The End of the World is Near!!!

Commentaries on the Times

a-terryfying-nuclear-explosionA Vision of Doomsday

Sixty Minutes Exposes the Doomsday Machine

God Gave Noah the Rainbow Sign/No more water/The Fire Next Time!

This is an exceedingly strange political season where the bizarre has become common place.  For instance a New York real estate huckster and transparent con man with no experience in government is threatening to defeat the most qualified candidate in US history for the presidency.  Yet the fact that there is no serious mention, let alone discussion, of the unique horrors of nuclear weapons and the growing probability of an accidental nuclear war is the strangest thing of all.

For despite the false sense of security most Americans enjoy, believing the end of Communism and the Cold War with what was Soviet Russia has removed the danger of nuclear holocaust, it ain’t necissarily so.  It is a comforting but dangerous illusion that could lead to a catastrophe…

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The End of the World is Near!!! — Commentaries on the Times

A Vision of Doomsday Sixty Minutes Exposes the Doomsday Machine God Gave Noah the Rainbow Sign/No more water/The Fire Next Time! This is an exceedingly strange political season where the bizarre has become common place. For instance a New York real estate huckster and transparent con man with no experience in government is threatening to […]

via The End of the World is Near!!! — Commentaries on the Times

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The Human Brain – The Origin of Human Language- The Historical Background and Myths Concerning the Brain

AUGUST 23 2016 WITTROCK THE HUMAN BRAIN

The Human Brain, M. C. Wittrock, Jackson Beatty, Joseph E. Bogen, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Harry J. Jerison, Stephen D. Krashen, Robert D. Nebes, Timothy J. Teyler (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1977

Harry J. Jerison, Evolution of the Brain, in The Human Brain, M. C. Wittrock, Jackson Beatty, Joseph E. Bogan, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Harry J. Jerison, Stephen D. Krashen, Robert D. Nebes, Timothy J. Teyler (Prentice-Hall, Inc: Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey), 1977

“It is Society that shapes the mind”:

Evolutionary biology and behavior – – the evolution of language and conscious awareness – how the human mind evolved:

John McCrone, The Ape That Spoke: Language and the Evolution of the Human Mind (William Morrow and Company, Inc: New York), 1991:

“John McCrone studied zoology and psychology at Auckland University and then became a journalist, working first on a London newspaper and then with the Australian news agency, Australian Associated Press. McCrone has spent five years researching and writing this book. He lives in London.”

John McCrone studied zoology and psychology at Auckland University and then became a journalist, working first on a London newspaper and then with the Australian news agency, Australian Associated Press. McCrone has spent five years researching and writing this book. He lives in London.”
Commentary:

James Shreeve, co-author with Donald Johanson of Lucy’s Child:

“The Ape That Spoke is the cleares, mostdelighful excursion imaginable into the maze of the human mind. McCrone navigates the neural pathways of our memories, dreams,and emotions and returns with a fully realized portrait of consciousness. He does so with such an artful use of language and metaphor is no accident: In McCrone’s reckoning it was the origin of language itself that drove the evolution of intelligence, and the birth of metaphor that empowered the brain beyond the reach of any computer.”

Roger Lewin, Bones of Contention and The Origin of Modern Humans:

“The origins of language and conscious awareness tantalize us because, more than anything else, they seem to be the very essence of humanity, of being human.

John McCrone has done a skillful job of tracing the source of these elements of humanness in homo sapiens, by going back to the basics of evolutionary biology and behavior. It is a thoughtful and thought-provoking exposition.

In the book label of The Ape That Spoke it was indicated:

Myth:

Self-consciousness is something built into the human mind.
Reality:

Every child has to learn the trick afresh and would have a mind no more self-aware than an animal’s without the helping hand of society.

Myth:

Our higher emotions are pure, uncontrollable, and irrational.
Reality: Habits of thought forged by generations of cultural evolution and impressed on us at an early age make us act in society=s best interest.
Myth:
Our memories are a faithful record of events.
Reality: Every memory is a skillful re-creation that depends on the use of language to prod our brain into doing something it was not even designed for.

Myth:
The mind is a mystery that can never be explained.
Reality: The Ape That Spoke is a book that will stun you with the clarity it brings to the muddled subject.

The Ape That Spoke is the sstory of how the human mind evolved. It starts out with the naked animal of our primitive ancestors and goes on to describe what happened once homo sapiens learned to speak.

Along the way it offers many fresh insights into the workings of the brain.

Among its achievements, The Ape That Spoke gives a careful description of how language evolved, how our memorie and imaginations work, what purpose all our mental advances serve, and how we almost inadvertently learn the trick of self-awareness as we grow up.

Anyone who has ever wondered what déjà vu is, how we make creative leaps of understanding, how we form the sentences we speak, or why we have a conscience, will find the answers within its pages.

The book ends by demonstrating how shallow-rooted and culturally dependent our high mental abilities actually areCand asks why we should not set about making a few improvements.

Major Trends in Human Evolution:

Paleoanthropologist and Specialist Areas of Disagreement were with regard to the Major Trends in Human Evolution:

Bi-pedalism, Brain Size, and Neuropsychological Restructuring and What Influene Each Had in the Origin ofLLanguage andIntelligence:

The primary areas of disagreement by paleoanthropologists and specialists with regard to controversial issues have been concentrated upon the major trends of human evolution that include:

(1) the anatomical restructuring necessary for bipedalism
(2) what role increasing brain size and cranial/brain neural mechanisms necessary for speech played with regard to evolutionary growth and development, and
(3) what influence, if any, each may have had in the origin of language and intelligence in modern humans.

McCone indicated that arguments concerning those issues have been going on since the early 1980s.

THE AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGE WAS SPOKEN 11,000 YEARS AGO IN SYRIA-PALESTINE.
fischler
====================
The origin of language in the human species is a widely discussed topic, with little or no mainline consensus by many scholars.

1866: The Linguistic Society of Paris banned dabates on the subject.

1799: George W. Stocking, Jr.,

The Société des Observateurs de lHomme, (the first anthropological society) founded in the eighth year of the first French Republic (November or early December 1799),and its purpose, objectives, and activities in Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology

(The University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London), 1982, pp. 15-21.

Its members included the biologists Cuvier, Lamarck, Jussieu, and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire; the physicians Cabanis and Pinel; the chemist Fourcroy; the explorers Bougainville and Levaillant; the linguists Destutt de Tracy and Sicard; and a number of other scholars in various fields.

