RIGHTWING REPUBLICAN FUNDAMENTALIST CHRISTIANS BELIEVING IN THE “LITERAL” (“EACH WORD CAME FROM GOD”) INTERPRETATION OF THE “HEBREW” BIBLE OR “OLD TESTAMENT” BIBLE
AND OPPONENTS OF “HOMOSEXUALITY” OR “SAME-SEX MARRIAGE” BASED ON THE BIBLE OR SCRIPTURES
REFER TO DEUTERONOMY, LEVITICUS, ETC. – NOTE THE FOLLOWING:
THE BOOK OF EXODUS – THE EXODUS OF THE HEBREWS FROM EGYPT – THE BIBLICAL BOOKS OF EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS,AND DEUTERONOMY —
FOUR‑FIFTHS OF THE CENTRAL SCRIPTURES OF ISRAELARE DEVOTED TO THE MOMENTOUS EVENTS EXPERIENCED BY A SINGLE GENERATION IN SLIGHTLY MORE THAN FORTY YEARS
In the book Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (The Free Press: New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Singapore), 2001, it was indicated that the Hebrew bible in the Book of Exodus indicated:
God instructed Moses to threaten the Egyptian pharaoh with a series of terrible plagues
God turned the Nile to blood, frogs, then gnats, then flies, a mysterious disease killing Egyptians’ livestock, boils and sores on the skin of surviving animals, hail ruining the crops, plagues of locusts and darkness and finally a terrible plague killing the firstborn of both human and animalfrom all the land of the Nile
God spared the Israelites whose doorposts of their houses were smeared with the blood of sacrificed lambs on the night of the slaying of the Egyptians’ sons
The Egyptian pharaoh permits the Israelites to take their flocksand herds and leave Egypt and 600,000 Israelite men, women, and children leave cities of the eastern delta for the wilderness of Sinai round the wayof the wilderness toward the Red Sea
God parted the Red Sea and the Iraelites crossed over to Sinai on dry land and God caused the toweringwaters to engulf the pursuing Egyptians in a miracle described in the biblical Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1-18)
God provided food and water for the Israelite “through Moses’ intercession with God
Moses climbed the mountain where he had received his first great revelation and “received the Law under which thenewly liberate4d Israelites would forever live and God conveyed to the people through Moses the ten commandments and legislation of worship, purity, and dietary laws and the Sacred Ark of the Covenant contained the tablets of God’s laws.
Joshua was appointed to lead the Israelites in their military campaign of swift conquest and the 120 year old Moses ascended the summit of Mt Nebo and died.
archaeological evidence and historical texts does show the settling of Israelites or Jewish people from Canaan in the eastern border regions of the Egyptian delta but the path of the Exodus and the wandering in the wilderness, the plagues, the parting of the Red Sea, and the appearance of manna in the wilderness cannot archaeological be traced in order to even determine if the Exodus as described in the Bible ever occurred.
Finkelsteinn and Silberman indicate:
That two hundred years of intensive excavation and study of the remains of ancient Egyptian civilization have offered a detailed chronology of the events, personalities, and places of pharaonic times and even though the the patriarchal stories and the Exodus narrative is filled with a wealth of detailed and specific geographical references – the excavations and studyof the remains of ancient Egyptian civilization and research on the detailed and specific geographical references still does not provide a reliable historical background to the great epic of the Israelites’ escape from Egypt and their reception of the Law on Sinai.
Finkelstein and Silberman ask the questions:
“Is it history? Can archaeology help us pinpoint the era when a leader named Moses mobilized his people for the great act of liberation? Can we trace the path of the Exodus and the wandering in the wilderness? Can we even determine if the Exodus as described in the Bible ever occurred?
The publisher indicates:
“This book: Israel Finkelstin and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Sacred Texts provides the answers to those questions by “two leading scholars, an archaeologist and a historian, combining an exhilarating tour of the field of biblical archaeology with a fascinating explanation of how and why the Bible’s historical saga differs so dramatically from the archaeological finds.
They explain what the Bible says about ancient Israel and show how it diverges sharply from archaeological reality and they then offer a dramatic new version of the history of ancient Israel, bringing archaeological evidence to bear on the question of when, where, and why the Bible was first written.”