The African Presence in Ancient Israel

Harold L Carter, The African Odyssey:  The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History:  From Prehistoric Times and the Earliest Civilizations to the 21st Century (2012):

The African-Egyptian Presence in Ancient Israel:

“Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Guide To The Bible: The Old And New Testaments (Avenel Books: New York), 1981, indicated:

It should be noted that it was  said by rabinical Talmudic interpreters and commentators on the first chapter of the Bible, Genesis I, that Canaanites or Hamites(descendants of Canaan or Ham)  lived in the geographic location of ancient Syria-Palestine and northern Africa, which geographic location, according to Patai and Graves, also reflects the area conquered by the black-Egyptian Pharaohs

Cheikh Anta Diop, in The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (Lawrence Hill & Company:  Westport, Connecticut), 1955, 1967, 1974, p. 20, indicated:

“Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, son of a Sudanese woman, founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the era of Egyptian imperialism.  He is sometimes referred to as the “Napoleon of Antiguity. ”

“On the death of Queen Hatshepsut, the great reign of the Eighteenth dynasty began under Tuthmosis III, that other outstanding southern monarch, whose mother was a Sudanese nubian.  He over-powered all the states of western Asia and the islands of the eastern Mediterranean, reducing them to the status of vassals compelled to pay annual tribute.  (diop: 1974: 209),  This was the case with Mitanni (an Indo-European state on the Upper Euphrates), Babylonia, Cilicia, the Hittite state, Cyprus, Crete, etc.   (Diop: 1974: 209)

“Syria and Palestine (Canaan) were simply integrated into the Egyptian kingdom. … In any case, Egypt was then the foremost technical, military, and imperial power in the world. ”

“After the Eighteenth dynasty, the Egyptians acquired the habit of holding as hostages the sons of vassal rulers of asia and the mediterranean, training them in the pharaoh=s court in the hope that they might later govern their countries as good vassals.  This was one of several causes of the extensive, profound, and almost exclusively Egyptian influence on western Asia and the Mediterranean.  (Diop: 1974: 209)

(Diop: 1974: 213):

“A passage inscribed on the tele of Israel, … This was the first mention of the name Israel in history (1222 B.C.).  Palestine owes its name to the Palestiou.  This was what the Egyptians called the Philistines, Indo-Europeans, probably Achaean fugitives, who settled in the region during that epoch. … The text specifically states that the land of the Hittites (Anatolia) is pacified.  This confirms the notion that, after the conquests of Tuthmosis III (1580 B.C.), the Hittite land never ceased being a vassal of Egypt.”

Thutmose III – 1470 – 1445

Pharaoh Thuthmose III is sometimes referred to as the “Napoleon of Antiquity,” and Egyptian imperialism was extended by the pharaoh many times referred to as an African-“Nubian” Pharaoh – Pharaoh Taharqa.

These photographs were first published in Nations Negres et Culture, by Présence Africaine, Paris, 1955 and Ant riiorit  Des Civisatioins Negres: Mythe Ou Vérité Historique, Presence Africaine, Paris, 1967]

The following African-Egyptian presence of Pharaoh Thutmose III occurred:

The beginning of Egyptian imperialism, which will reach its apogee under Thutmose III, around 1470 B.C.  (Diop: 1991: 203)

1570 B.C.), marks the year that the Hyksos were thrown out of Egypt, and the beginning of Egyptian imperialism, which will reach its apogee under Thutmose III, around 1470 B.C.(Diop: 1991: 78):

“After the expulsion from Egypt of the Hyksos in 1570 B.C.., the power of the new XVIIIth dynasty increased progressively and reached its peak under the reign of Thutmose III (1501-1447 B.C.).   His empire extended from Babylon, on the Upper Euphrates, to the upper Nile.  The same expansionist policy was maintained by his successors (Amenophis II and Rameses II), who succeeded in preserving the power of the empire until the Nubian campaign of Amenophis III, from 1407 to 1406 B.C. ”

It was indicated: Pharaoh Tuthmosis (Thutmosis) III was a particularly strong ruler who carried out many military campaigns to confirm Egyptian influence over neighbouring land.  [Atlas of The Bible, Edited by James Pritchard (Borders Press, A Division of Borders Group.Inc,  in association with Harpercollins), reprinted 1989, 1994, 1997, 2003]

“… Tuthmosis III led campaigns into Asia (West Asia:  Anatolia and Canaan  –referred to as “the Levant”), and the Tigris and Euphrates river valley. almost every year during the 20 years of his rule.  Diplomatic gifts were presented to tutmosis III from Hittites, Assyrians, and from Babylon.  Tuthmosis III’s campaigns were listed as having occurred against the qadesh coalition in: megiddo, in Palestine, Retenu, the Phoenician coast, south and north Syria, and south Palestine or Transjordan.