[Footnote: Quoted from the Magasin encyclopédique by Georges Hervé, Le premier programme, p. 521; members are listed by Bouteiller, “La Société,” p. 449, and by Reboul, Jauffret, p. 34]

Carl Sagan, Broca’s Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science (Ballantine Books: New York), 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979,

Chapter 1: Broca’s Brain,” p. 7:

Paul Broca, a French surgeon, a neurologist and an anthropologist, and a major figure in the development of both medicine and anthropoogy, it was indicated:

“ …(Paul Broca) encountered great difficulty in establishing a society in France. The Minister of Public Instruction and the Prefect of Police believed that anthropology must as the free pursuit of knowledge about human beings be innately subversive to the state.

When permission was at last and reluctantly granted for Broca to talk about science with eighteen colleagues, the Prefect of Police held Broca responsible personally for all that might be said in such meetings ‘against society, religion, or the government.’ Even so, the study of human beings was considered so dangerous that a police spy in plain clothes was assigned to attend all meetings, with the understanding that authorization to meet would be withdrawn immediately if the spy was offended by anything that was said.

Inthese circumstances the Society of Anthropology of Paris gathered for the first time on May 19, 1859, the year of the publication of the Origin of Species. In subsequent meetings an enormous range of subjects was discussed – archaeology, mythology, physiology, anatomy, medicine, psychology, linguistics and history – and it is easy to imagine the police spy nodding off in the corner on many an occasion.

“… Not only the police but also the clergy opposed the development of anthropology in France, and in 1876 the Roman Catholic political party organized a major campaign against the teaching of the subject in the Anthropological Institute of Paris founded by Broca.
=============
Chapter 4: Origin of Language:

John A. Hawkins, University of Southern California and Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology,
“Preface,. About the Workshop, SFI Studies,

“The Sciences of Complexity,” Proceedings Volume X, Editors, J. A. Hawkins and M. Gell-Mann, Addison-Wesley, 1992 in

The Evolution of Human Languages, A Proceedings Volume in the SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, of the Workshop on the Evolution of Human Languages held August 1989 in New Mexico, Editors, John A. Hawkins, Department of Linguistics , University of Southern California and Murray Gell-Mann, California Institute of Technology

and Volume XI, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,

The Advanced Book Program: Redwood City, California; Menlo Park, California; Reading, Massachusetts; New York, Don Mills, Ontario; Wokingham, United Kingdom; Amsterdam, Bonn, Sydney, Singapore, Tokyo, Madrid, San Juan), 1992,

xiii, it was indicated:

“The Evolution of Language and Intelligence”:

“In August 1989 a five-day workshop was held at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico on the subject of the evolution of human languages.

Its goal was to bring together some leading scholars for a joint discussion of many aspects of this general theme. Most of the participants were linguists, but representatives from psycholinguistics, anthropology, neuroanatomy, biology (population genetics), and physics were also present.

The Santa Fe Institute is founded on the premise that there may be common principles that determine the behavior of complex adaptive systems, and it seeks to discover these principles by studying specific systems in the context of more general themes.

“Human language is one such system, and understanding how it works and how it has evolved and changed over time has a potential significance well beyond the narrow confines of the field of linguistics.”

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A Roman Catholic Priest Hans Kung (Author: “Does God Exist?” – “On Being A Christian” – A Hebrew Prophet Jeremiah -The Hebrew/Jewish Messiah – WernerHarenberg (Author “Der Spiegel The New Testament- A Guide to the Struggle Between Radical and Conservativein EuropeanUniversity and Parish

Hans Kung experience as a young Roman Catholic Priest working in a lower income German Parish and later Ex-Communication Proceedings against him by the Roman Catholic Church

A late 19th Century experience of a German Baptist Minister in an urban New York lower income parish, Walter Rauschenbusch in Four Modern Prophets: Walter Rauschenbusch, Martin Luther King Jr, Gustavo Gutierrez, Rosemary Ruether by William M. Ramsay (Author) – Four Mordern Prophets explores the life and thought of four twentieth-century Christian leaders who epitomize the struggle for freedom and justice. William Ramsay summarizes the work of these four modern thinkers and challenges us to join in the struggle.

Observe the following:

111111111111111111111111111111″Indeed, the Lord God does nothing without revealing hiS plan to his servants the prophets. (Amos 27)

Prophets like Jereiah felt especially embattled:

“The cry was raised: “Let us consider how to deal with Jeremiah. There will still be priests to guide us, still wise men to give counsel, still prophets to proclaim the word. Let us invent some charges against him. (Jer. 18:18)

In return, Jeremiah condemned the entire religious establish of Judah together with its written texts.

“How can you say, we are Wise, we have the law of the Lord, when scribes with their lying pens have falsified it. The wise are put to shame; they are dismayed and entrapped. They have spurned the word of the Lord, so what k sort of wisdom is theirs? … For all high and low are out for ill-gotten gain; prophets and priests are frauds every one of them. Jer. 8:8-10)

For this prophet the word of the Lord was only what he, Jeremiah said it was. No written texts of the wise, not even the Law of Moses itself, could be trusted , he declared, since hand-copied books quickly become corrupt amd the leaders speak onley for themselves and their own interests anyway. Understandably, Jeremiah’s claim that he alone spoke for God in his time met considerable resistances from the three groups he so roundly attacked. ” Source: Randel McCraw helms, The Bible Agsinst Itself: Why the Bible Seems to Contradict Itself, illenium Press, Altadena, California (2006)

Who was Jeremiah and when did he live? wHAT What was his eference to the Messiah what has been his association with the New Testament?

EREMIAH
WRITTEN BY:
J. Philip Hyatt
Alternate Titles: Jeremias, Yirmeyahu
Jeremiah
HEBREW PROPHET
ALSO KNOWN AS
Yirmeyahu
Jeremias
BORN AFTER
650 BCE?
Anathoth, Israel
DIED
c. 570 BCE
Egypt

SIMILAR PEOPLE
Moses
Amos
Nehemiah
Zechariah
Elijah
Zephaniah
Isaiah
Samuel
Ezra
Ezekiel

Jeremiah, Hebrew Yirmeyahu, Latin Vulgate Jeremias (born probably after 650 bce, Anathoth, Judah—died c. 570 bce, Egypt) Hebrew prophet, reformer, and author of a biblical book that bears his name. He was closely involved in the political and religious events of a crucial era in the history of the ancient Near East; his spiritual leadership helped his fellow countrymen survive disasters that included the capture of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 586 bce and the exile of many Judaeans to Babylonia.

Jeremiah, detail from a fresco by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, c. 1512.
Alinari/Art Resource, New York
LIFE AND TIMES

Jeremiah was born and grew up in the village of Anathoth, a few miles northeast of Jerusalem, in a priestly family. In his childhood he must have learned some of the traditions of his people, particularly the prophecies of Hosea, whose influence can be seen in his early messages.

