.1).  HE GAVE BIRTH EVENTUALLY TO MAN AS WE KNOW HIM AND LATER IN EUROPE TO THAT MAN WE CALL WHITEAT THAT TIME THE CLIMATE IN EUROPE WAS VERY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE KNOW IT NOW.”

==============

Cavalli et al.  indicated:

“White skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a light brown’color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia (southwest Eurasia) and North Africa.  A diet especially poor in vitamin D mayhave been characteristic of the farmers who came to Europe from the Middle East and slowly made their way to northern Europe, where they arrived about 5000 years ago.  If this is true, then the white skin color of northern Europeans evolved in the last 5000 years from a ‘light-brown’ color characteristic of Caucasoids from west Asia and north Africa.”  Cavalli et al  1994

[Note:  So that if you are from India or Egypt with straight or kinky hair and dark brown or light brown skin, you can identify yourself in the U.S. Census as a “Caucasian” or non-Negro or non-Hispanic.  This is further discussed in an essay published in the Columbia University African American Department’s Soul magazine in Chapter 12:  “Middle East Natufians and South America Luiza.”]

PREHISTORIC EUROPE

Within the third period there have been two significant developments which have had great repercussions for european palaeolithic studies.

The first has been the development of a continuous pleistocene stratigraphic record based … On cores drilled into the ocean floors …

The second development stems from the wealth of finds that have come from fieldwork in africa.

1998:  Cunliffe “during the past 30 years” 1968 – 1998:

These have demolished the earlier notions of europe as a cradle of mankind.  D. Clark (1975) has spelt out that europe no longer holds a monopoly on the prehistory of mankind and also that the roles of paramount and periphery have been reversed in terms of the relation between europe and africa as continents for research into early man.

Clive Gamble, The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe, Cambridge Woild Archaeology (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, Sydney), 1986, 1987

Within the third period there have been two significant developments which have had great repercussions for European palaeolithic studies.

The first has been the development of a continuous pleistocene stratigraphic record based … On cores drilled into the ocean floors …

The second development stems from the wealth of finds that have come from fieldwork in africa.  These have demolished the earlier notions of Europe as a cradle of mankind.  D. Clark (1975) has spelt out that Europe no longer holds a monopoly on the prehistory of mankind and also that the roles of paramount and periphery have been reversed in terms of the relation between Europe and Africa as continents for research into early man.

The dawn of mediterranean civilization:

The complex of caves at Grimaldi, east of monaco on the italian riviera, have produced a number of burialsThese are apparently associated both with Aurignacian and Upper Perigordian/Gravettian assemblages (Grotte De La Barma Grande and La Grotte Des Enfants (burials in the Grimaldi cave complex at Balzi Rossi (Baousse Rousse), mmw/mc region.

“… The Grimaldi caves also produced some more of the distinctive Venus figurinesUndated surface finds of what some regard as venus figurines have also been made in central italy at Chiozza and Cavignano.  Animal figurines, engraved plaques and other forms of art object which are known from EUP contexts in both the southern and northern provinces are noticeable by their absence thoughout the mediterranean province [Hahn 1981a].

46,000 – 30,000 Years Ago:

Christopher Stringer And Clive Gamble, In Search of The Neanderthals: Solving The Puzzle of Human Origins (Thames And Hudson Ltd: New York), 1993:

Bacho kiro, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cave of Mladec, Czechoslovakia,

Velika Peina, Dolni V_Stonice and Piedmosti in Czechoslovakia, (Appendix: selected absolute dates, pp. 221-222)

=======

Bulgaria:  Bacho Kiro – modern  41,000 years ago

Croatia:  34,000 years ago:

Velika peina:  … a radiocarbon date from an overlying artifact level of more than 34,000 years (Stringer And Gamble: 179)

Czechoslovakia:  Cave of Mladec, 33,000-30,000 years ago:

Mladec skulls

…Dating from 33,000-30,000 years ago, these Mladec people were undoubtedly primitive compared with modern Europeans, but primitive does not necessarily mean especially like, or derived from Neanderthals.  (Stringer and Gamble:  1993, 180)Dolni vestonice and piedmosti in Czechoslovakia:

Modern:  32.7 years ago

Early Upper Paleolithic 29.1 years ago

===========

[Note:  Dmanisi, Georgia, southern Russia is a part of the Balkan states region of the Eurasian continent:

The Balkan Region of the Eurasian Continent:

Balkan states region of the Eurasian continent:

The Balkan region consists of the Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Bosnia And  Herzegovinia, Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Romania, Southern Poland, Austria,  Hungary, Slovenia, Albania, Macedonia, and Greece – with Italy near the Balkan states, Sicily, Sardenia, Corsica B

the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tirrhenian Sea, and includes southern Russia and Turkey, Ukraine, Romania, and Bulgaria, in Eastern Europe, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and is near the northeastern coast of Africa and the Mediterranean Sea;

Source: Balkan States, Hammond World Atlas, Collectors Edition, Newsweek (Hammond Incorporated: Maplewood, New Jersey), 1995.

==============================================

ENDING LORDKIPANIDZE

=========================

May 11, 2000: 1.9 Million Years Ago:- The first proof for the presence of humans outside of AfricaThe line that these people gave rise to may have died out as recently as 50,000 years ago in the Far EastThese fossils represent the most pr.imitive population of the species Homo erectus to date.

“Speaking at the British Science Festival in Guildford, where he gave the British Council lecture, Professor Lordkipanidze raised the prospect that Homo erectus may have evolved in Eurasia from the more primitive-looking Dmanisi population and then migrated back to Africa to eventually give rise to our own species, Homo sapiens B modern man.  The scientists have discovered a total of five skulls and a solitary jawbone.  It is clear that they had relatively small brains, almost a third of the size of modern humans.  >They are quite small.  Their lower limbs are very human and their upper limbs are still quite archaic and they had very primitive stone tools,= Professor Lordkipanidze said.

The only human fossil to predate the Dmanisi speimens are of an archaic species Homo habilis, or >handy man,= found only in Africa, which used simple stone tools and lived between 2.5 million and 1.6 million years ago.  ‘I’d have to say, if we=d found the Dmanisi fossils 40 years ago, they would have been classified as Homo habilis because of the small brain size.  Their brow ridges are not as thick as classical Homo erectus, but their teeth are more H. erectus like,= Professor Lordkipanidze said.  Georgia is the cradle of the first Europeans, I would say,’  he told the meeting. ‘While the Dmanisi people were almost modern in their body proportions, and were highly efficient walkers and runners, their arms moved in a different way, and their brains were tiny compared to ours.  >Nevertheless, they were sophisticated tool makers with high social and cognitive skills,’ he told the science festival, which is run by the British Science Association.”

===============================

BBC news, sci/tech, AFossils may be the first Europeans,@ May 11, 2000 reported the discovery of remains of what may be the earliest human ancestors to migrate from Africa into Europe that were found in the Republic of Georgia and reported in the journal Science.

This is the first proof for the presence of humans outside of Africa at this time,= David Lordkipanidze, at the Republic of Georgia State Museum in Tbilisi, told the BBC, >This is most significant.=@

The Georgian, German, French And American scientists involved in the latest discovery believe this tool evidence – stone tools found with the dmanisi fossils are of the less sophisticated  >oldowan= or pebble-chopper= type that preceded acheulean technology– more than 1,000 such artefacts were recovered – that this tool evidence overturns the idea that a more sophisticated rechnology was required to survive the rigours of migration .

Commenting on the paper, Dr. Chris Stringer, of the Natural History Museum in london,  An expert on the AOut of  Africa@ theory of modern human origins, said it is doubtful  that the Dmanisi hominids were our direct ancestors.  The line that these people gave rise to may have died out as recently as 50,000 years ago in the Far East,= he told the BBC.   … >We=re descended from similar people who stayed in Africa, Africa in a sense kept pumping out migrations and dispersals of people and this included people like the Neanderthals who, equally, it doesn=t seem were our ancestors.  The ancestors of modern humans may have left Africa only in the last 100,000 years.