“There were photographs of a procession of bearded Asiatic prisoners, with 12 of the 115 names of places that Tuthmosis II conquered, shown in the temple of Amun, at Karnak and one of a victorious Tuthmosis III holding a batch of prisoners by the hair, also from the temple of Amun. [Atlas of the Bible, Pritchard, 2003]

It was indicated: Thutmose III in the most daring of his annual expeditions, actually surpassed the feat of his grandfather, Thutmose I, driving deep into the territory of the Mitanni beyond the banks of the Euphrates.

Joyce, ,Milton, Iin Empires: Their Rise and Fall: Sunrise of Power: Ancient Egypt:  Alexander and the World of Hellenism (Boston Publishing Company, Inc: Boston, Massachusetts), 1986 indicated:

“Thutmose III in the most daring of his annual expeditions, actually surpassed the feat of his grandfather, Thutmose I, driving deep into the territory of the Mitanni beyond the banks of the Euphrates.”

Cheikh Anta Diop, in The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (Lawrence Hill & Company:  Westport, Connecticut), 1955, 1967, 1974, p. 20 indicated::

“Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, son of a Sudanese woman, founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and inaugurated the era of Egyptian imperialism.  He is sometimes referred to as Athe Napoleon of Antiquity.@  On the death of Queen Hatshepsut, the great reign of the Eighteenth dynasty began under Tuthmosis III, that other outstanding southern monarch, whose mother was a Sudanese Nubian.”

Cheikh Anta Diop, in The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (Lawrence Hill & Company:  Westport, Connecticut), 1955, 1967, 1974 indicated:

“Pharaoh Thutmose III over-powered all the states of western asia and the islands of the eastern Mediterranean, reducing them to the status of vassals compelled to pay annual tribute.  (Diop: 1974: 209)

“This was the case with Mitanni (an Indo-European state on the Upper Euphrates), Babylonia, Cilicia, the Hittite State, Cyprus, Crete, YSyria and Palestine were simply integrated into the Egyptian kingdom.  (Diop: 1974: 209)… In any case, Egypt was then the foremost technical, military, and imperial power in the world. After the Eighteenth Dynasty, the Egyptians acquired the habit of holding as hostages the sons of vassal rulers of Asia and the Mediterranean, training them in the Pharaoh’s court in the hope that they might later govern their countries as good vassals.

This was one of several causes of the extensive, profound, and almost exclusively Egyptian influence on western Asia (the Middle East, the Levant, the Bible Land) and the Mediterranean.

There were four rulers of the United Monarchy – [[Saul the King|Saul ben Kish]] (from the tribe of [[Benjamin]]), [[Ishbaal]] (name sometimes written as ”Ishboseth” due to religious prejudices), a son of Saul, [[David]], son-in-law of Saul through his marriage to [[Michal]] and from the tribe of [[Judah (Bible)|Judah]], and [[Solomon]], son of David and [[Bathsheba]].

David – 1009 B.C. – 1000 B.C.

King David established [[Jerusalem]] as Israel’s national capital; before then, [[Hebron]] had been the capital of David’s Judah and [[Mahanaim]] of Ishbaal’s Israel, and before that [[Gibeah]] had been the capital under Saul. Earlier parts of the Bible indicate that [[Shiloh (Biblical)|Shiloh]] had been seen as the national capital; which, from an archaeological standpoint, is considered plausible, as far as it being the religious capital.

For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by [[William F. Albright]] or [[Edwin R. Thiele]], or the newer chronology of [[Gershon Galil]], all of which are shown below. All dates are [[Common Era|BCE]]. Thiele’s chronology generally corresponds with Galil’s chronology below with a difference of at most one year.<ref>[[Kenneth Kitchen]], How We Know When Solomon Ruled: Israel’s Kings, BAR September/October 2001</ref>1020 B.C.

According to the Bible, before the ””united monarchy”’, the [[Israelite]] tribes lived as a [[confederation]] under ad hoc charismatic leaders called [[Biblical judges|Judges]]. In around [[1020 BCE]], under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first united Kingdom of Israel.

1026 B.C. – Samuel

[[Samuel (Bible)|Samuel]] anointed [[Saul]] from the tribe of [[Benjamin]] as the first king c. [[ 1026 BCE]],

109-1000 B.C.

but it was [[David]] who in c.[[1009–1000 BC|1006 BCE]] created a strong unified Israelite monarchy.

David, the second (or third, if [[Ish-bosheth]] is counted) King of Israel, established [[Jerusalem]] as its national capital 3,000 years ago.