The era in which Jeremiah lived was one of transition for the ancient Near East. The Assyrian empire, which had been dominant for two centuries, declined and fell. Its capital, Nineveh, was captured in 612 by the Babylonians and Medes. Egypt had a brief period of resurgence under the 26th dynasty (664–525) but did not prove strong enough to establish an empire. The new world power was the Neo-Babylonian empire, ruled by a Chaldean dynasty whose best known king was Nebuchadrezzar. The small and comparatively insignificant state of Judah had been a vassal of Assyria and, when Assyria declined, asserted its independence for a short time. Subsequently Judah vacillated in its allegiance between Babylonia and Egypt and ultimately became a province of the Neo-Babylonian empire.

According to the biblical Book of Jeremiah, he began his prophetic career in 627/626—the 13th year of King Josiah’s reign. It is told there that he responded to Yahweh’s (God’s) call to prophesy by protesting “I do not know how to speak, for I am only a youth,” but he received Yahweh’s assurance that he would put his own words into Jeremiah’s mouth and make him a “prophet to the nations.” A few scholars believe that after his call Jeremiah served as an official prophet in the Temple, but most believe that this is unlikely in view of his sharp criticism of priests, prophets, and the Temple cult.

Jeremiah’s early messages to the people were condemnations of them for their false worship and social injustice, with summons to repentance. He proclaimed the coming of a foe from the north, symbolized by a boiling pot facing from the north in one of his visions, that would cause great destruction. This foe has often been identified with the Scythians, nomads from southern Russia who supposedly descended into western Asia in the 7th century and attacked Palestine. Some scholars have identified the northern foe with the Medes, the Assyrians, or the Chaldeans (Babylonians); others have interpreted his message as vague eschatological predictions, not concerning a specific people.

In 621 King Josiah instituted far-reaching reforms based upon a book discovered in the Temple of Jerusalem in the course of building repairs, which was probably Deuteronomy or some part of it. Josiah’s reforms included the purification of worship from pagan practices, the centralization of all sacrificial rites in the Temple of Jerusalem, and perhaps an effort to establish social justice following principles of earlier prophets (this program constituted what has been called “the Deuteronomic reforms”).

Jeremiah’s attitude toward these reforms is difficult to assess. Clearly, he would have found much in them with which to agree; a passage in chapter 11 of Jeremiah, in which he is called on by Yahweh to urge adherence to the ancient Covenant upon “the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem,” is frequently interpreted as indicating that the prophet travelled around Jerusalem and the villages of Judah exhorting the people to follow the reforms. If this was the case, Jeremiah later became disillusioned with the reforms because they dealt too largely with the externals of religion and not with the inner spirit and ethical conduct of the people. He may have relapsed into a period of silence for several years because of the indifferent success of the reforms and the failure of his prophecies concerning the foe from the north to materialize.

World Religions & Traditions World Religions & Traditions

Some scholars doubt that Jeremiah’s career actually began as early as 627/626 bce and question the accuracy of the dates in the biblical account.

This view arises from the difficulty of identifying the foe from the north, which seems likely to have been the Babylonians of a later time, as well as the difficulty of determining the prophet’s attitude toward the Deuteronomic reforms and of assigning messages of Jeremiah to the reign of Josiah. In the opinion of such scholars, Jeremiah began to prophesy toward the end of the reign of Josiah or at the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim (609–598).

Early in the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah delivered his famous “Temple sermon,” of which there are two versions, one in Jeremiah, chapter 7, verses 1 to 15, the other in chapter 26, verses 1 to 24.

He denounced the people for their dependence on the Temple for security and called on them to effect genuine ethical reform.

HE PREDICTED THAT GOD WOULD DESTROY THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM, AS HE HAD EARLIER DESTROYED THAT OF SHILOH, IF THEY CONTINUED IN THEIR PRESENT PATH. JEREMIAH WAS IMMEDIATELY ARRESTED AND TRIED ON A CAPITAL CHARGE. HE WAS ACQUITTED BUT MAY HAVE BEEN FORBIDDEN TO PREACH AGAIN IN THE TEMPLE.

The reign of Jehoiakim was an active and difficult period in Jeremiah’s life. That king was very different from his father, the reforming Josiah, whom Jeremiah commended for doing justice and righteousness. Jeremiah denounced Jehoiakim harshly for his selfishness, materialism, and practice of social injustice.

THE BATTLE OF CARCHEMISH IN 605 B.C.:

NEAR THE TIME OF THE BATTLE OF CARCHEMISH, IN 605 B.C.,

WHEN THE BABYLONIANS DECISIVELY DEFEATED THE EGYPTIANS AND THE REMNANT OF THE ASSYRIANS,
JEREMIAH DELIVERED AN ORACLE AGAINST EGYPT.

Realizing that this battle made a great difference in the world situation, Jeremiah soon dictated to his scribe, Baruch, a scroll containing all of the messages he had delivered to this time. The scroll was read by Baruch in the Temple. Subsequently it was read before King Jehoiakim, who cut it into pieces and burned it. Jeremiah went into hiding and dictated another scroll, with additions.

When Jehoiakim withheld tribute from the Babylonians (about 601), Jeremiah began to warn the Judaeans that they would be destroyed at the hands of those who had previously been their friends. When the King persisted in resisting Babylonia, Nebuchadrezzar sent an army to besiege Jerusalem. King Jehoiakim died before the siege began and was succeeded by his son, Jehoiachin, who surrendered the capital to the Babylonians on March 16, 597, and was taken to Babylonia with many of his subjects.

The Babylonians placed on the throne of Judah a king favourable to them, Zedekiah (597–586 bce), who was more inclined to follow Jeremiah’s counsel than Jehoiakim had been but was weak and vacillating and whose court was torn by conflict between pro-Babylonian and pro-Egyptian parties.

AFTER PAYING BABYLONIA TRIBUTE FOR NEARLY 10 YEARS, THE KING MADE AN ALLIANCE WITH EGYPT. A second time Nebuchadrezzar sent an army to Jerusalem, which he captured in August 586 B.C..

Early in Zedekiah’s reign, Jeremiah wrote a letter to the exiles in Babylonia, advising them not to expect to return immediately to their homeland, as false prophets were encouraging them to believe, but to settle peaceably in their place of exile and seek the welfare of their captors. When emissaries from surrounding states came to Judah in 594 to enlist Judah’s support in rebellion against Babylonia, Jeremiah put a yoke upon his neck and went around proclaiming that Judah and the surrounding states should submit to the yoke of Babylonia, for it was Yahweh who had given them into the hand of the King of Babylonia. Even to the time of the fall of Jerusalem, Jeremiah’s message remained the same: submit to the yoke of Babylonia.