[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sc/tech/745080.stm ]

Several articles published in National Geographic, in April, 2005, entitled:   AThe People Time Forgot@ (miniature beings with skulls far smaller than our own sprang from an ancient line of human ancestors.  How did they reach – and survive on – a remote Indonesian island?=  And family ties: these prehistoric pioneers adopted a new way of life based on cooperation, even caring, and gave rise to later humans from the flores people to ourselves – discoveries from dmanisi are fleshing out a new portrait of early humans.  The latter article written by Josh Fischman indicated:

David Lordkipanidze, a paleo-anthropologist and the director of the museum in Tbilisi, capital of this former Soviet Republic and his colleagues hit  >the jackpot=  in a very unexpected place: not in Africa, home to famous fossils like Lucy and famous sites like Tanzania=s Olduvai Gorge, but well to the north, in Georgia, where Europe ends and Asia begins.

Found in the shadow of a ruined medieval castle near the small town of Dmanisi, the four skulls and other bones provide a rare snapshort of what could be a single population of hominids, as anthropologists now call humans and their ancestors.

… The human ancestors found at Dmanisi – early members of a species called homo erectus – appear to be the first hominids to have left Africa, where our evolution began.”

[Note the difference between the conclusion of this writer and that of Dr. Chris Stringer, above, with regard to whether these African migrants were Homo erectus ancestors of modern Europeans or died out or became extinct about 50,000 years ago]

2008

Archaeology: A Publication of the Archaeological Institute of America, January/February 2008, Lake Heret, Kenya:

KNM-ER 42700 and KNM-ER 42703:

Homo habilis and Homo erectus:

?The discovery of a Homo habilis jawbone and a Homo erectus skull that are close in age has paleontologists rethinking the idea that H. habilis evolved into H. erectusA team of paleoanthropologists led by Meave and Louise Leakey of the Koobi Fora Research Project  uncovered the upper jawbone of a H. Habilis dated to 1.44 million years ago, and the skull of a H. erectus dated to 1.55 million years ago.

Ian Tattersall, in The Human Odyssey: Four Million Years Of Human Evolution (Prentice Hall, New York), 1993, indicated:

(homo habilis and homo erectus B

The initial stages of hominid language probably start with homo habilis and continued to develop in homo erectus. the hominid species

Migrations – Homo erectus and Homo sapiens sapiens  African Migrations:  The History and Geography of Human Genes – Homo sapiens sapiens

The initial stages of hominid language probably start with homo habilis and continued to develop in homo erectus. The hominid species homo habilis was the first to significantly deviate from the typical anthropoid brain-body size trend approximately 2 million years ago, and therefore would have exhibited prefrontal enlargementThis can be expected to correspond to an enhanced ability to deal with complex combinatorial problem solving, and a shift toward prefrontal control of vocalization, and because of the displacement of midbrain and cortical circuits, a deterioration of the stereotypic call reportoire.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schomburg_Center_for_Research_in_Black_Culture arturo alphonso shomberg http://afamstud.intrasun.tcnj.edu/harlemrenaissance/tevingt2/schomburgbio.htm

=============

AGAIN:

LEON ABRAMS, JR., INQUIRY INTO ANTHROPOLOGY,PATRICIA THOMPSON, GENERAL EDITOR (GLOBE BOOK COMPANY: NEW YORK, CANADA), 1976:

CHAPTER 8: HUMANKIND: ONE RACE OR MANY? WHY DO HUMANS HAVE DIFFERENT SKIN COLORS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES?  WHY DOES HUMAN SKIN HAVE COLOR?  THE ROLE OF MELANIN:

Anthropologist reject unscientific explanations for skin colors.  BUT … THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY WHITE MEN ARE WHITE, BLACK MEN, BLACK, AND RED MEN RED.  THEY HAVE FOUND THE EXPLANATION IN A COLOR-MAKING CHEMICAL, CALLED MELANIN.  The skin, hair, eyes and other parts of the body contain this chemical.  MELANIN IS PRESENT IN THE SKIN OF MOST HUMAN BEINGS.  IT TURNS THE SKIN DARK.  THE MORE MELANIN, THE DARKER THE SKIN

Those few who lack melanin are called albinosAlbinos exist throughout the animal kingdomThey also occur in all human groupsIt might be said that albinos are the only truly white people in the world.  (!)   Their hair, like their skin, is whiteTheir eyes, lacking melanin also, appear pinkish due to the circulation of blood through themThey have no natural protection from the sun and must avoid too much exposureAll other humans possess various amounts of malanin in their skinYou may wonder why people have melanin in their skin.  What purpose does it serve?  Sunshine and vitamin D provide the explanation.”

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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