Before then, [[Hebron]] had been the capital of David’s Judah and [[Mahanaim]] of Ish-bosheth’s Israel, and before that [[Gibeah]] had been the capital of the United Monarchy under [[Saul]].  David succeeded in truly unifying the Israelite tribes, and set up a monarchical government. He embarked on successful military campaigns against Israel’s enemies, and defeated nearby regional entities such as the [[Philistines]], thus creating secure borders for Israel. Under David, Israel grew into a regional power. Under the [[Davidic line|House of David]], the united Kingdom of Israel achieved prosperity and superiority over its neighbours.

Solomon –  970 – 930

Under David’s successor, [[Solomon]], the United Monarchy experienced a period of peace and prosperity, and cultural development. Much public building took place, including the [[Solomon’s Temple|First Temple]] in Jerusalem.

Rehoboam – 930 B.C.

However, on the succession of Solomon’s son, [[Rehoboam]], in c. [[930 BCE]] the country split into two kingdoms: [

[Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)|Israel]] (including the cities of [[Shechem]] and [[Samaria]]) in the north and

[Kingdom of Judah|Judah]] (containing Jerusalem) in the south. Most of the non-Israelite provinces fell away.

[Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Israel_(united_monarchy)

==================

Saul – 1050 (or 1045) – 1010

David  971/970

946 B.C. – 745 B.C.   – 22nd Egyptian Dynasty

Solomon (970 B.C. – 930 B.C.

Pharaoh Sheshonq I – (945-924) – “Shishak” – the founder of the 22nd dynasty, had achieved the rank of “Generalissimo of All Armed Forces” and became pharaoh of Upper Egypt around 930 B.C.  He led a major military campaign across the Sinai frontier into Palestine.  In the 930s B.C., when King Rehoboam reigns, Shishak Amarched toward Jerusalem and “took away the treasures of the house of Yahweh and the treasures of the king’s house; he took away everything. … The shields of gold which Solomon had made” (1 Kings 14:26)

[Redford, 1992: 312-313] and elsewhere, in the battle against Jerusalem; Shishak takes away the treasures from the house of the Lord (11 Chron 12:2-9)  [Atlas of the Bible, Pritchard,  2003: 206]

=============

King Rehoboam (931 B.C. – 913 B.C.): – son of Solomon:Rehoboam becomes king on the death of his father, Solomon (I kings 11:43)

930 B.C.

King Jeroboam:Jeroboam flees to Shishak, king of Egypt (945 B.C. – 924 B.C.) (2 Kings 11:40)

=================

Pharaoh Sheshonq I – (945-924) – “Shishak”:

Donald Redford in Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton University Press: New Jersey), 1992, indicated:        “The sacking of Jerusalem is dated to Rehoboam’s fifth year … And this would fall after the split in the kingdomSheshonq’s invasion could have easily fallen on the yet undivided state of the late Solomon, and Jereboam (an erstwhile exile in Egypt) could have started his career as an Egyptian protégé.

924 B.C. – 889 B.C. – Osorkon I

=============

Egyptian Pharaoh (716 B.C. – 702 B.C.), the younger brother of Piankhy, after leading Kush in the invasion of Egypt and imposing Sudanese rule throughout upper and lower Egypt, led a substantial expeditionary force to the plains of Eltekeh to engage the Assyrians in 701 B.C.

The kingdom of Kush rose to power in the second half of the Eighth century B.C. … Isaiah 20 is probably the earliest reference to Kush in the Old Testament.

Pharaoh Shabataka (702 B.C. – 690 B.C.)

689 B.C. – 664 B.C. Pharaoh Taharqa (Tirhaka)

Donald Redford  in Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton University Press: New Jersey), 1992, pp. 312-313, indicated:

“Pharaoh Taharqa’s was the only pharaonic name known to “The author of 2 Kings 19 for the period about which he was writing and his arrival in Egypt from his native Nubia is described in plain and unequivocal terms in the famous Kawa Text.  Pharaoh Taharqa is said in 2 Kings 17:4 to have been the Egyptian king who was expected to help Hoshea (Josiah).

“Pharaoh Taharqa formed alliances with the Phoenician rulers of Tyre and Sidon and with his forces moved into the Philistine plain and turned Ashkelon into a base of sorts, and may have attempted to organize a coalition of the local rulers. … The outcome of the two superpowers (Egypt and Assyria) defied prediction.

Professor Redford indicated:

“Esarhaddon, King of Assyria forced Pharaoh Taharqa to fall back to Memphis.  And that Ashurbanipal, Esarhaddon’s son, invaded Egypt in 666 B.C. forcing Pharaoh Taharqa to again flee south from Memphis to Nubia.”