When the siege of Jerusalem was temporarily lifted at the approach of an Egyptian force, Jeremiah started to leave Jerusalem to go to the land of the tribe of Benjamin. He was arrested on a charge of desertion and placed in prison. Subsequently he was placed in an abandoned cistern, where

HE WOULD HAVE DIED HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR THE PROMPT ACTION OF AN ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH, EBED-MELECH, WHO RESCUED THE PROPHET WITH THE KING’S PERMISSION AND PUT HIM IN A LESS CONFINING PLACE. King Zedekiah summoned him from prison twice for secret interviews, and both times Jeremiah advised him to surrender to Babylonia.

WHEN JERUSALEM FINALLY FELL, JEREMIAH WAS RELEASED FROM PRISON BY THE BABYLONIANS AND OFFERED SAFE CONDUCT TO BABYLONIA, BUT HE PREFERRED TO REMAIN WITH HIS OWN PEOPLE. So he was entrusted to Gedaliah, a Judaean from a prominent family whom the Babylonians appointed as governor of the province of Judah. The prophet continued to oppose those who wanted to rebel against Babylonia and promised the people a bright and joyful future.

AFTER GEDALIAH WAS ASSASSINATED, JEREMIAH WAS TAKEN AGAINST HIS WILL TO EGYPT BY SOME OF THE JEWS WHO FEARED REPRISAL FROM THE BABYLONIANS.

Even in Egypt he continued to rebuke his fellow exiles. Jeremiah probably died about 570 bce. According to a tradition that is preserved in extrabiblical sources, he was stoned to death by his exasperated fellow countrymen in Egypt.

PROPHETIC VOCATION AND MESSAGE

THIS SKETCH OF JEREMIAH’S LIFE PORTRAYS HIM AS A COURAGEOUS AND PERSISTENT PROPHET WHO OFTEN HAD TO ENDURE PHYSICAL SUFFERING FOR HIS FIDELITY TO THE PROPHETIC CALL.

He also suffered inner doubts and conflicts, as his own words reveal, especially those passages that are usually called his “confessions” (Jer. 11:18–12:6; 15:10–21; 17:9–10, 14–18; 18:18–23; 20:7–12, 14–18). They reveal a strong conflict between Jeremiah’s natural inclinations and his deep sense of vocation to deliver Yahweh’s message to the people. Jeremiah was by nature sensitive, introspective, and perhaps shy. He was denied participation in the ordinary joys and sorrows of his fellowmen and did not marry. He thus could say, “I sat alone,” with God’s hand upon him. Jeremiah had periods of despondency when he expressed the wish that he had never been born or that he might run away and live alone in the desert. He reached the point of calling God “a deceitful brook, . . . waters that fail” and even accused God of deceiving and overpowering him. Yet there were times of exaltation when he could say to God: “Thy words became to me a joy and the delight of my heart”; and he could speak of Yahweh as “a dread warrior” fighting by his side.

AS A PROPHET JEREMIAH PRONOUNCED GOD’S JUDGMENT UPON THE PEOPLE OF HIS TIME FOR THEIR WICKEDNESS.

He was concerned especially with false and insincere worship and failure to trust Yahweh in national affairs. He denounced social injustices but not so much as some previous prophets, such as Amos and Micah. He found the source of sin to be in the weakness and corruption of the hearts of men—in what he often called “the stubbornness of the evil heart.” He considered sin to be unnatural; he emphasized that some foreign nations were more loyal to their pagan (false) deities than Judah was to Yahweh (the real God), and he often contrasted nature’s obedience to law with man’s disobedience to God.

Jeremiah had more to say about repentance than any other prophet. He called upon men to turn away from their wicked ways and dependence upon idols and false gods and return to their early covenantal loyalty to Yahweh. Repentance thus had a strong ethical colouring, since it meant living in obedience to Yahweh’s will for the individual and the nation.

In the latter part of his career Jeremiah had to struggle against the despair of his people and give them hope for the future. He expressed his own hope vividly by an action that he undertook when the Babylonians were besieging Jerusalem and he was in prison. He bought, from a cousin, a field in Anathoth, his native town. In the presence of witnesses he weighed out the money and made the contracts and said, “Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Houses and fields and vineyards shall again be bought in this land.” In this and other ways he expressed his hope for a bright future for Israel in its own land.

Jeremiah’s most important prophecy concerning the future is one regarding the New Covenant (Jer. 31:31–34). While the present literary form of the passage is probably not Jeremiah’s, the thought is essentially his. He prophesied of a time when Yahweh would make a covenant with Israel, superseding the old Mosaic Covenant; YAHWEH WOULD WRITE HIS LAW UPON THE HEARTS OF MEN (RATHER THAN ON TABLES OF STONE), AND ALL WOULD KNOW GOD DIRECTLY AND RECEIVE HIS FORGIVENESS.

This New Covenant prophecy was very influential in New Testament times. It is quoted in the Letter to the Hebrews and lies behind words attributed to Jesus at the Last Supper:

“This cup
WernerHarenberg (Author “Der Spiegel The New Testament- A Guide to the Struggle Between Radical and Conservativein EuropeanUniversity and Parish the new covenant in my blood.”

WernerHarenberg (Author “Die Spiwfwlon The New Testament- A Guide to the Struggle Between Radical and Conservativein EuropeanUniversity and Parish:

“HERESY” is the watchword of one party in the Protestant faith struggle.

The word of the other party is “SUPERSTITION.” On March 6, 1966 … The battle was begun: the battle of the congregations against the professors using biblical criticism, the battle concerning Jesus, concerning his words and miracles, concerning belief in the virgin birth and resurrection. Twenty-two thousand Protestants filled the Westfefenhatten, in Dortmund for a great “rally which was in fact, a combination “heresy trial” and “prayer meeting.”