Dr.John Henrik Clarke in the afterword to J. C. DeGraft-Johnson, African Glory:  The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations – “J. C. DeGraft-Johnson and the Renaissance of Writing of African History by Writers of African Descent,” indicated:

“Imperial Ethiopia had conquered Egypt and founded the XXVth Dynasty, and for a century and a half the central seat of civilization in the known world was held by the ancestors of the modern Negro, maintained it and defended it against the Assyrian and Persian Empires of the East.  Thus, at the time when Ethiopia was leading the civilized world in culture and conquest, East was East but West was yet to be held.  Rome was nowhere to be seen on the map, and sixteen centuries were topass before Charlemagne would rule in Europeand Egbert would become first King ofEngland.  Even then history was to drag on for another seven hundred weary years before Roman Catholic Europe could see fit to end the Great Schism, soon to be followed by the disturbing news of the discovery of America and by the the fateful rebirth of the youngest of world civilizations.”  J(emphasis added)

610 B.C. – 595 B.C. – Pharaoh Neco

Pharaoh Neco fights Josiah at Carchemish (II Chron 35:2and

kills Josiah in battle at Megiddo (II Kings 23:29

Racial Identity of the Egyptian Pharaohs:

Cheikh Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (Lawrence Hill & Company: Westport), 1974

Figuures Showing Negroid Features:

The Dynastic Period of African Egyptian History:During the dynastic period of time, according to bas reliefs and still existing hugh, colossal sculptured statutes and beautiful palace paintings found in the tombs of the earliest African pharaohs, both Upper and Lower Egyptian populations were clearly of negroid descent.  These bas  reliefs, stone statues, and beaufiful palace paintings present obvious images of the dynastic African-Egyptian pharaohs that are rarely featured or shown in most currently published, supposedly authentic textbooks, that are supposed to provide  a comprehensive history of the world and its cultures.

Observe the following photographs of African-Egyptian pharaohs clearly showing negroid features that are presented in Cheikh Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (Lawrence Hill & Company: Westport), 1974.

[PHOTOGRAPHS IN BOOK 56519 XLIBRIS FILE]

Figures 1 through 13 include Among Dynastic Egypt’s first known Pharaohs Menes, Djoser, and Cheops (builder of the Great Pyramid);

Pharaoh Mycerinus (Fourth Dynasty, who built the third Giza pyramid);

Pharaoh Mentuhotep I (founder of the Eleventh Dynasty);

Pharaoh Sesostris I (Twelfth Dynasty);

Pharaoh Ramses II;

============

Pharaoh Amenophis II in the Middle East – in the Levant:

Pharaoh Amenophis II, the son of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, also led military expeditions into Palestine including Damascus, Gaza, Megiddo, Ugarit,  and areas under Mitanni control.

It was indicated that on his way back to Egypt Amenophis II captured a mitannian chariot warrior, (on a diplomatic mission >to stir up trouble behind the pharaoh’s back  in the Valley of Surina, possibly the biblical plain of Sharon.

=============

Pharaoh Rameses II:

“While still a young man, rameses ii led his armies in a campaign against egypt=s most powerful rival, the hittites.  The enemy forces met near Kadesh, the city that had been conquered by Thutmose III

Archaeological reference to “Israel”

The Book of Jewish Knowledge: An Encyclopedia of Judaism and the Jewish People, Covering All Elements of Jewish Life from Biblical Times to the Present, by Nathan Ausubel (1964) had this to say  about Egypt, one of its pharaohs, Pharaoh Merenptah when referring to archaeological evidence that had been discovered

“About the same time that the bondage and the liberation of the Israelite groups settled in Egypt, the other Israelites, their kinsmen, were obviously still living in Palestine in their own sections and separate tribal principalities then  existing  in Palestine:  Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam, and also Israel.

Ausubel stated:

Pharaoh Merneptah:

“This is learned from an unimpeachable historic source: the inscription on a stele in the mortuary temple in Thebes of Pharaoh Merenptah, who died in 1215 B.C.  In this memorial, the son and successor of Rameses II (who probably was the pharaoh of the Exodus) recorded his military victories over separate tribal principalities existing at that time in Palestine:  Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam, and also Israel:

‘Israel is desolated, his seed is not, recount the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the first specific mention of the Jews in ancient records outside of the Biblical chronicle itself.’

(Diop: 1974: 209):

1580 b.c.:  Philistines probably were Indo-European Achaean fugitives:

(Diop: 1974: 213): “A passage inscribed on the stele of Israel,… this was the first mention of the name Israel in history (during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah c. 1222 B.C.).  Palestine owes its name to the Palestiou.  This was what the Egyptians called the Philistines, Indo-Europeans, probably Achaean fugitives, who settled in the region during that epoch. … The text specifically states that the land of the Hittites is pacified.  This confirms the notion that, after the conquests of Tuthmosis III (1580 B.C.), the Hittite land never ceased being a vassal of Egypt.”

==============

“Pharaoh Tuthmosis (Thutmosis) III was a particularly strong ruler who carried out many military campaigns to confirm Egyptian influence over neighbouring land.  Tuthmosis III led campaigns into Asia (southwest Asia, the Levant, the Bible Land) almost every year during the 20 years of his rule.  Diplomatic gifts were presented to Thutmosis III from Hittites, Assyrians, and from Babylons.  Tuthmosis III=s campaigns were listed as having occurred against the Qadesh Coalition in: Megiddo, in Palestine, Retenu, the Phoenician Coast, south And north Syria, and south Palestine or Transjordan.

“There were photographs of a procession of bearded Asiatic prisoners, with 12 of the 115 names of places that Tuthmosis II conquered, shown in the temple of Amun, at Karnak and one of a victorious Tuthmosis III holding a batch of prisoners by the hair, also from the temple of Amun.

==============

Cheikh Anta Diop, in Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology (Lawrence Hill Books: New Jersey), 1991, p.  203, indicated:

1470 B.C

“1470 B.C. marks the year that the Hyksos were thrown out of Egypt, and the beginning of Egyptian imperialism, which will reach its apogee under Thutmose III, around 1470 B.C.  [Diop: 1991: 78): Kenyon: 1987:  Thutmose III (1479 B.C. – 1425 B.C.)]

Pharaoh Amenophis II in the Middle East, the Levant, Ancient Israel

“Pharaoh Amenophis II, the son of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, also led military expeditions into Palestine including Damascus, Gaza, Megiddo, Ugarit,  and areas under Mitanni control.  On his way back to Egypt Amenophis II captured a Mitannian chariot warrior, (on a diplomatic mission ‘to stir up trouble behind the Pharaoh’s back)  in the valley of Surina, possibly the biblical plain of Sharon.

Pharaoh Rameses II:

“While still a young man, Rameses II led his armies in a campaign against Egypt=s most powerful rival, the Hittites.  The enemy forces met near Kadesh, the city that had been conquered by Thutmose III.

Rameses  IV

=====================

The African-Egyptian presence in west Asia -Ancient Israel

It was indicated: Pharaoh Tuthmosis III was a particularly strong ruler who carried out many military campaigns to confirm egyptian influence over neighbouring land.

Atlas of the Bible, Edited by James Pritchard (Borders Press, a Division of Borders Group.inc,  in Association with Harpercollins), reprinted 1989, 1994, 1997, 2003 indicated:

“… Tuthmosis III led campaigns into asia (the Levant) almost every year during the 20 years of his rule.  Diplomatic gifts were presented to Tutmosis III from Hittites, assyrians, and from babylon.  Tuthmosis iii=s campaigns were listed as having occurred against the qadesh coalition in: megiddo, in palestine, retenu, the phoenician coast, south and north syria, and south Palestine or Transjordan.

There were photographs of a procession of bearded asiatic prisoners, with 12 of the 115 names of places that Tuthmosis II conquered, shown in the Temple of Amun, at karnak and one of a victorious tuthmosis iii holding a batch of prisoners by the hair, also from the temple of amun.

Atlas of the Bible, Pritchard, 2003]

It was indicated: Athutmose iii in the most daring of his annual expeditions, actually surpassed the feat of his grandfather, thutmose i, driving deep into the territory of the mitanni beyond the banks of the euphrates.@

Joyce, Milton, Empires: Their Rise and Fall: Sunrise of Power: Ancient Egypt:       Alexander and the World of Hellenism (Boston Publishing Company, Inc: Boston, Massachusetts), 1986]

Pharaoh Amenophis ii in the Middle East – in the Levant:

“Pharaoh Amenophis II, the son of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, also led military expeditions into Palestine including Damascus, Gaza, Megiddo, Ugarit,  and areas under Mitanni control.

Pharaoh Rameses II:

“While still a young man, Rameses II led his armies in a campaign against egypt=s most powerful rival, the Hittites.  The enemy forces met near Kadesh, the city that had been conquered by Thutmose III.

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About Harold L Carter

Bachelor of Science, Columbia University Masters degree, Ohio State University Undergraduate National Officer, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Eastern Asst Vice President, when a student at Columbia University Profile Photograph: Mom & Me, when I was a graduate student
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