With the battle between the defenders of the biblical Jesus and the university theologians underway, Werner Herenberg began a series of articles on the conflict for the German news magazine Der Spiegel. Here is is his highly important report about what the biblical criticism of modern theology means for the ‘confession of faith’.” The Macmillan Company: Collier-Macmillan Ltd, London (1970)

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TODAY’S LLECTURE 101: AFRICA IN AUTHENTIC WORLD HISTORY:

THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE AND AFRICAN PREHISTORY:

BEGINNING WITH GEOLOGICAL PERIODS:

Book of Fossil Evolution, The Fossil Book: A Recordof Prehistoric Life with over 1500 Illustrations, by Carroll Lane Fenton & Mildred Adams Fenton:;;;;;;;; The Classic Work for Fossil Collectors and Enthusiasts Revised and Expanded by Patricia Vickers Rich, Thomas Hewitt Rich, and MildredAdams

The time-scale of evolution:

Geological periods of time: [Modified after Harland and ohers, 1982]

Priscoan Eon – 4600 Million Years Ago:

African Pre-history began during the Archean Eon (4000 – 2400 Million Years Ago) during the Proterozoic Era (3.7 Billion – .6 billion Years Ago),

THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE:

Azoic Eon:

Archean eon – 4000 Million Years Ago:

The earliest period of earth=s history: 4.6 billion years ago:
AThe Archean eon comprises 43%of our planet=s history. The earth and the rest of the solar system are 4.6 billion years old and the first photosynthetic organisms arose earlier than about 3 billion years ago. [Milner 1990: 23]

THE AGE OF THE EARTH:

AGE OF THE SEAS – ENCYCLOPEDIA

JAMES TREFIL

Richard Milner, The Encyclopedia of Evolution: Humanity=s Search for Its Origins (Henry Holt And Company: New York, 1990), p. 23

Origin of Oceans – Life in the Seas:

The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, General Editor James Trefil, a noted physicist and author and professor of physics at George Mason University and co-author of The Dictionary Of Cultural Literacy and the author of 101 Things You Don=t Know About Science And No One Else Does Either; and contributing editors Harold Morowitz, a biophysicist and professor of biology at George Mason University who has published widely on popular topics in science; and Paul Ceruzzi, Curator of Aerospace Electronics And Computing at The Smithsonia=s National Air And Space Museum, and the author of two books on computing, including The History Of Modern Computing, and has served as a consultant for two BBC Television Series on computing and science (Routledge: New York, London), 2001, indicated:

AOceans, origin and evolution of: the origin of the oceans, which cover more than three-quarters of earth=s surface, dates back to Earth;s formation 4.6 billion years ago.
Oceans

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FROM CHRONOLOGY OF GEOLOGIC TIMES TOLANDING ON THE MOON – THE AFRICAN HERITAGE

Richard Currier – Author of UNBOUNDED – Thank you for the further indications of the recommendations and approvals of your book UNBOUNDED . Attached is the updated Preface to my pending publication of The African Heritage in World History and Human Biological and Cultural History thaat I recently sent to the publisher. – ”
PREFACE:

A Chronological Summary of the origins of the Geologic Time Scale:

Aristotle:

Persian geologist Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Avicenna also first proposed one of the principles underlying geologic time scales, the law of superposition origins of mountains in The Book of Healing in 1027.[12][13]
13th century Dominican bishop Albertus Magnus (Albert of Saxony)

The Chinese naturalist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) also recognized the concept of ‘deep time’.[14]

Formation of primary principles[edit]

The principles underlying geologic (geological) time scales were later laid down by Nicholas Steno in the late 17th century.

Steno argued that rock layers (or strata) are laid down in succession, and that each represents a “slice” of time. He also formulated the law of superposition, which states that any given stratum is probably older than those above it and younger than those below it. While Steno’s principles were simple, applying them to real rocks proved complex. Over the course of the 18th century geologists realized that:

The Neptunist theories popular at this time (expounded by Werner) proposed that all rocks had precipitated out of a single enormous flood.

A major shift in thinking came when James Hutton presented his Theory of the Earth; or, an Investigation of the Laws Observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land Upon the Globe before the Royal Society of Edinburgh in March and April 1785.

It has been said that “as things appear from the perspective of the 20th century, James Hutton in those readings became the founder of modern geology”.

[15] Hutton proposed that the interior of Earth was hot, and that this heat was the engine which drove the creation of new rock: land was eroded by air and water and deposited as layers in the sea; heat then consolidated the sediment into stone, and uplifted it into new lands.

This theory was called “Plutonist” in contrast to the Neptunist” flood-oriented theory.

Formation of geologic time scale – Encyclopedia Wikipedia:

“The first serious attempts to formulate a geological time scale that could be applied anywhere on Earth were made in the late 18th century.

The most influential of those early attempts (championed by Abraham Werner, among others) divided the rocks of Earth’s crust into four types:

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary.

Each type of rock, according to the theory, formed during a specific period in Earth history.

It was thus possible to speak of a “Tertiary Period” as well as of “Tertiary Rocks.”

Indeed, “Tertiary” (now Paleogene and Neogene) remained in use as the name of a geological period well into the 20th century and “Quaternary” remains in formal use as the name of the current period.

The identification of strata by the fossils they contained, pioneered by William Smith, Georges Cuvier, Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy, and Alexandre Brogniart in the early 19th century, enabled geologists to divide Earth history more precisely.

It also enabled them to correlate strata across national (or even continental) boundaries. If two strata (however distant in space or different in composition) contained the same fossils, chances were good that they had been laid down at the same time. Detailed studies between 1820 and 1850 of the strata and fossils of Europe produced the sequence of geological periods still used today.

Naming of geologic periods, ERAS and EPOCHS:

The process was dominated by British geologists, and the names of the periods reflect that dominance.

The “Cambrian”, (the classical name for Wales)

and the “Ordovician”, and “Silurian”, named after ancient Welsh tribes,

were periods defined using stratigraphic sequences from Wales.

The “Devonian” was named for the English county of Devon,

and the name “Carboniferous” was simply an adaptation of “the Coal Measures”,

the old British geologists’ term for the same set of strata.

The “Permian” was named after Perm, Russia, because it was defined using strata in that region by Scottish geologist Roderick Murchison.

However, some periods were defined by geologists from other countries.

The “Triassic” was named in 1834 by a German geologist Friedrich Von Alberti from the three distinct layers (Latin trias meaning triad) —red beds, capped by chalk, followed by black shales — that are found throughout Germany and Northwest Europe, called the ‘Trias’.

The “Jurassic” was named by a French geologist Alexandre Brogniart for the extensive marine limestone exposures of the Jura Mountains.

The “Cretaceous” (from Latin creta meaning ‘chalk’) as a separate period was first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822,

using strata in the Paris basin[17] and named

for the extensive beds of chalk (calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates).

British geologists were also responsible for the grouping of periods into Eras

and the subdivision of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods into epochs.

In 1841 John Phillips published the first global geological time scale based on the types of fossils found in each era.

Phillips’ scale helped standardize the use of terms like

Paleozoic (“old life”) which he extended to cover a larger period than it had in previous usage,

and Mesozoic (“middle life”) which he invented.[18]

Dating of time scales:

When William Smith and Sir Charles Lyell first recognized that rock strata represented successive time periods, time scales could be estimated only very imprecisely since various kinds of rates of change used in estimation were highly variable.

While creationists had been proposing dates of around six or seven thousand years for the age of Earth

based on the Bible,

early geologists were suggesting millions of years for geologic periods with some even suggesting a virtually infinite age for Earth. Geologists and paleontologists constructed the geologic table based on the relative positions of different strata and fossils,

and estimated the time scales based on studying

rates of various kinds of weathering, erosion, sedimentation, and lithification.

Until the discovery of RADIOACTIVITY in 1896 and the development of its geological applications through RADIOMETRIC DATING during the first half of the 20th century

(pioneered by such geologists as Arthur Holmes)

which allowed for more precise absolute dating of rocks, the ages of various rock strata and the age of Earth were the subject of considerable debate.

The first geologic time scale that included absolute dates was published in 1913

by the British geologist Arthur Holmes.[19] He greatly furthered the newly created discipline of GEOCHRONOLOGY and published the world-renowned book

The Age of the Earth in which he estimated Earth’s age to be at least 1.6 billion years.[20]

In 1977, the Global Commission on Stratigraphy (now the International Commission on Stratigraphy) started an effort to define global references known as GSSP (Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points) for geologic periods and faunal stages.

The commission’s most recent work is described in the 2004 geologic time scale of Gradstein et al.[21] A UML model for how the timescale is structured, relating it to the GSSP, is also available.[22]

Condensed graphical timelines:

The following four timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this compresses the most recent eon. Therefore, the second scale shows the most recent eon with an expanded scale.

The second scale compresses the most recent era, so the most recent era is expanded in the third scale.

Since the Quaternary is a very short period with short epochs, it is further expanded in the fourth scale. The second, third, and fourth timelines are therefore each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks.

The Holocene (the latest epoch) is too small to be shown clearly on the third timeline on the right, another reason for expanding the fourth scale. The Pleistocene (P) epoch. Q stands for the Quaternary period.

====…

Outline List, partially annotated, of Primary Bibliographical Sources – Chapter 1 – Section 1:

Chapter 1: Origin of the universe, origin of the oceans and origin of life in the oceans.

This chapter discusses the scientific version of the the origin of the universe, the planet earth,and the emergene of life in the oceans – from origins of the universe, to single cell organisms and multicellular organisms, to early sea life .

The Fossil Book: A Record Of Prehistoric Life (With Over 1500 Illustrations), Carroll Lane Fenton & Mildred Adams Fenton (the classic work for fossil collectors and enthusiasts revised and expanded by Patricia Vickers Rich, Thomas Hewitt Rich, and Mildred Adams Fenton (Doubleday: New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland), 1958, 1989:

Section 1: Prehistory: Origin of the Universe 20 – 10 billion years ago:

A Short History of the Universe (Scientific American Library: A Division of HPHLP: New York), 1994, written by Joseph Silk, Professor of Astronomy and Physics at the University of California, Berkeley and also the author of The Big Bang (Freeman, 1989) and co-author of The Left Hand of Creation (Oxford University Press, 1993)

Steven Weinberg, The First Three Minutes: A Modern View Of The Origin Of The Universe (Basic Books Inc., Publishers: New York), 1977, 1988

Time Magazine, “A Person Of The Century: Albert Einstein: 1879-1955,” and “A Brief History Of Relativity” By Stephen Hawkins (What Is It? How Does It Work? Why Does It Change Everything? An Easy Primer by the World’sMost Famous Living Physicists,” December 31, 1999:

Richard Milner, The Encyclopedia Of Evolution: Humanity’s Search For Its Origins, Foreward By Stephen Jay Gould (Henry Holt And Company: New York), 1990

Stephen Hawkin’s The Grand Design (Bantam Books: New York), 2010 is described as “the first major work in nearly a decade by one of the world’s great thinkers—a marvously concise book with new answers to the ultimate questions of life: when and how did the universe begin? Why are we here? Why is there something rather than nothing? What is the nature of reality? Why are the laws of nature so finely tuned as to allow for the existence of beings like ourselves? And finally, is the apparent ‘grand design’ of our universe evidence of a benevolent creator who set things in motion—or does science offer another explanation?”

Stephen Hawkins, the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for thirty years, and has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors including most recently, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. His books for the general reader include the classic A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell and A Briefer History of Time. He lives in Cambridge, England.

http://www.hawking.org.uk

“When and how did the universe begin? Why were we here? Why is there something rather than nothing? What is the nature of reality? Why are the laws of nature so finely tuned as to allow for the existence of beings like ourselves? And, finally, is the apparent ‘gra Tnd design’ of our universe evidence of a benevolent creator who set things in motion—or does science offer another explanation? That we create history by observing it, rather than that history creates us.” [Book Jacket]

Victor J. Stenger, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us (Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York), 2011 Physicist Victor J. Stenger responded to the “laws of nature finely tuned” question in The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us (Prometheus Books: Amherst, New York), 2011.

Among the commentaries on Victor J. Stenger’s New York Times bestseller, God: The Failed Hypothesis.” The New Scientist indicated: “In this much needed book physicist Victor Stenger isolates and then debunks the claims of two kinds of ‘quantum belief’ … With Stenger in charge … we are on sure ground. He adds even more value by weaving a thorough beginner’s course in quantum physics into his debunking exercise. … Stenger is a pleasure to read. And, pleasingly,the title … sounds just crockpot enough to attract those readers who will benefit most.”

“Victor J. Stenger, Ph.D., is adjunct professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado and emeritus professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Hawaii. He is the autor of the New York Times bestseller God: The Failed Hypothesis, and many other books, including Quantum Gods, The Unconscious Quantum, Has Science Found God?, The Comprehensible Cosmos, Timeless Reality, Physics and Psychics, and The New Atheism.”

Robert Jastrow, in The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe (Simon And Schuster: New York), 1981, in Chapter 1: “Across the Threshold of Life,” discussed the formation of the sun, earth, moon, and humans; and the sudden beginning of the universe and of every star, every planet and every living creature in the universe, stating:

“Scientific discoveries of the last decades have created a new explanation for the appearance of man on the earth. In the scientist’s version of Genesis, as in the Bible, the world begins with the dazzling splendor of the moment of creation. A few astronomers could have anticipated that this event – the sudden birth of the universe – would become a proven scientific fact, but observations of the heavens through telescopes have forced them to that conclusion.

“The first scientific indication of an abrupt beginning for the world appeared about fifty years ago. At that time, American astronomers, studying the great clusters of stars called galaxies, stumbled on evidence that the entire universe is blowing up before our eyes. According to their observations, all the galaxies in the universe are moving away From us and from one another at very high speeds, and the most distant are receding at extraordinary speeds of hundreds of millions of miles an hour.
“This discovery led directly to the picture of a sudden beginning for the universe; for if we retrace the movements of the expanding galaxies backward in time, we find that at an earlier time they must have been closer together than they are today; at a still earlier time, they must have been still closer together; and if we go back far enough in time, we find that at a certain critical moment in the past, all the galaxies in the universe were packed together into one dense mass, at an enormous pressure and temperature.

“Reacting to this pressure, the dense, hot matter must have exploded with incredible violence. The instant of the explosion marked the birth of the universe. The seed of everything that has happened in the universe was planted in that first instant; every star, every planet and every living creature in the universe came into being as a result of events that were set in motion in the moment of the cosmic explosion. It was literally the moment of creation.

Dr. Jastrow attended Townsend Harris High School and went to Columbia University for college and graduate school where he received his B.A., M.A. and Ph.D in theoretical physics. Afterwards he joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when it was formed in 1958 as head of its theoretical division which did basic research in fields like cosmology and astronomy. In 1961 he became director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies which worked within NASA on projects like the robotic probes Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo which sailed through the solar system. He received the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement and the Arthur S. Flemming Award for Outstanding Service to the United States Government, as well as the Columbia University Medal of Excellence.

Time Magazine, APerson of The Century: Albert Einstein: 1879-1955, and A Brief History Of Relativity By Stephen Hawkins (AWhat Is It? How Does It Work? Why Does It Change Everything? An Easy Primer By The World’’sMost Famous Living Physicists,December 31, 1999

John F. Haught is Senior Fellow, Science and Religion, Woodstock Theological Center, Georgetown University and the author of fifteen books, including God After Darwin, The Promise of Nature, Theology in Global Perspective Series,
Peter C. Phan, General Editor, Ignacio Ellacuria, and is a Professor of Catholic Social Thought, at Georgetown University, in the Preface of Christianity and Science: Toward a Theology of Nature (Orbis Books: Maryknoll, New York), 2007.

Research Report: “A Very Big Bang,” Ohio State Alumni Magazine, September – October, 2006:

“Scientists have found evidence of a massive meteor impact that devastated life on Earth millions of years ago”

“What caused the biggest mass extinction in Earth’s history? It wasn’t the meteor that killed the dinosaurs—that happened a mere 65 million years ago . Scientists have found evidence of a much earlier and larger impact, the Wilkes Land meteor. A crater some 300 miles wide—big enough to hold the sttate of Ohio—lies more than a mile beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

The People’s Almanac By David Wallechinky and Irving Wallace (Doubleday & Company, Inc.: Garden City, New York), 1975, Chapter 11: Universe – Spaced Out:

“Earth: The Earth spins through space like a top. It makes one complete spin or revolution every 24 hours.

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CULTURAL HISTORY OF “TRYING TO BE BLACK” – TANNING – IN AMERICA

VON LUSCHEN SCALE

The Von Luschan’s chromatic scale made by anthropologist Felix von Luschan. The riginal was self-made from scratch with the paint program in the likeness of the chart originally printed in Voelker, Rassen, Sprachen (1927). The skin colors used were copied from the original chart box per box using the paint program’s dropper tool.
Date 1927; 2007-10-05
Source Own work with Inkscape with color RGB values from en:Image:Felix von Luschan Skin Color Chart

Von Luschan’s chromatic scale
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Lüscher color test.

Von Luschan’s chromatic scale

Geographic distribution of skin colors for native populations prior to 1940.
Von Luschan’s chromatic scale is a method of classifying skin color. It is also called the von Luschan scale or von Luschan’s scale. It is named after its inventor, Felix von Luschan. The equipment consists of 36 opaque glass tiles which were compared to the subject’s skin, ideally in a place which would not be exposed to the sun (such as under the arm). The von Luschan scale was used to establish racial classifications of populations according to skin color; in this respect it is in contrast to the Fitzpatrick scale intended for the classification of the skin type of individuals introduced in 1975 by Harvard dermatologist Thomas B. Fitzpatrick to describe sun tanning behavior.[1]
The von Luschan scale was used extensively throughout the first half of the 20th century in race studies and anthropometry. However, it was considered problematic, even by its practitioners, because it was very inconsistent. In many instances, different investigators would give different readings of the same person. The von Luschan scale was largely abandoned by the early 1950s, replaced instead by methods utilizing reflectance spectrophotometry.
The following table shows the 36 categories of the von Luschan scale in relation to the six categories of the Fitzpatrick scale:[2][3]
Fitzpatrick type von Luschan scale Also called
I 0–6 Very light or white, “Celtic” type[4]
II 7–13 Light or light-skinned European[4]
III 14–20 Light intermediate, or dark-skinned European[4]
IV 21–27 Dark intermediate or “olive skin”[4]
V 28–34 Dark or “brown” type
VI 35–36 Very dark or “black” type
References[edit]
Jump up ^ Fitzpatrick TB: Soleil et peau [Sun and skin]. Journal de Médecine Esthétique 1975; 2:33-34
Jump up ^ Nina Jablonski, Michael P. Muehlenbein (ed.) (2010). Human Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press. p. 177. ISBN 0521879485. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
Jump up ^ “Fitzpatrick Skin Type” (PDF). Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
^ Jump up to: a b c d these are commonly encountered names for the types, e.g. US Army “Healthy Skin Campaign” goldnbrown.co.uk, hautzone.ch etc. Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.

SKIN COLOR – A SCALE OF THE VARIOUS TYPES OR GRADATION OF SKIN COLOR:

von Luschan scale

I Very light or pale Often Occasionally 1–5
II Light or light-skinned Usually Sometimes 6–10
III Light intermediate Rarely Usually 11–15
IV Dark intermediate Rarely Often 16–21
V Dark or “brown” type No Sometimes darkens 22–28
VI Very dark or “black” type No Naturally black-brown skin 29–36

Sunless tanning[edit]

Main article: Sunless tanning

To avoid exposure to UVB and UVA rays, or in sunless seasons, some people take steps to appear with darkened skin. They may use sunless tanning (also known as self-tanners); stainers which are based on dihydroxyacetone (DHA); bronzers, which are simply dyes; tan accelerators, based on tyrosine and psoralens. Some people use make-up to create a tanned appearance[10] while others may get a tanned appearance by wearing tan-colored stockings or pantyhose.

Many sunless tanning products are available in the form of creams, gels, lotions, and sprays that are self-applied on the skin. Another option is the use of bronzers, which are cosmetics that provide temporary effects. There is also a professional spray-on tanning option or “tanning booth” that is offered by spas, salons, and tanning businesses.[11]

Spray tanning does not involve a color being sprayed on the body, instead it uses a colorless chemical which reacts with proteins in the top layer of the skin, resulting in a brown color. The two main active ingredients used in most sunless tanners are dihydroxyacetone and erythrulose.[citation needed] The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of DHA spray tanning booths because it has not received safety data to support this specific use. DHA is a permitted color additive for cosmetic use restricted to external application. When used in a commercial spray tanning booth, areas such as the eyes, lips or mucous membrane can be exposed to the DHA, which is a non-permitted use of the product.[12]

Other agents include afamelanotide and melanotan II, which induce the production of dark dermal pigmentation (melanogenesis) without sun exposure.

Health aspects[edit]

Main article: Health effects of sunlight exposure

The most-common risk of exposure to ultraviolet radiation is sunburn, the speed and severity of which vary among individuals. This can be alleviated at least to some extent by the prior application of a suitable-strength sunscreen, which will also hinder the tanning process due to the blocking of UV light.

Overexposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer,[13] make skin age and wrinkle faster,[14] mutate DNA,[15] and impair the immune system.[16] Frequent tanning bed use triples the risk of developing melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.[17] The International Agency for Research on Cancer places the use of tanning beds in the highest cancer risk category, describing them as carcinogenic to humans, if used as the manufacturer recommends. Tanning bed use under the age of 35 increases melanoma risk by 87%. In Australia, 1 in 6 melanomas in people aged 18 to 29 are caused by tanning beds, and they have been attributed to an estimated 281 new melanomas a year, 43 melanoma-related deaths, and 2,572 new cases of squamous cell carcinoma.[18]

Several tanning activators have used different forms of psoralen, which are known to be photocarcinogenic.[19][20][21] Health authorities have banned psoralen since July 1996.[22]

Treatment[edit]

Various home-made remedies are suggested to remove sun tans including lemon juice, yogurt, tomato juice, aloe vera, raw potato, cucumber juice, etc.[23][24][25]

Cultural history[edit]

See also: Human skin color § Social status, colorism and racism

La promenade (1875) by Claude Monet. End of 19th century in the upper social class, people used umbrellas, long sleeves and hats to avoid sun tanning effects.
Throughout history, tanning has gone in and out of fashion. In the United States before about the 1920s, tanned skin was associated with the lower classes, because they worked outdoors and were exposed to the sun. Women went to great lengths to preserve pallid skin, as a sign of their “refinement”.[26]

Women’s outdoor clothing styles were tailored to protect against sun exposure, with full-length sleeves, and sunbonnets and other large hats, headscarves, and parasols shielding the head. Women even went as far as to put lead-based cosmetics on their skin to artificially whiten their skin tone.[13] However, when not strictly monitored, these cosmetics caused lead poisoning. Light-skinned appearance was achieved in other ways, including the use of arsenic to whiten skin, and lightening powders. The preference for fair skin continued until the end of the Victorian era.

By the early 20th century, the therapeutic benefits of sunlight began to be recognised.[27] In 1903, Niels Finsen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his “Finsen Light Therapy”.[28] The therapy was a cure for diseases such as lupus vulgaris and rickets. Vitamin D deficiency was found to be a cause of rickets, and exposure to the sun would allow vitamin D to be produced in a person. Therefore, sun exposure was a remedy to curing several diseases, especially rickets. In 1910 a scientific expedition went to the island of Tenerife to test the wider health benefits of “heliotherapy”,[29] and by 1913 “sunbathing” was referred to as a desirable activity for the leisured class.[30]

Shortly thereafter, in the 1920s, fashion-designer Coco Chanel accidentally got sunburnt while visiting the French Riviera. When she arrived home, she arrived with a suntan and her fans apparently liked the look and started to adopt darker skin tones themselves. Tanned skin became a trend partly because of Coco’s status and the longing for her lifestyle by other members of society. In addition, Parisians fell in love with Josephine Baker, a “caramel-skinned” singer in Paris, and idolised her dark skin. These two women were leading figures of the transformation that tanned skin underwent, in which it became perceived as fashionable, healthy, and luxurious.[31][32][33] Jean Patou capitalised on the new tanning fad, launching the first suntan oil “Huile de Chaldee” in 1927.[34]

Just before the 1930s, sun therapy became a popularly subscribed cure for almost every ailment from simple fatigue to tuberculosis. In the 1940s, advertisements started appearing in women’s magazines which encouraged sun bathing. At the same time, swimsuits’ skin coverage began decreasing, with the bikini radically changing swimsuit style after it made its appearance in 1946. In the 1950s, many people used baby oil as a method to increase tanning. The first self-tanner came about in the same decade and was known as “Man-Tan,” although it often led to undesirable orange skin.[13] Coppertone, in 1953, marketed its sunscreen with a drawing of a little blond girl and her cocker spaniel tugging on her bathing suit bottoms; this is still the same advertisement used today. In the latter part of the 1950s, silver metallic UV reflectors were common to enhance one’s tan.

In 1962, sunscreen commenced to be SPF rated, although SPF labeling in the US was not standardised by the FDA until 1978. In 1971, Mattel introduced Malibu Barbie, which had tanned skin, sunglasses, and her very own bottle of sun tanning lotion. In 1978, both sunscreen with an SPF 15 rating as well as tanning beds first appeared. In 2009 there were an estimated 50,000 outlets for tanning, whereas in the 1990s there were only around 10,000.[35] The indoor tanning business was a five-billion-dollar industry in the United States in 2009.[35] The popularity of indoor tanning spawned auxiliary industries in tanning bed skin care and indoor tanning lotions including bronzers, intensifiers, and accelerators. In China, darker skin is still considered by many to be the mark of the lower classes. As recently as 2012, in some parts of China, ski masks were becoming popular items to wear at the beach in order to protect the wearer’s face from the effects of the sun.[36]

Visible tan lines are regarded by many people to be un-aesthetic and embarrassing. Many people want to avoid tan lines on those parts of the body which will be visible when they are fully clothed. Some people try to achieve an all-over tan or to maximize their tan coverage. To achieve an all-over tan, tanners need to dispense with clothing; and to maximize coverage, they need to minimize the amount of clothing they wear while tanning. For women who cannot dispense with a swimsuit, they at times tan with the back strap undone while lying on the front, or removing shoulder straps, besides wearing swimsuits which cover less area than their normal clothing. Any exposure is subject to local community standards and personal choice. Some people tan in the privacy of their backyard where they can at times tan without clothes, and some countries have set aside clothing-optional swimming areas (also known as nude beaches), where people can tan and swim clothes-free. One such beach in the United States is Mazo Beach in Mazomanie, Wisconsin. Some people tan topless, and others wear very brief swimwear, such as a microkini or thong. A 1969 innovation of tan-through swimwear[37][38][39] uses fabric perforated with thousands of micro holes that are nearly invisible to the naked eye, but which let enough sunlight through to produce a line-free tan. Tan-through swimwear typically offers protection equivalent to SPF 6 or less, and an application of sunscreen even to the covered area is recommended

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